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CLASS OP 1813 





k • 

olJ: jJ'o, y^^c/- '•^' ■* ' • y 




S. A. HIRSCH, Ph.D. 




14 Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 


Jui (a0CO.5O 


JAN 10 ; . •'■ \ 

Professor Sir R. K. Douglas, British Museum. 

Mr F. C. BURKITT, University Lecturer in Palaeography, 


Mr A. Cowley, Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. 

HoiL Treasurer. 


The Rev. Prof. W. E. Barnes, Cambridge. 

Dr J. S. Black, Joint-Editor of the Encyclopadia Biblica. 

Mr F, C. CONYBEARE, formerly Fellow of University College, 

Mr S. A. Cook, Fellow of Caius College, Cambridge. 

The Rev. Prof. S. R. Driver, Oxford. 

Mr Norman McLean, Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge. 

The Very Rev. The Dean of Westminster (Dr Armitage 


Mr J. F. Stenning, Fellow of Wadham College, Oxford. 
Mr Aldis Wright, Vice-Master of Trinity College,Cambridge. 

Hon. Secretaries. 
Mr W. E. Crum, London. 
Prof. H. W. Hogg, Manchester. 
Prof. J. Dyneley Prince, New York. 

Commentary on the Book of Job 

Cap. I. — I. tf^M, a man. — The great and eminent 
scholar, Rabbi Samuel, of blessed memory, reproves 
all those who explain this word oS^n as designating a 
prince and a great man, because he found [in Judges 
xix. i] : and there was a man sojourning in the out- 
skirts of Mount Ephraim whose name was Micah^ and 
there the context shows that he had an image. But 
I do not understand the ground for his objection, for 
in that passage also he (Micah) is called man, xIth, 
because he was known in those days to be wealthy 
and honoured. Those who are of that opinion ex- 
plain it in the same way as other gods ; for there 
is no God, but One. The meaning of vIth man is, 
a prince and a great man; e.g. (i Kings ii. 2) be 
thou strong and be a man, which means : till thou 
becomest known to be a strong man and a warrior, 
for he was a man and not a woman. Thus also 
(i Sam. xxvi. 15) Art thou not a man, and who is 
like unto tlue in Israel? It is proved by the words 
of Job (xxix. 9) : The princes refrained talking and 


laid their hand {be/ore them) on their mouth. The 
context of the reading is in this way : having com- 
menced the narrative thus : there was a man rrn xlr\\, 
the thread must be taken up again by the formula and 
he was -^rr^. Thus (Esth. ii. 5) : there was a Jew is 
afterwards (z/. 7) followed by "•rri, and he brotight tip 
Hadassah, because the phrase {v. 6) who had been 
carried away from Jerusalem intervenes. Here also, 
it having been said that he was rich and a lengthy 
description of his greatness having been given, he 
continues '•rri. But whenever the introductory word 
is '»rpi (oS^m) the narrative is at once proceeded with, 
without interruption. e,g, (Judg. xiii. 2) and there 
was a man from Zorah ; ( Ruth i. i ) it cam^ to pass 
in the days when the judges ruled \ (i Sam. i. i) 
there was a certain man of Ramathaim. In the land 
of Uz. His country is mentioned because he dwelt 
in the land of the wise, as it is said (p. 3) the greatest 
of all the m^n of the east ; for this is in the east, and 
Uz belongs to Syria which is east of Edom, as it is 
said (Is. ix. 11) Syria in the east and the Philistines 
behind. According to Aben Ezra, Job was of the 
descendants of Esau, for he was of the land of Uz, 
and in proof he adduces ( Lam. i v. 21) : [daughter'] 
of Edom that dwellest in the land of Uz. But I say 
that this is no proof, for we find the name of a certain 
Uz among the sons of Seir the Horite whose land 
Esau the Edomite took, and he brought back from 
Syria, as it is said : (Gen. xxii. 21) Uz, his firstborn ; 
he was a son of Nahor of Syria. The men there 


were wise, as it is said (v. 3) : Ae was the wisest of 
all the men of the east. Another reason why the 
place is mentioned : because it is said after- 
wards that the Chaldeans (Chasdim) fell upon his 
flocks, and Uz and Chesed were brothers and dwelt 
in the land of the east. We are told that Abraham 
dwelt in the land of the east, as it is said (Gen. xxv. 
t)\ he sent them away from Isaac his son^ while he 
yet lived, to the land of the east. His (Job's) country 
being near theirs, they plundered and despoiled it. 
Perfect, simple, and upright. One may be called 
simple on because he is not wise enough to under- 
stand, not having any ideas ; it is therefore said about 
Job that he was not wanting in wisdom, but he 
discriminated between good and evil, therefore he 
directed his principles into the straight way, accord- 
ing to the maxim (Prov. xi. 5) : the righteousness of 
the perfect shall direct his way, A man may be up- 
right because he does not want to be accused before 
the judges, or because he does not want to be spoken 
ill of by his neighbours, therefore it is said : and Gtod 
fearing, he was prompted to all this by his fear of 
God; and it says: and he eschewed evil, in con- 
sequence of his good disposition. The word ip'j has 
a Kametz, it has a different meaning from idi in 
Exod. viii. 25, and the swarms shall depart, which 
has a Pathah. 3. the greatest. The word great is 
comprehensive: great, generally, in wealth. There 
are two ways of explaining the reason why the details 
of his wealth are stated. First, it may be to tell us 


that, at the time when the turn in his fortune took 
place, his neighbours made an invasion to plunder 
him and to take his flocks, because he was so rich ; 
and, secondly, the reason why an account is given 
of his goods and his cattle, may be this : because 
it is mentioned in the end that God restored to him 
double of what they had taken from him ; everything 
was doubled, except that his daughters were of 
double beauty only, and a great household. The 
household must be mentioned after the flocks ; thus 
(Gen. xxvi. 14) : and the man waxed great and he had 
sheep and oxen and a very great household. For an 
owner of flocks cannot exist without menservants and 
maidservants and shepherds, to lead them. His wealth 
in land is not enumerated, for that is not the way 
of the text to do, except in the case of a king, or a 
governor, or a prince. 4. in the house of each on his 
day. In the house of each on the day appropriate 
for him ; the first day for the first son, the second day 
for the second, and so on, seven days for the seven 
sons, their three sisters. '\o tell us the cause 
why they were all killed at the same time, and 
he had not taken care of them. 5. when the 
days of the feasting were gone about. An ex- 
pression o{ going round. This was on the seventh 
day, when they always used to recommence, on the 
next day, their turn and turn about. Then : Job sent 
and sanctified them, saying : sanctify yourselves for 
the morrow, which is the first day. and he offered 
burnt offerings. That which we find in Yelamdenu 


(Midrash Tanchuma, Gen. xv. i) that Rabbi Shimon 
ben Jochai said that a burnt offering is brought [to 
atone] for [evil] thoughts of the heart — these words 
are in accord with the context ; for this is what Job 
said : It may be that my sons have sinned and cursed 
Ood in their hearts. Having eaten and drunk to 
satisfaction and drunkenness, their heart became 
haughty, according to the verses (Deut. viii. 12, 14): 
lest thou eatest and art full .... and thy heart be 
lifted up ; and according to the verse (Prov. xxx. 9) : 
lest I be fully and deny, and say, Who is the Lord ? 
They have cursed, like (i Kings xxi. 13) Naboth did 
blaspheme God and the king. This is what the Satan 
said (Job i. 11, ii. 5) : and he will curse thee to thy 
face : Thou sayest that he brings burnt offerings for 
the thoughts of his sons, and he will curse thee 
with a loud voice in public, if Thou wilt do to him 
what I say. Thus Job did continuaJly, n^y: indicates 

6. The sons of God. i.e. the angels, as isevident from 
(Job xxxviii. 7) When the morning stars sang together, 
and all the sons of God shouted for joy. They are 
those who rule the world for evil and for good. 
Daniels prophecy is a proof of this in the passage 
(x. 20, 21) referring to the prince of Persia, the prince 
of Greece, and none holdeth with m.e but Michael your 
prince. Also Zechariah's prophecy. The expression 
sons of God is like son of the bow (archer), son of death 
(destined to die), and means : endowed with divinity 
and ruling power. To present themselves before the 


Lord. We can explain this like (Is. iii. 13) : lAe Lord 
standeth up to pleads or like (Zech. vi. 5) : from 
standing before the Lord of all the earthy to be ready 
to execute his mission, as it is said (i Kings xxii. 19) : 
and all the host of heaven standing by him on his right 
hand and on his left, and like (Ps. ciii. 20) : bless the 
Lord^ ye his angels, that excel in strength, that do his 
commandments, hearkening unto the voice of his word. 
The Satan, an angel who was appointed for this. 
Thus in the prophecy of Zechariah (iii.) 2 : The Lord 
shall rebuke thee, O Satan. As one is called wise on 
account of his wisdom, thus he is called Satan, 
because He made him an accuser and caused him 
in this way to go to and fro in the earth. Therefore 
he says : 7. Whence comest thou. Thus we find 
(Zech. i. 11): We have walked to and fro through the 
earth, and, behold, all the earth sitteth still, and is at 
rest. Therefore he was renumbered before the Holy 
One, blessed be He, since he found an opportunity 
to do harm, God having said to him : whence comest 
thou.^ This is only in the same way as He said 
to Balaam (Num. xxii. 9): who are these men? and 
to Hezekiah also, for the purpose of entering upon a 
discourse — and He further said : hast thou considered 
[my servant Job], and he [the Satan] answered : 
from going to and fro in the earth, implying by 
this : to do what it was proper for me to do ; the 
service [imposed on me]. 8. Hast thou con- 
sidered. Since thou sayest that thou wast going 
to and fro in the earth, hast thou investigated con- 


cerning Job, that there is none like him on earth, 
and that his merit is [enough] to protect all man- 
kind ; and where wilt thou find the like of him ? 
For even when he is in doubt (whether a sin was 
committed) he forestalls and brings burnt offerings 
as an atonement for his sons ; what then would he 
not do in the case of wilful transgression ? 9. Is it 
for nought. This means : if for nought, without 
benefits and wealth and honour with which Thou 
hast supplied him, he would fear [Thee], Thou 
wouldst be able to praise him, for his fear would 
then be obvious, or if evil occurrences were prepared 
for him and he would yet cleave unto Thee. But 
now how will it happen that he should fear Thee? 
I o. Hast Thou not made a fence about him, protected 
him by a strong wall, so that no one should hurt 
him (and) his house. 11. But put forth Thy hand 
now, and touch his wealth and his children, and 
Thou shalt see whether he will not curse Thee to 
Thy face. And I say that the words : and touch all 
that he has mean : let his sins take hold on him 
(be visited on him) so that his children die, till he 
prefer death to life ; then canst Thou try him 
whether his heart is perfect with Thee. 12. Only 
upon himself put not forth thy hand, to his very 
body to injure him. But as for God, blessed be 
He, 4y Him actions are weighed (i Sam. ii. 3). He 
meant him to remain alive to show his [high] 
qualities to mankind. Thus : God tried Abraham 
(Gen. xxii. i), for the Holy One, blessed be He, 


knew that he would not withhold his son from Him ; 
but it was only in order to show to all that he 
feared and loved Him. 14. And there came a 
messenger, one of the servants beside them namely, 
the oxen. Close to them, as : and next to him re- 
paired in the book of Ezra (Nehemiah iii. passim)^ 
and (2 Samuel xiv. 30) : See, Joabs portion is near 
to mine. Further, this is the way of tillers of the 
gpround, that they have, near to the field that is 
tilled, a meadow and a pasturage for their cattle. 
Therefore, this is here mentioned. 15. And Sheba 
fell (upon them), a troop of Sheba came suddenly 
upon them, for the Sabaeans were his neighbours, 
as I mentioned above, and the word and fell is like 
(Gen. XXV. 18): and in the presence of all his 
brethren he fell, and I only escaped, i.e. no one 
escaped except me alone that I may be able to tell 
you this. It was the Satan who had set him on 
and told him in order to provoke him to anger till 
he would sin either by action or by speech. 16. 
While he was yet speaking, in order to vex him 
time after time, without interruption, first, in regard 
to his property, and afterwards, more severely, in 
regard to human life. Every time the death of the 
servants is mentioned together with that of the 
cattle, in consequence of their guarding the she- 
asses, the camels, and the sheep. In reference to the 
camels three bands are mentioned, because there were 
three thousands of them, a band for each thousand. 
1 8. While he was yet speaking (or rather, before 


he spoke). Here it is said is until, but on the 
occasions of the fire of God, and of the three bands, 
it is said ir(s, which means: while he was speaking, 
but this is like (i Sam. xiy. 19) : until Saul spoke unto 
the priest, and like (Neh. vii. 3) : until they stand by 
let them shut the doors^ the meaning of which is 
before ; and so it is here, before he had spoken at all. 
19. From the other side of the wildemeBS, from the 
side of the place where the wind has free play, the 
comers of the house, to throw into confusion all that 
was in the house, which was all shaking, and they 
had no place to flee to. 20. And he rent his robe. 
As he said (xxix. 14) : like a robe and a diadem my 
judgment. He only rent it in the way of mourning 
for his children, and he tore out \the hair of] his 
head, cf (Num. xi. 31) and drew quails, an expression 
of drawing from the sea, thus he pulled and tore out 
his hair. The word his head stsx\ds for the hair of his 
head, or for the crown of his head, as he said (xix. 9) : 
he has removed the crown of my head. In the same 
way we find (Ps. Ixxxiii. 14): as the flame that sets 
the fnountaifts on fire, which means the trees on the 
mountains ; and also (Ps. cxix. 120) : my flesh stood on 
end from the fear of tltee, for the hair of my flesh ; 
thus also in this book (iv. 15): the hair of my flesh 
stood up. 21. Naked came I out, [deprived] of 
property and children that existed until now ; and in 
the end naked shall I return thither, in that very 
same nakedness, for if my children and my property 
had remained with me till the day of my death I 


should not have carried them with me. The Lord 
gave me everything after I was born, and the Lord 
who gave it, took it away, and no other, and I can only 
bless Him and acknowledge His kindness that they 
remained until now. This I understood from Rabbi 
Eliezer of Beaugency, and I prefer it to all other 
interpretations which I have seen, for it is after the 
style of Ecclesiastes (v. 15), naked shall he return to 
go as he came. Only, in reference to the word thither, 
his explanation does not seem to me to be accurate. 
I think, therefore, that thither implies, that he pointed, 
as it were, to the place of his grave in the dust. 
This is also the style of this book (iii. 19) : The small 
and the great are there, without it being specified in 
which place; and also in Ecclesiastes (iii. 17): there 
is a time there for every purpose and for every work. 
Blessed be the name of the Lord, for all the benefits 
He has hitherto bestowed upon me, although He has 
again taken away His own. I saw R. Jacob's inter- 
pretation, but it does not seem to me to be accurate. 
22. And he did not give foolishness, as (Jer. xxiii. 
13): and among the prophets of Samaria I have seen 
foolishness — (He did not) say His judgment is a vain 
and foolish thing (Lam. ii. 14), but he blessed Him. 
He did not give, with His mouth, as (Lev. xvi. 21), 
he shall give them upon the head of the goat ; ( Deut. 
xi. 29) : thou shall give the blessing upon the mount 
Gerezim ; (Job xxxvi. 3) and I will give righteousness 
to my Maker \ (i Sam. xviii. 8) : they have given to 
David ten thousands. 


Cap. II. — I. Before the Lord. Not so, in the first 
instance, because then he had no intention to injure ; 
but he only (presented himself) with the sons of God 
who were angels like himself. But this time it was 
his purpose to injure Job, he had therefore to present 
himself, for he had an opening to start from. Then 
the Holy One, blessed be He, said to him : 3. Hast 
thou considered, that, however much injury thou 
didst to him, he did not become false to his faith and 
fear of God, for there is none like him. Behold, thou 
incitedst me to. swallow him up, and to destroy him 
for no cause, for I knew that he would be steadfast 
in his integrity. 4. Skin for skin. It is the style of 
this book to call the parts of the body skin. Thus 
(xviii. 13): // shall devour the strength of his skin^ 
(xix. 26) and after my skin. The meaning is this, 
that it is the way of the world, that whenever a strong 
disease comes upon a man on one of his limbs, and he 
is afraid lest it may spread from there and spread over 
his whole body, he cuts that limb off, so that the rest 
of his body may remain sound. And if a man sees a 
sword dniwn over his head, he will place his hand 
or his arm as a protection over his head. Thus it is 
the way of man to place his children, who are like 
the limbs of his body, and give them up for lost, as 
long as only his own life escape. 5. And he will 
curse thee to thy face. On account of the death of 
his children. For he will fear and be concerned 
about his own life, lest a mishap befall him, as befell 


his children. Or he will curse thee may be explained 
as (i Kings xxi.) : Naboth did blaspheme \ when thou 
shalt touch himself, for he was not concerned about 
his children and the word (in verse 4) he will give is 
[as (Lam. iii. 29) : he will give his mouth in the dusf], 
it means he will leave, {allow), as (Numbers xxi. 23), 
and Sihon did not give, and touch his bone, so that 
he may prefer death to life. For he will not be able 
to bear the pain. 6. Save his life. Thou shall not 
smite him in a vital part, so that he would die thereof. 
7. From the sole of his foot unto his crown. Thus : 
(Is. i. 6) From the sole of his foot unto the head 
there is no soundness in it. 8. A potsherd. For he 
could not scrape himself with his nails on account of 
the boils. The word i^jniiS is a hapax legomeno7i and 
must be explained from the context : he passed the 
potsherd to and fro and scraped and peeled the scab 
of his flesh. Thus in the Mishna (Rosh. Hashana, 
27 b) : he scrapes and reduces it to a thin skin. And 
he was sitting down among the ashes ; already, to 
mourn for his children. This clause prefaces that 
which Job was to say afterwards (xvi. 15), and I 
defiled my horn in the dust. 9. And his wife said 
to him. The Satan incited her to speak like this, 
for she could not understand to discern of herself that 
this was by the way of a temptation, and to say to 
him : art thou still steadfast in thy integrity, using 
the same expression as the Holy One, blessed be He : 
and he is still steadfast^ and the expression of cursing 
God, used by the Satan : he will curse thee to thy 


face. And how should she know that he would 
die if he were to curse? Many wicked people do 
so and live. But it may be also that she said this 
on her own account ; when she saw the boils on him, 
that he could no longer be firm and live, she 
counselled him thus : although thou doest not 
blaspheme in private, for thou fearest God ; yet, 
curse Him in public, so that people shall hear it and 
kill thee — after the manner when Naboth cursed — , 
for this will be better for thee than living with such 
plagues. ID. Also the good: together with the evil 
we received until now. If now we would not receive 
the evil, when coming by itself, it will be found that 
we did not serve God from love, but only in return for 
the good which He gave us. Job's words in many 
places prove that all this was in the way of trial ; 
thus : (ix. 2^) if the scourge slay suddenly, he will 
mock at the trial of the innocent, and in other passages. 
But he thought ; since He tried me in my goods, my 
children, my body, and I do not curse .... But 
the Satan left him as yet, but increased his pain 
every day, till the Holy One, blessed be He, Himself 
comforted him ; for his friends also would vex him 
and add fresh pain to his pain, with his lips. Even 
with words, to say : why has this trouble befallen me .^ 
But when the pain became greater he said many 
words, as (iii. 23), and to the man whose way is hidden. 
But according to the simple meaning : .... to curse 
in public, as his wife had counselled him, so as to 
hasten his death — ^as if it were said : in his heart.' 


1 1. That was come upon him. They had com- 
municated with each other and appointed a time 
to come to him. Thus (Amos iii. 3) : Can two walk 
together except they be agreed? To mourn with him 
and to comfort him. For this is the way of those 
who comfort, to mourn first, saying to him : an 
evil incident has befallen thee, for (thou has lost) 
goodly children and great substance. After that they 
would comfort him, saying to him : thou mayest still 
recover, and bring forth children, and become rich. 
The word "n^f? means complaindre, as (Jer. xxii. 10): 
do ye not bemoan htm. But 12, when they lifted up 
their eyes and did not recognise him, because of the 
appearance he presented, from his boils and his torn 
robe, and they saw that no one was smitten with 
plague and sickness like him, then 1 3. none spake a 
word unto him, to comfort him. For they saw that his 
grief was great, and wherewith should they comfort 
him, since he was so much smitten, and had reached 
the gates of death. Thus (Lam. ii. 13) : What shall I 
equal to thee that I may comfort thee^ for thy breach is 
great like the sea. The word from afar is used 
(z/. 12) to denote that they feared to approach him 
at first on account of his many diseases. Afterwards 
they sat down with him. Then he could not refrain 
himself any longer, for, while he was musing the fire 
burned (Ps. xxxix. 4) : He opened his mouth. Not as 
she (his wife) had told him, but to curse his day. 
Before commencing to interpret the speeches, I 
remark, that this Job, about whom there are so many 


different opinions among the wise men in Israel in 
regard to the age in which he lived — one says one 
thing, and another says another thing — that this Job, 
I say, must have lived after Daniel. For we find in 
Ezekiel (xiv. 14, 20): NoaA, Daniel, ^xiA Job three {^) 
times in the same order. What our sages say in 
regard to the question, why, in that passage, these 
were singled out by name from among all the pious 
and wise men, is well known. According to our 
opinion, in consideration of the context of the chapter 
in Ezekiel, the reason is, because Noah saved through 
his merit himself and his three sons with him, 
thus did Daniel [save three men, namely] Hananiah, 
Mishael, and Azariah ; and Job also saved his three 
friends, as it is proved at the end of the book, (xlii. 8) : 
and my servant Job shall pray for you, for him I will 
accept. I say, therefore, that these three men, who 
each of them saved three others with them, will now 
be unable to save either son or daughter, as it is 
stated in that chapter. 

Cap. III. — 2. And Job answered, i.e. he cried, as 
(Deut. xxvi. 5) and thou shall answer and say ; (Exod. 
XV. 21) Miriam answered them. 3. All commentators 
are unanimous that he cursed a day in the past, and 
the meaning of the verse is : Let perish the day of 
birth, and its night, on which it was said, a male child 
has been conceived. This was at the end of nine 
months, for then it was known whether it was a male 
or a female child. The word rrjin is, according to 


the first grammarian, equivalent to was bom, as in 
I Chron. (iv. 17) : and she bore (irrw) Miriam, where 
the context excludes any other interpretation except 
that of birth. The proper interpretation here is that 
of Rabbi Eliezer of Beaugency. Let the day on 
which I was born perish from all the days of the year, 
that always darkness shall be thereon. Also the 
night on which — whosoever — said and told the world 
about me that a male child had been conceived, i.e. 
may the night on which I was conceived also perish 
every year. After the manner of Ps. (xix. 3) : day 
unto day uttereth speech and night unto night .... The 
event in the night being a hidden thing, the expression 
said is added. The explanation of the perishing of 
the day is proceeded with, followed by that of the 
perishing of the night. The perishing of the day : 
that it shall be dark, that God shall not regard it 
from above, or from the upper existences, to complete 
its due and regular order, to light it so that it be a day. 
As in Deut. (xi. 1 2) : which the Lord thy God regards 
to give it (the land) its due and regular order, to 
water it and to soften it (Ps. Ixv. 10, 1 1). 4. Let not 
shine upon it : on account of me. Light, i.e. the 
breakingof the dawn .... it is the light of the morn- 
ing, so that, on that day, the darkness of the night be 
prolonged every year, till it will be understood that 
it is on account of my birth, so that that day will be 
lost. A similar expression was employed by Jeremiah 
when he cursed his day (xx. 14) : cursed be the day 
wherein I was bom, and as we find there {v. 17) : 


because he slew me not from the womb, so it is said 
here : {v. lo) because it shut not up the doors of [my 
mothers^ womb, and (v. 11): why died I not from the 
womb when I came out of the belly, at the time of birth, 
as it is said in Niddah (lb. 31 b), that shortly before 
the birth takes place the child goes up from the Dm 
(womb) to the pn (belly), and this causes the pains 
of travail of which the woman suffers in childbirth. 
Let the day perish wherein I was bom, everywhere 
else conception is mentioned first, and birth after, 
e.g. and she conceived and bore (Gen. iv. i), and in 
many other passages; but here birth is mentioned 
before conception ; because, when a son is born to 
one of the princes of the earth the night of his con- 
ception is calculated from the hour that he was born. 
5. Let stain it : Some say that this ^n^Ni? is an ex- 
pression of filth and dirt, as (Malachi i. j): polluted 
bread, (Zeph. iii. i) : filthy ( — rebellious — ) and polluted 
But according to the grammarians it is an expression 
of redemption, because it is in the Qal, and the 
meaning is : it shall have no other redeemers and 
relations except darkness and shadow of death. It 
can also be explained to mean : taking by force as 
(Exod. vi. 6) : and I shall redeem you with out- 
stretched arm ; — darkness and shadow of death shall 
redeem it and take it by force. And besides darkness 
Let a cloud dwell upon it, when the stars diffuse their 
light thereon as at night. But it might be said that this 
would be a benefit to most men, that they would be at 

rest from wars and from evil occurrences ; therefore he 



says let them terrify it, like ( Ps. xci. 6) the pestilence that 
walketh in the darkness, and the cloud like hail, fire, 
and brimstone, and tempest, and whirlwind, and evil 
occurrences, and this is : like the bitter things of the 
day, which embitter the day, like (Deut. xxxii. 24) : 
and bitter destruction. According to Ibn Ezra it 
is the strength of the heat of noon which is like 
deadly poison. Thus far the explanation of the 
perishing of the day. He now proceeds to explain 
the perishing of the night. Namely : 6. Let thick dark- 
ness seize it every year, immediately upon sunset, 
that no stars shine thereon. Let it not rejoice, an 
expression of rejoicing, as (Ps. xxi. 7): thou makest 
him glad with Joy. And, therefore. Let it not come 
into the number of the months. For it is the way 
of man to start his reckoning from a day of joy, not 
from the day of his mourning. It can also be ex- 
plained thus : It shall not be joined, to be reckoned 
from the day before, to be counted among the days 
of the month after the waning of the moon and its 
becoming full again. This he means by saying Let 
it not come into the number, on account of the 
thick and black darkness thereon. For when the 
world shall see that this is its rule and order every 
year, they will then no longer reckon it among the 
days of the month, because the dominion of sun 
and moon, as instituted at the creation, does not 
apply to it. If this were only to take place once 
they would not omit it in the order of days and 
nights. Having concluded the subject of the night. 


he draws the inference that this night is only fit 
to be 7. Solitaiy and in loneliness, that no man shall 
lie with his wife, but that the latter shall be separated 
from him and solitary, so that she shall not conceive 
on that night in every year, since thereon was born one 
plagued and stricken and afflicted like me. Let not 
come thereon the voice of the rejoicing of the bride- 
groom and bride, for the union on that night will not 
lead to happiness. 8. Let them curse it that curse 
the day. They who curse the day that is bitter 
to them ; for it is the way of the world, that when 
a man goes out to his work and his occupation 
and the day is intensely dark to curse it ; for 
it is not the nature of the day. But as for the 
night, such is its nature ; moreover, he does not 
go out in the night as in the day, then why should 
he curse it ? Therefore, he (Job) connects his curse 
with the curse of the day. Or, perhaps, the expres- 
sion let them curse it refers to the day and to the night 
the time of which he mentioned as (belonging) to 
another day (?). Who are ready : refers to let them 
curse it, namely : those who curse the day. Accord- 
ing to Ibn Ezra the ** people who bewail" (the dead) 
are meant. The meaning may be this : those who 
curse a day of intense darkness, when, at the approach 
of the dawn, they are ready and prepared to rouse up 
jn^'if?, i.e. their intercourse, to go out to their y/ork or 
on a journey, let them curse it, because : 9. The stars 
of the twilight thereof are dark, namely : of that night, 
and do not shine forth at the approach of day, cf. 


(2 Kings vii. 5) : and they rose up in the twilight, for 
they look forward to it that the stars may shine 
forth at the approach of day, which is a sign to 
the wayfarers. But they are dark and do not shine ; 
everyone looks for light but there is none, nor 
does anybody see on that night the eyelids of the 
morning, for thus the light of the morning appears 
when it comes forth, like eyelids. Thus he also says 
about the Leviathan (xli. 10 [= 18]), and his eyes are 
like the eyelids of the morning. According to Ibn 
Ezra, the j in jji^^ is instead of a d, like the j in King 
Hanun ^217, and Job xxiv. 22, and he is not sure of life 
pTO. They therefore curse the day, and they curse 
also the night with it, on account of the darkening of 
the night [and] of the stars. He now proceeds to ex- 
plain why the night should be cursed so much, and says : 
Rightly so, 10. Because it shut not up the doors of 
•^Dtol, which is the navel through which the food reaches 
the child before it is born. Other commentators ex- 
plain it as the womb that received my seed, for if it 
had been shut up it would not have absorbed it. In 
that case the night would have hidden from my eyes 
the trouble that I see now, but now that the womb 
absorbed the seed, till I was fashioned and left therein, 
II. Why not * from ' the womb, if I had died in the 
womb, as mentioned ; but since I did not die, ' from ' 
the womb, * from * the jp^, when I cajne out, I should 
have perished. But having come out from the womb 
and not died 1 2. Why did the knees receive me, of 
the nurse and the midwife ; and, since they did receive 


me, why have I come to the suckling of breasts! 
13. For now, if I had died at one of the periods I men- 
tioned, shoiild I have lien down and I should have 
been quiet, but not as I am quiet and resting, but I 
should have slept the everlasting sleep 14. With kings 
and counsellors of the earth* And if I had not been 
honoured with the burial of kings, and their coun- 
sellors who are second in rank to them, I should 
have lain 15. with princes who are third in rank 
to them, or, at the very least, 16. as a hidden un- 
timely birth, that is buried anywhere, with no 
special burying place, and not with other people 
because its flesh is half consumed (Numb. xii. 12). I 
had not been now to be buried by myself, after the 
manner of people that had had the plague or bad been 
stricken with boils, as it is found in the case of Uzziah 
(2 Chron. xxvi. 23). Because he was a leper, he was 
not buried in the sepulchre of the kings but like a 
hidden untimely birth. This would have been better 
for me than it is now that I was not buried like a 
hidden untimely birth, but [that I shall be buried] with 
other men. But as it happens that an untimely birth 
lives for thirty days and sees the sun with its eyes, I 
further say : As infants that have not seen the light, 
after the saying of Solomon, who said (Eccl. vi. 3) 
that, an untimely birth is better than he, and again 
{ibid. 5) : it has not seen the sun nor known it. Such 
are the infants alluded to here. Observe the context 
of the verses as I construed them. As he describes 
the ascent from the day that his seed was conceived in 


the womb, step by step, upwards till the suckling at 
the breasts, thus he describes the descent, step by 
step, downwards till his being in the grave. First he 
mentions the doors of the womb in which his seed was 
conceived, then his formation in the womb, then his 
issuing forth into the world, then his sitting on the 
knees, and at last his sucking the breasts. So far the 
ascent. Then follows his downward course to the 
grave. First his burial with kings, then with coun- 
sellors^ with counsellors of the earth who built up 
waste places for themselves. — He mentions of the 
counsellors that they build up waste places for them- 
selves, because they are neither kings nor princes. — 
Afterwards [he mentions his burial] with the princes, 
then with the untimely birth, and then with the infants. 
17. There the wicked cease from troubling, in the 
grave which he has mentioned. The wicked who are 
afraid of, and concerned about, their death, cease to 
be concerned any longer, once they are there. And 
all 18. the prisoners are at ease. Those who were 
imprisoned on account of money matters, do not hear 
the voice of the taskmaster, who presses them on 
account of some loan, or the ransom of their lives. 
19. The small and the great are there equal, and the 
servant free, so that his master does no longer keep 
him in submission. Referring to the preceding phrase 
as infants who never sazv lights he again says : 20. 
Wherefore is light given to him that is in misery, 
like myself, who am stricken, and bitter of spirit because 
of my children. 21. And dig for it, search for it, 


more than for hid treasures. Those who from the 
great bitterness of their souls 22. Bcgoice as unto 
exultation, and cure glad when they can find a grave. 
A burial place, and not in the contemptible manner 
mentioned before. He adopts Solomon's phrase 
(Prov. ii. 4) : and search for her as hid treasures. 
He now proceeds to explain to what misery, to what 
kind of bitterness of spirit light and life ought not 
to have been given. He says it is 23. To a 
man like me whose good way, and whose right- 
eousness are hidden from the eyes of God and man. 
For I was righteous, and the fate of the wicked befell 
me, so that it is said that all this has befallen me 
on account of my wickedness. All the answers of 
Eliphaz refer to this, that he had said that his way was 
hidden. And he has hedged in in the judgment, as if 
clouds had intervened between him and me, so that 
he would not see my innocence, and he chastises 
me with sufferings. Thus (Lam. iii. 44) : Thou hast 
covered thyself with a cloud. Many commentators 
consider that this was a sin on the part of Job, saying 
(Isaiah xl. 27): my tvay is hidden from the Lord, 
and my judgment is passed away from my God. But 
[no blame attaches to Job] if we explain it in this 
way : To a man whose way is now hid from the eyes 
of men, who consider me to be wicked, since all this 
has befallen me ; and he has hedged in, God has 
already for many days put a hedge round him ; as it is 
said (i. 10) : hast not thou fnade a hedge about him — 
then there is no murmuring in the expression, and 


he explains how his way was hidden. 24. For before 
my bread, before I eat I sigh for my children. Before 
my bread can also be explained : when I was still 
wealthy and honoured I sighed for my sons, who ate 
by themselves, it might be that they sinned and 
blasphemed God in their hearts, because of their 
abundant plenteousness. and my roarings are poured 
out like water on their account. I did not roar with- 
out tears. This verse is, perhaps, like (Ps. cii. 10) : 
For I have eaten ashes like breads and mingled my 
drink with weeping, meaning that the tears fell into his 
cup. For it is the manner of the verse to mention 
the drink after the bread. He says : my roarings 
against his sons when he exhorted and sanctified 
them. And my roarings were poured out like watery 
metaphorically, without intermission, but running 
continuously without stopping. But all was of no 
avail to me. 25. For the thing I feared on their 
account has come upon me. For the children are 
dead. 26. I am not at ease, this refers to the report 
about the herds ; I am not quiet, this refers to the 
destruction of the flocks ; I have no rest, referring to the 
report about the camels. And afterwards the trouble 
came, to my body which was plagued and stricken ; — 
or, the trouble came means the fear that was in my 

Cap. IV. — I. And Eliphaz answered. In the same 
order as the verse says that they came to see him, they 
follow one another in their answers to Job, in every 


speech. 2. Haa the thing been tried. I have seen 
many explanations [of this expression], but they are 
unsatisfactory. Some say it is like MtoDn, shall we raise 
the word\ if we raise our words to thee wilt thou be 
weary? This is also the opinion of Ibn Ezra, that 
the D is the sign of the plural, and the d stands for the 
to. I'his is also the opinion of the Masorete, who 
notes to rTDDn, that it occurs twice with different mean- 
ings, once [Deut. iv. 34], and once [here] in nayn. 
Others say that it means : thou hast already re- 
ceived chastisement, and now God tries thee, if thou 
shalt be silent it will be accounted to thee as sufferings 
of love. And who is able to withhold words to this, 
and not answer thee. But the correct interpretation 
is as follows : hast thou Job been tried ; hast thou been 
tried and been accustomed to these sufferings that thou 
art now too wearied and faint to bear them^ and thou 
cursest thy days and moments, saying : why does he give 
light to hint that is in misery and life to the bitter of souL 
The word thou art weary refers to : why is light 
given to him that is in misery. As if thou hadst 
never experienced anything but many evils. Who 
can, therefore, withhold and restrain words, that I 
should not answer thee? 3. Behold thou hast re- 
proved. Thou wast accustomed to reprove many, 
when sufferings befell them, thou didst warn them 
not to murmur at them, but to bear them in love 
as the judgment of God. And the hands that were 
iT^eak from sufferings, as (Is. xiii. 7) : and all hands 
are iveak, — thou hast strengthened. Thou didst 


Strengthen them by thy comforting words. And 
now that the same measure is meted out to thee, 
thou art weary, as if thou hadst borne them for 
ever so long. How then couldst thou venture to 
strengthen others when thou art not able to bear? 
6. Is not thy fear. If thou wast indeed Godfearing 
as thou didst say, that very fear would be thy 
confidence and thy trust that thou wouldst escape 
this trouble, and that God would again have mercy 
on thee, and [that fear would be] thy hope — which 
is in^DD thy confidence which he mentioned — ; that 
thou wouldst hope for help, and the integrity of 
thy ways, — in which thou didst walk in integrity 
of heart, these ought to have been thy confidence, 
if it is indeed true what thou didst siiy that thy way 
was hidden, and thy uprightness and integrity un- 
known. For 7. Remember, I pray thee, who was 
ever innocent and perished, i.e. who perished, and 
where were the upright denied, i.e. destroyed ; as 
(Ex. ix. 15), and thou wast denied from the earthy 
the Targum (pseudo - Jonathan) is : and thou wast 
destroyed. An evil design is compared to plough- 
ing, as (Hos. X. 13) you have ploughed wickedness, 
you have reaped iniquity ; (Prov. iii. 29) plough 
(devise) not evil against thy neighbour. Remember 
(he says), I pray, if thou hast seen an innocent man 
who perished. 8. According as I have seen they 
that plough iniquity and sow trouble, that £hey reap 
the same and eat the fruit of their way and perish 
as in an instant For 9. By the breath of Gk>d 


they perish, which is, in one breath, as (Is. xxx. 33) 
the breath of the Lord is like a stream of brimstone. 
Not so (the righteous one) who (Prov. xxiv. 16) 
falls seven times and rises up again. But they who 
devise evil have no foothold at the day of judg- 
ment. And as I have seen 10. The roajing of the 
lion, when he roars over his prey, for he will not 
roar if he sees no prey, and the voice of the fierce 
lion likewise. And they die for hunger, for they 
do not find sufficient for them. And as I have 
seen the teeth of the young lions, tearing 
their prey, wandering, (or) broken. Their teeth are 
broken ; or, they die from lack of prey, (Amos iv. 6) 
in cleanness of teeth \ as 11. The old lion is lost 
from his company and wanders from want of food 
and the whelps of the lioness that are scattered abroad 
here and there to seek for prey and do not find it ; 
for that is the way of (Nahum ii. 13) the lion, that 
tears for his whelps when he finds prey. So also thou, 
if thou hadst been of such integrity and uprightness 
as thou sayest, and as the world thinks, all this would 
not have befallen thee. The expressions lion, fierce 
lion, young lion, old lion, are metaphorical to denote 
men of blood and deceit, workers of violence, after the 
style of (Ps. xxxiv. 11) : the young lions do lack and 
suffer hunger, but they that seek the Lord shall not 
want any good thing. The author of Hajjug (Jehudah 
Hajjug) says that 'u^nD is the same as 'u^nD, but (the n) 
is dageshed on account of the pause accent, as (Is. 
xXxiii. 12, Jer. li. 58) : thai are burned, ins\ in fir e^ 


from the same root as (Ez. xxi. 3) / will kindle afire 
in thee\ and also as (Is. xli. ly) failelh, nr\W2, /or 
thirst, like (Jer. li. 30), their might has failed, 1 2. And 
to me a word came by stealth, I heard a word in 
secret. Or, it came by stealth may mean, I did not 
know thy disposition until now that I recognize thee. 
It came by stealth would be then like (Gen. xxxi. 20) : 
and Jacob stole the heart, and (2 Samuel xv. 6), and 
Absalom stole the heart. And mine ear received a 
stain, my ear understood the report of the word. A 
stain thereof, as (Ex. xxxii. 2^, for a disgrace to their 
enemies \ an expression of rottenness and corruption, 
— from that misfortune that has befallen thee. Ibn 
Ezra explains it thus : my ear is not able to receive 
the superior good from him, as (Job. xxvi. 14), ivhat 
little of the word, 1 3. In thoughts, when I was ponder- 
ing on the matter when the report of your mishap came 
unto me. firom the visions of the night, as (Daniel ii. 
29) : thy thoughts came upon thy bed. When deep 
sleep feJls, prophecy is heard in the way of a dream. 
1 5. Stood up, from fear of the spirit that passed by me 
the hair of my flesh stood up. According to R. 
Samuel it means : the wind of the spirit caused my 
flesh to tremble, because the expression iid'^d is not 
found in reference to hair, but to flesh, as it is said 
(Ps. cxix. 120): my flesh trembles from fear, and thus 
Rab Joseph translated it : the wind caused 7ny flesh to 
bum ; But Rab explains loon from the siime root 
as niiDDO (Eccl. xii. 1 1 ) nails, because pain is like a 
nail fastened. And when it came opposite me : 16. It 


stood still, and I looked at it to see whether I recog- 
nized it, but I was not able to do so, because (Deut. 
xxxiv. lo) iAere has not arisen a prophet like Moses, 
whom the Lord knew face to face ^ but only (Numb. xii. 
6) / speak with hint in a dream, as a form waa before 
my eyes, that spoke in a whisper, and this is a silence, 
and nevertheless I heard a voice, that said : 1 7. Is 
man more righteous than God } as much as to say : I 
am righteous and God dealt unjustly with me. i8. 
Behold in his servants, and in his ministers his 
angels, the host of heaven that are habitually before 
him, he does not trust, he finds no faithfulness in 
them ; or, he does not trust, but he tests them 
to try them. I find it most probable that the 
expression his servants is used here as in the last 
speech of Bildad the Shuhite (xxv. 5) : behold even the 
moon has no brightness, and the stars are not pure 
in his sight, how much less human beings, that are 
19. dwellers in houses of clay, who are not habitually 
in His presence that the fear of Him should lie on 
them, for their foundation is in the dust, and their 
habitation is not in the place of His glory, and they 
sin and say God does not see ; They are crushed from 
heaven before the moth. So that worms rule over 
them whilst they are yet living, to humble their heart 
with trouble, perchance they will return from their 
ways. The sons of the moth are mentioned in accord- 
ance with the verse (Job xxv. 6) : How mtuh less man 
that is a worm, and the son of man that is a worm, for 
the morning {ibid. 5) and the stars are not pure in his 


sight, as it is said in Bildad's speech. My explanation 
is confirmed by that speech of Eliphaz himself, that 
commences (xv. 2) : Should a wise man make answer, 
in which it is said (v, 15) : Behold he puts no trust in 
holy ones, and the heavens are not pure. This verse 
proves it, in reference to heaven and the heavenly 
host. For man was created only for the sake of 
studying the Torah, as it is said (Ps. xlix. 1 1) for he 
sees the wise men die. — Having said that they are 
crushed, he proceeds to explain in what manner. 
Namely 20. Betwixt morning and evening they are 
destroyed, i.e. they are suddenly crushed, misfortune 
follows misfortune, that they may repent and be 
humbled. Without regarding; should they take no 
notice of it in their hearts to repent, then they perish 
for ever. Or the meaning may be : Before any has 
yet regarded their downfall they have perished for ever. 
And also 21. The remnant of them, i.e. their children 
and their wealth, as (Job xxii. 20), and fire shall con- 
sume the remnant of them, and (Is. xv. 7) therefore 
they have gotten abundance, [removed] (Is. xxxviii. 
1 2) removed and carried away. Or the meaning is : 
(Gen. xlix. 24) Is not the cord of their bow that 
abode in strength removed and broken } within them. 
Having been crushed and broken by pain, they ought 
to have repented and humbled themselves, (Deut. viii. 
17) for it was not their power and the might of their 
hands that has gotten them this wealth. Therefore 
they die, and that without wisdom. Because they 
would not listen and understand, and consider their 


latter end, as (Deut. xxxii. 29) : O that they were wise^ 
that they understood this. This verse shows that man 
was only created for the sake of learning wisdom as 
(Ps. xlix. 11), when he sees the wise men, etc. This 
concludes the dream and the vision seen by Eliphaz ; 
as much as to say to him (Job) : I know that they 
referred to thee, for I was considering thee in my 
thoughts when I heard the report about thee. He 
proceeds : 


Cap. V. — I. Call, I pray. If it is not so, as I say, 
call I pray. But of what avail would it be to thee, if 
thou didst call ; is there anyone that would answer 
thee, and tell thee that thou art right when thou sayest : 
my way is hidden from the Lord ? And to which of 
the holy ones wilt thou turn? who would agree 
with thee, or to whom had happened the same? 
Hence, all this befell thee on account of thy sins. 
2. For the fool. For it is only the fool, whom his 
vexation kills, when he takes no notice of the 
chastisement and rebuke of the Holy One, blessed 
be He, and his heart turns in anger against the Holy 
One, to say : my way is hidden ; according to the verse 
(Prov. xix. 3) : the foolishness of man subverts his 
way^ and his heart turns in anger against the Lord. 
and the silly one, one that is not of a settled mind, 
jealousy shall kill. For there are others that are 
tranquil, (Ps. Ixxiii. 5) and they are in trouble as other 
men. When, therefore, trouble befalls him he says : 
why am I different from these, all this has befallen 


me from no cause. Therefore he dies and perishes for 
ever. For 3. I have seen the foolish taking root, in 
wealth, and property, and children, without knowing ; 
thinking, it would be always like that. And I cursed ; 
he was not only vexed with him that he cursed him, 
but as (Eccl. ii. 15) : and why was I then more 
wise? And for his folly I cursed his habitation 
that had come suddenly to him, and his wealth ; that 
his root may die in the dust ; that (z/. 6) the affliction 
which he had sown therein, may not come out of the 
dust ; — as it is said (Prov. xxii. 8) : he that sows 
iniquity shall reap affliction. Or it means : the curse 
has come upon him suddenly, and suddenly he was 
crushed. As he said : taking root, he contrasts it by 
saying : suddenly. He proceeds to explain how he 
cursed him. 4. May his children be fistr from help. 
May they have no one to save them from the hand 
of the oppressors. Or, from help : from sustenance, 
as (Is. xlv. 8) : that they may be fruitful in help, and 
(2 Kings vi. 27) : whence shall I help thee^ out of 
the threshing floor, or out of the wine press ? And 
may they be crushed even in the gate of the city, 
the place where the judges and the elders of the 
city are; as (Job xxxi. 21) : for I see my help in 
the gate. And there be no one to deliver them. 
And why is this to happen to him ? Because 5. his 
harvest, which he reaped for himself, the hungry 
should have eaten, the person who sowed it and 
from whom he robbed it. and takes it from the thorns, 
D'»DS like D'^rDS as (Numb, xxxiii. 55) : as thorns in 


your sides. For the seed will perish ; if he does not 
clear it, thorns and thistles will increase on it and 
the thirsty, i,e. the famished will take it, i.e. the 
harvest that is between the thistles. This is the 
explanation of Ibn Ezra. R. Eliezer explains it 
thus ; he will take him, for himself the hedge of 
thorns that is about his sheaves, and he gapes for 
— ^and robs, the hungry and the thirsty of their sub- 
stance. The repetition : he gapes for the thirsty 
compels us to explain thus the words whose harvest. 
For this he is punished, and not, as thou sayest, for no 
reason. Thus I understood R. Eliezer's explanation. 
It can also be explained that the words : whose hai*vest 
are connected with : and I cursed his habitation ; that 
the hungry may eat the harvest which this man 
reaped ; also they that suffer from cold and chill, 
in accordance with what is said above (iv. 8) : oj / 
have seen, they that plough iniquity, and sow 
trouble^ reap the same. Or, the punishment that 
he reaped is : 6. It cometh not forth from the dust, 
i.e. of its own accord, except to those who ploughed 
and sowed it ; and who, therefore, shall reap it. 7. 
When man : Le. Whenever man is bom to trouble, 
to suffer afflictions, the latter do not come upon him 
of their own accord, but he ploughs and sows the 
trouble and the affliction which he reaps. Ibn 
Ezra explains it thus : Just as it is the nature of 
a bird to fly upwards, so man is born to trouble 
till he goes down to the grave. And the sparks, 
a metaphor for the sufferings that befall him. they 



rise on high, to fly over him, they do not come 
from themselves, but he is accountable for them. 
According to R. Samuel the meaning is this : Having 
said from (iv. 8) : as I have seen those that plough 
iniquity and sow trouble^ till : (v. 3) and I atrsed 
his habitation, a part of the curse is this : For miquity 
cometh not forth firom the dust. For that iniquity, 
that which he robbed, ought not to go forth from the 
dust. It cometh not forth is then like (Gen. i. 1 2) : 
and the earth brought forth grass. It was not right 
for it to sprout, but (Job xiv. 8) : its stock dies in 
the ground. For man is bom to trouble, the man who 
sowed is born to reap what he sowed. The word 
DIM accords with the preceding noTM. The meaning 
is, perhaps, this : having said (iv. 19) (of men) whose 
foundation is in the dust, he proceeds : that it is 
not proper for iniquity to go forth from the dust, 
i.e. from man, whose foundation is in the dust, it 
is not right that he should work iniquity, and from the 
earth is a repetition (parallelism). For 7nan is born 
to trouble, ie, man is only born to trouble during 
his lifetime, and in his end he is nothing ; like sparks 
that fly on high, i,e. flashes of fire that issue from a large 
blaze, and rise on high, flying upwards, so that the on- 
looker says that they rise up unto the heaven, and in a 
moment they go down ; thus the man, whose foundation 
is in the dust, at first, (Job xx. 6) his excellency mounts 
up to heaven, and in the end he is nothing. Therefore, 
he Qught not to occupy himself with iniquity and 
trouble, like thee, who doest complain of thy own 


deeds. 8. But as forme. If such a thing had hap- 
pened to me I would have sought unto Gkxi to deliver 
and to have mercy on me. I should not have said : 
my way is hidden, as thou didst say. For he 9. doeth 
great things, and has it in His power to do good 
without searching, i.e. unintermittently, contrary to 
men, 1 1. that are low, and that are bla^ck from hun- 
ger. They shall have sustenance and plenty of bread. 
This is the meaning of they are secure in help. 
12. He firustrates the devices of the crafty, who 
have produce to sell, which they store up, looking 
out for dearth, 13. but they are caught, those (Is. v. 
2 1 ) that are wise in their own eyes, in their own crafti- 
ness. They would say (Amos viii. ^) : we shall sell 
the com, we shall sell the produce according to our 
desire. But beneficent and merciful rains come, the 
black ones (famished) and the low ones have money, 
and the opposite of their devices comes to pass. Or, 
it may refer to robbers and people that lie in ambush, 
who wait in troops, but the poor are delivered from 
them. 1 5. But he saves them from the sword, out of 
their mouth. What is their sword? their mouth; as 
(Ps. lix. 8), sivords arc in their lips. The Holy One, 
blessed be He, saves the needy from their mouths, that 


they do not hear him, or that they do not slander him. 
From the expressions (v. 12): their hands do not 
perform that which is of worth, and {v. 13) : and the 
counsel of the froward is carried headlong, we under- 
stand that they have crafty thoughts about other 
people. The word vrxayr\ is from the root xtr (substance), 


and refers, according to the context, either to strength 
or to wisdom. 1 6. And there was, as I said that he 
mentioned, hope for the poor, to set their hope upon 
their Maker when sorrow and distress befall them. 
[And iniquity] is like (Ps. Ixiv. 7) : they search out 
rhv9, iniquities. It means, that when men of evil and 
deceit shall see this, they will henceforth close their 
mouths, and no more tear the poor, and deal craftily 
with them ; for they see that God has saved this one 
from their mouths. These are the great things which 
He has done for those who hope in Him. If thou 
wilt do so, He will save thee. 17. Despise not the 
clmstening of the Ahnighty. For this is nothing 
except (Prov. vi. 23) : reproofs of instructton for thy 
sins. Therefore shalt thou confess thy sins and hope 
in Him. 18. For he ma>kes sore and binds up, 
contrary to man, who when he makes sore does not 
bind up. And his hands heal, after the manner of 
Hosea (vi. 1) : Conte and let us return unto the Lord ; 
for he has tom^ and he will heal us ; he smites and he 
binds us up. 19. And in. seven. This is after the 
same style as (Prov. xxx. 15) : Inhere are three things 
that arc never satisfied a7id four \ which ineuns, and a 
fourth. Thus he proceeds here counting the seven. 
The number seven is in most places in accordance 
with the seven days of the week. 21. From the 
scourge of the tongue. That is the Satan, of whom it 
was said (i. 7) : from going to and f 70 to'imo on the 
earth. Neither shalt thou be afraid of destruction, re- 
ferring to those who plunder, and despoil, and take prey 


in the sight of all, as the Sabaeans and Chaldaeans 
mentioned before. 22. At that destruotion and )DD, 
which means famine, Thou shalt laugh, for it shall not 
hurt thee. Some say that ^^w is from the same root 
as a^iw, denoting breasts and suckling, as (Is. Ix. i6) : 
/Aou shall suck the breast of kings ^ and (Is. xvi. 4), 
for the extortion is brought to naughty spoiling ceases. 
It means: the. man who devours little by little that 
which belongs to others. And at &mine, )dd like 
(Ezek. xvii. 7) : it bent rrDDD its roots towards him, 
an expression of earnestly desiring. He earnestly 
desires and draws to himself little by little. Thou 
shalt laugh, because thou art confident that he will 
not hurt thee. — From R. Eliezers commentary. — 
23. The stones of the field and the beasts, as (Ps. 
xci. 12, 13): Lest thou dash thy foot against a stone, 
thou shalt tread upon the lion and the adder. 24. 
And thou shalt know this day in thy heart that thy tent 
shall be in peace .... Thou shalt knotv means : 
then it will be clear to you [that thy tent is in peace] 
without Satan or any evil occurrence, and not as thou 
art now. And thou shalt visit thy habitation, this 
refers to peace ; namely, thou shalt visit thy habita- 
tion in peace, as (i Sam. xvii. 18): and thou shalt 
visit thy brethren in peace. And thou shalt not sin, 
and thou shalt not be a sinner therein ; as (Eccl. ii. 
26) : but to the sinner he gives a sore travail to gather 
and to heap up, to give to him that is good. R. Jacob 
exp ains and thou shalt visit, as (Ex. xxxii. 34), on 
the day that I visit. When thou visitest thy house, 


thou wilt find it complete ; thou shalt not Mtonn, thou 
shalt not miss one, for they shall all live ; as (i Kings 
i. 2 1 ) : / and my son Solomon shall be D'^Hijn missings 
and (Judges xx. i6) : slinging stones at a hair-breadth 
and not miss. Then thou shalt know 25. That thy 
seed shall be great, if thou improvest thy ways ; that 
thou diest not before thy time like thy children. 26. 
The word rhy^ is only found in this book ; it must be 
explained according to the context : full of days, as a 
shock of com comes up in its time, as it comes up is 
an expression of cutting off, as (Zech. xiv. 13): his 
hand shall go up against the hand of his neighbour, 1 1 
means here, when the shock of corn is reaped in its 
time, as the shock of corn goes up in its time proves, 
that thus thou shalt go up from thy house in thy time ; 
for a shock of corn is only made from produce that 
is ripe; thus (Job xxi. 32): and he shall watch over 
nr\\y the shock ^ripe com. 27. Behold this, we have 
searched it, from others, that it is not an empty thing, 
and know thou it for thyself, and search it out for 
thyself, and thou shalt find it true. This concludes 
Eliphaz*s objections to Job, for saying that his way 
was hidden. He answered that his way was not 
hidden from God, for God knew his sin. and for this 
He reproves and chastises him. He ought to return 
to God and to supplicate Him to have mercy upon him, 
and not reject God s chastening, and be angry for 
nothing. This is the way of the fool, whom his own 
anger kills. And in the same way as Eliphaz had set 
his mind oh attacking him and upbraiding him for the 


word that he considered most objectionable, thus Job 
sets his mind to attack him (Eliphaz) for the word he 
(Job) objected to most. Therefore he replies to that 
word first. 

Cap. VI. — 1,2. Job answered, oh that were weighed. 
Thou hast said that vexation kills the foolish man — 
this remark was more objectionable to Job than any- 
thing else he (Eliphaz) had said to him — ; if my 
vexation were weighed, and my calamity — as (Ezekiel 
vii. 26) : calamity upon calamity — i.e. my troubles, in 
the balances, so that the one side should not rise and 
the other press down, but both would be balanced 
evenly. If, in this manner, my vexation were weighed 
in one scale, and the troubles that have come upon 
me in the second, they would balance together, 
evenly. My vexation would be only commensurate 
with that which has happened unto me. But since 
now thou dost not see the balances, and the vexation 
and the calamity weighed, it seems to thee 3. That it 
is heavier than the sand of the sea, namely, my vexa- 
tion, considering the misfortune that has come to me. 
Or, it can be explained thus : Oh that it were weighed^ 
how great my vexation ought to be in regard to my 
calamity; they would balance together^ namely the 
vexation and the calamity. Now I see that it would 
be heavier than the sand of the sea, if I were to weigh 
again my vexation as it was then, against my 
vexation as it is now. Therefore my words are 
swallowed, ^j?^, they come forth from the throat 


(s^h), as (Obad. i6), iAey drink and swallow. He 
proceeds to describe the calamity mentioned by him. 
4. For the arrows of the Abnighty are within me. 
Hard arrows, such as can come from the Almighty, 
-^yi which means, he wlio conquers and -n^m, destroys. 
Or, the arrows may be applied metaphorically for the 
worms that pierce my flesh like arrows. The poison 
whereof my spirit drinks up. The vtovd poison refers 
to the arrows that are smeared therewith, as (Ps. Iviii. 
4) : their poison is like the poison of a serpent. 1 1 is 
a sort of poisonous matter with which arrows are 
smeared, that the wounded may not recover. He 
mentions my spirit, i.e, the life of man by means of 
which he moves this way and that way. The terrors 
of GK>d set themselves in array against me, as ( i Sam. 
xiv. 1 5) : and there was a trembling of God, These 
are the sufferings by which He frightens me. They 
set themselves in array against me to fight me and to 
cause me to suffer. Or, '•D^:nin, they arrange them- 
selves against me, from the sole of the foot to the 
head, without omitting a single member, they are all 
wounded in one array. But, in vain do I cry, as thou 
hast said, Eliphaz, for 5. Does the wild ass bray. 
prT??»7 is like pHm. The meaning is : Does the wild 
ass cry whilst he is yet strong and has grass before 
him to eat 1 He will only cry when he lacks grass. 
Or will the ox low whilst his fodder hhi, i.e. the corn, 
— as (Is. XXX. 24), they eat salted fodder — is still before 
him? So also I do not cry but from the many 
sufferings from the arrows that are in my body. The 


expression rrw (to low) is parallel to pn:^\ the braying 
of the wild ass. 6. Oan that which ha.8 no savour be 
eaten. Everything that is [not] properly prepared is 
called Son, as (Ezek. xiii. 1 1) : /o them that daub with 
untempered {mortar), Son, that it shall fall This 
means : the wall that is (not) built properly, but daubed 
over with plaster, without binding the stones together 
in the proper way ; — therefore it shall fall. Thus also 
(Jer. xxiii. 13): f have seen folly rh^T\ in the prophets 
of Samaria, who propiicsy falsely ; thus everything 
that requires salt and is not salted is called Son. All 
this is metaphorical ; namely, as everyone who eats 
food like this, that requires salt and is not salted, does 
not enjoy it, so as to retain it, but spits it out. Or is 
there any taste in the moisture ^I'^'i^ of dreaming 
n^D^n ? i.e. Is there any taste to him who dreams 
when he is thirsty, from the moisture that is in his 
mouth, when he sucks it out in his dream ? For then 
it seems to him as if he drinks water, but on waking 
from that dream, he has no taste from it, and. has 
found no refreshment. He mentions the metaphor 
of eating that affords no enjoyment to him who eats, 
and drinking that is no use to him, as Isaiah (xxix. 8) 
says : as when a hungry m/in dreams that he eats 
.... and a thirsty man dreams that he drinks .... 
so shall be in the dream of the vision of the night all 
that fight against mount Zion. Thus Job says to 
Eliphaz : everything that thou hast spoken to com- 
fort me is like one who eats unsavoury food without 
salt, and like the moisture of a dream that is of no 


use against thirst ; thy words do not give refreshment 
to my soul. This interpretation is correct ; for that 
which the commentators say that it means the white 
of an egg is not in accordance with the style of the 
verse ; for in that case the parallelism would in both 
cases refer to eating : the eating of the saltless food 
and the eating of the white of an egg. Nor does the 
explanation of those, who say that nMohn is an expres- 
sion of strength, satisfy one who understands. 7. My 
soul reflises to touch. I was not willing to come near 
to them and to touch them, as (Lam. iv. 15) : Depart, 
unclean^ do not touch. And now : They are like loath- 
some bread '•in?. For, if they touch my bread, or my 
food, they appear unclean like xmy a woman in her 
impurity. There are some also who explain it thus : 
I was not willing to touch them, for they were like 
such as make my food loathsome ; if I had touched 
them, I should have vomited it. How much less was 
I able to bear the poison [of the arrows] of the 
Almighty, that was mentioned before. Therefore : 
8. Who would give .... Hajjug and Ibn Ezra 
explain the word ^ia^S, like (Josh. viii. 15): And 
Joshuah .... made as if they were beaten, ^syr^x^s'^si 
expression of weakness : For my soul refused to 
become weak and to die. 9. And Gtod would con- 
sent : like (Exod. ii. 21): and Moses consented', an 
expression of willingness. Or, it is an expression of 
taking an oath and confirming, to crush me, so as to 
bring me to the gates of death, and let loose his 
hand, as ( Hab. iii. 6) : and drove asunder the nations. 


An expression of jumping and skipping. He means 
to say : He will no longer preserve my life, as He 
said to the Satan : but preserve his life ; for at that 
time I was protected from the Satan under the shadow 
of His hand ; but now He allows His hand to skip and 
jump away from that protection, and smites me without 
pity. And finishes me. He brings me to the end of 
my life, as (Is. x. 12): ivhen God shall have performed^ 
and (Lam. ii. 17) : he has fulfilled his word. And if 
He had promised me to grant that request I should 
10. still have received comfort, from that request, 
for all that has befallen me. It refers to {v. 8) : 
Oh^ that I might have my request, and I should 
perish in pain. This must be explained from 
the context : then I should expire at the time of 
pain, rhn as (Ps. xlviii. 7), pain^ as of a woman in 
travail So that he would have no compassion upon 
me .rrr^DH is a hapax legomenon in the Bible, but the 
root occurs in the words of the Sages in the phrase : 
if tlie hand is scalded. According to this expression 
it can also be explained thus : I shall persist n^Tin [in 
prayer], as they have no pity on me. For I have not 
denied, I have not opposed the words of the Holy 
One, of Him, who is holy. Or, the meaning is : I 
know in my heart that all the saints on earth will say 
the same as I, and I have never denied in my heart to 
say differently ; and it is not as thou hast said (Job v. 
i), to whom of the saints wilt thou turn? He proceeds 
to explain why he prefers death to life. 11. What is 
my strength, to bear such chastisements, that I should 


hope that God will heal me, as thou hast said (v. 8) : 
But as for me I would seek unto God [ib. i8) for he 
makes sore and binds up. And what is mine end, the 
appointed time of my happiness to prolong, to sustain, 
my life, to bear till the time of that end (till that 
appointed time) ; that I shall be confident that 
my chastisements will be prolonged only till that 
appointed time. 12. Is the strength of stones — 
that endure and bear the storm of the sea, or the 
stones of a fort that are thrown on the mounts of 
the towers — to cause the wall to fall over them (the 
enemy), — to endure any longer the chastisements. 
Or is my flesh of copper, made of copper, that it 
will not be crushed by my sickness till the time of 
healing } The strength of stones refers to : what is 
my strength ? and, is my flesh copper refers to : what is 
my end? Shall also this befall me to reproach me 
with. 13. That I have no help in me from you, to 
give me counsel, and sound wisdom, Le, counsel, is 
driven from me by you, and you do not comfort me. 
1 4. To him who causes to melt away from his friend. 
09^ is a grammatical form like mS. Eliphaz, who 
causes his friend to melt away and despises him, it is 
a disgrace and a shame to thee, ipn as (Levit. xx. 
iy),for it is a disgraceful thing \ and (Prov. xxv. 10) : 
lest he that hears it disgrace thee, and he forsakes the 
fear of the Almighty, he who does such a thing. He 
forsakes^ etc., is in parallelism to : he who causes to 
melt. Ibn Kzra explains 09^, as (Josh. vii. 5): and 
the hearts of the people melted^ it would then mean : 


who is faint (melts) from hunger. Or It refers to 
z/. 1 1 : and what is my end ? and he says, by way of 
;i question : shall I hope and wait for him, who causes 
his kindness to melt away from his friend at the time 
of evil and trouble, to strengthen and help me. It 
would then be opposed to the sound wisdom and help 
mentioned above (z/. 13). He proceeds to explain this 
*• causing to melt away " by a simile : 1 5. My brethren 
have dealt deceitftdly : my brethren that came to help 
and comfort me have dealt deceitfully with me, and 
forsook their kindness at the time of my affliction to 
vex me, they are to be compared to a brook, in refer- 
ence to this treachery, and to a stream, ppihj, which is 
the force of the brook when it passes along. He 
proceeds to explain how the brooks, mentioned by 
him, 16. are black from the strong frost, which 
causes them to wrinkle, and congeals them so that 
they cannot How. So hard and wrinkled are they 
that upon them the snow hides itself, and conceals 
itself on the top of it and in its wrinkles, and the heat 
of the sun does not melt them. For, as a rule, brooks 
are between the mountains, as it is said : (Ps. civ. 10) : 
he sends forth springs into the valleys^ they run among 
the mountains. As long as the ice remains, the snow 
hides itself on them, but when the ice melts and issues 
forth from between the mountains, the wrinkles smooth 
themselves, the snow melts and loses the kind (pro- 
tection) which they afforded, and both ice and snow 
are in the same evil plight. And what is that kind- 
ness.*^ 17. What time they shrink, namely, the 


brooks. It is an expression of drying. For, through 
chill and cold they shrink together, like the terrible ice 
(Ezek. i. 22), and the snow hides itself upon them and 
is preserved, but when the ice melts, then they are 
consumed, and the brooks leap forth from the place 
where they were congealed to run on their courses 
as heretofore, and the snow melts and is lost. i8. 
They retreat, as (Judg. xvi. 29) : Samson bent, he 
drew his body in ; and thus ^npV? : they draw back- 
ward, the caravans, nirritjt, those caravans that 
hitherto wended their way over them when the ice 
was strong, do no longer go over them, because they 
go up, namely the snow and the ice are removed from 
the land of the living, and went and sank in the deep 
and run no more. 19. They looked. The caravans 
of Tenia that went hitherto over them watched to 
shorten their way, also the companies of Sheba. 
^to'»5n as (Is. xx. 6) : behold our expectation, an 
expression of watching and hope, but they are 
ashamed of their hope, they will go no more over 
them, for they are already mehed and (z/. 17) con- 
sumed out of their place. The waters became strong, 
they must turn back and go round. This is R. 
Eliezer s method (of explaining these verses) ; accord- 
ing to him it is part of the comparison of the treachery 
of Job s friends to that of the brook, — like the snow, 
for at the time of their warmth they forsake him. 
But I explain the treachery in this way. Which are 
black. The brooks which are now black and dark 
from cold ; this used not to be so, they were hitherto 


white, for the snow hides on them, t.e. (on when snow 
— which IS very white — came down upon them, it was 
hidden and not recognized on them from the extreme 
whiteness of the water. And now, that they shrink 
from cold, they shrivel up and turn into strong ice. 
And also when it is hot, ie. at the time of heat, 
when they do not shrivel up as at the time of the 
frost, nevertheless they are consumed and leap 
from their place, for the heat of the sun causes 
them to decrease. Consequently, there is no water 
there, either at the time of cold, on account of the 
frost, or at the time of heat, on account of the evapora- 
tion through the sun. And behold {v. i8) the paths 
of their way are withdrawn, t.e. the brooks, that 
run no longer on their courses but are withdrawn, 
as (Judg. xvi. 29) : Samson drew back. They go up 
into the waste and stand in one heap, and lose the 
course of their running. For waters arise below, 
but the clouds bring them up as vapour, or, bring 
them up into the waste. The merchants of Tema 
and Sheba look forward, and hope that they and 
their cattle will drink of them, as was their wont 
when going to a brook. But now, not having found 
any water 20. They are ashamed. For he had 
trusted — i,e. each of them — in them, and because 
they came thither, they were confounded. In the 
s;ime way we find in Jeremiah (xiv. 3) the expression 
of shame applied to those who hope for water but 
do not find any : And their nobles send their little 
ones to the water .... they return with their vessels 


empty ; they are ashamed and confounded and cover 
their heads. It can also be explained, that their 
heart (the heart of each) trusted in them, m^, fern., 
refers to the place Dipo, which word is found in the 
feminine (Job xx. 9) : his place shall not behold him 
any more (iDi^mn). 21. For now you are like 
thereto; to that brook to which 1 compare you. R. 
Eliezer explains : If now you were his, i.e, of the 
holy one, blessed be He, if you were from Him. 
1^ as (2 Sam. xvi. 18) : / will be his and with him 
I will abide. As the brook deals deceitfully with 
all those to whom it had hitherto afforded help and 
security, thus are Job's friends to him. You would 
see the terrible (disease) and be afraid ; you would 
see the disease by which 1 am terrified and you 
would fear lest the same befall you ; as it is said 
(Ps. xli. 2) : Happy is he who considers the poor. 
22. Did I say, i.e. why do you vex me? Is it because 
I said to you, give unto me, or, on my behalf? 
that you say : thy own sin is the cause, thou hast 
incurred guilt, and we will not assist in redeeming 
thee. And from your strength, your wealth, as 
(Deut. viii. 17): my strength and the might of my 
hand has gotten me this wealth. Offer ^ ye a bribe, 
from the root inm (to bribe) to rescue me 23. from 
the hand of the enemy. Have I said aught of this 
to you, then why do you deal deceitfully with me? 
24. Teach me, in what have I incurred guilt ; cause 
me to understand, and I will seek God and supplicate 
according to your words. 25. How strong would be. 


^xno? like is^dd (Ps. cxix. 103). Some explain it 
from the context as an expression of sweetness, the 
words of uprightness, if you had spoken them to me 
and that which you would have argued. I should 
have been silent and should have understood. Or, 
it may be explained as an expression of scorn : what 
profit is there in your arguing } Do you imagine 
26. to reprove words, and to sift them to the bottom, 
and as wind the vain words, as (Prov. xxix. 11): The 
fool utters all his foolishness (wind). Your vain words : 
to imagine that you can sift what he utters. Therefore 
will not your words be accepted. It can also be ex- 
plained thus : Will you be considered as people that 
reprove on account of the words which you speak, or 
will your vain words, with which you do not comfort 
me; be taken as the spirit of wisdom ? 27. You cause 
even to &1I upon the fiEttherless. More so, you do me 
even harm. l^'or, since your words do not afford 
comfort, they only tend to add trouWe upon trouble, 
by their vexing me. According to this explanation, 
the word rvrh) and as spirit would be elliptical, as 
(Hos. ix. 7) : the man that has the spirit is mad, which 
means the man in whom there is the spirit **of God*' 
is accounted as mad; and as (Numb, xxvii. 18): 
take .... the man in whom is the spirit, said of 
Joshuah. According to the first mode of interpretation 
Din*; S^ v\}A would mean : you cast anger ^n and pro- 
vocation upon a fatherless man like me. "^iDn), and 
you prepared provision, as (2 Kings vi. 23) and he 
prepared provision for them, i,e. you make a feast of 


the misfortune of your friend. But it should rather be 
explained thus, you take deep counsel to find pretexts 
against your friend. yiDn\ as (Prov. xxvi. 27) : Ae 
who digs a pit, i.e, he who takes deep counsel to do 
evil. 28. And now consent, confine yourselves to 
this one thing, to turn to me, in this mishap that has 
befallen me, and to your fece it will be seen whether 
I lie. 29. Return, I pray you, from your treachery 
against me, and you will see that there is no ii\ju8tice 
in me. and return again, i.e. and when you look more 
closely into my words, you will find my righteous- 
ness and my justification in it: in this misfortune 
that has come upon me. He proceeds to explain his 
righteousness : 

Cap. VII. — 1. Is there not a time. Nns = time: or, 
basis and support, to man upon earth ? The days of 
his life are to rule over God's works, but in the end he 
is in the world only to work and to toil, like the days 
of a hireling, whose time is meted out to him, so that, 
even if he should be willing to work more, it would 
not be acceptable to his masters. Thus also man, 
even if he should be willing to prolong his life in the 
world, he cannot do so. 2. as the servant that 
earnestly desires the shadow, who works for the 
owner of the field, and looks forward to the shadows 
of the evening, when the day declines; because the 
hour of his rest draws near, and he thinks : I shall 
take my wage and make use of it. But at evening 
time it is not given unto hiin, and it turns out that he 


troubled himself for nothing and toiled in vain all the 
day. The word ^woh denotes hoping and looking for- 
ward to, as (Ezek. xxxvi. 3) : because they have made 
you desolate and panted for you, and (Amos ii. 7) : that 
pant after the dust of the earth. 3. So am I made to 
possess, when I looked out for the moon : when will 
the light of the moon begin to shine ? This is what 
he means by saying : I hoped and said in the morning, 
would it were evening (Deut. xxviii. 67) so that I may 
rest on my bed, as it is further explained. But this 
confidently waiting for the moon beginning to rise was 
vain, for it will bring me no rest, and wearisome nights 
are appointed to me. n^p = prepared, as (Dan. i. 10): 
who has appointed your food. The expressions moons 
and nights are parallel. Or, it means, that I was as 
confident of wearisome nights as the hireling of his 
wage. He proceeds to explain this. 4. When I lie 
down in the evening, to rest, and say when shall I 
rise, as (Deut. xxviii. 67) : ivould it were morning, and 
the disturbing (of sleep) in the evening. Tip — as 
"rnm npp, the taking of bribes (2 Chr. xix. 7) is formed 
from n\h, thus is this word formed from ttd ; the dis- 
turbance of the evening, which disturbs my sleep, 
because I am ftdl of disturbances till the twilight of 
the morning, as (2 Kings vii. 5) and they arose at 
twilight. Some explain tidi, and when will the 
measure of the night pass } He explains to what 
extent his sleep is disturbed : For 5. My flesh is 
clothed with worms, and approaches the dust. And 
I approach and come near to the dust. Because he 


sat in the dust when the boils came upon him ; and in 
wallowing, the dust mixed with the moisture of the 
boils, and the flesh decayed, therefore the worm also 
entered into it. my skin was broken — burst open, as 
(Ps. XXXV. 20) : upon the clefts of the earth, ysin^ 
clefts, and also (Is. li. 15) : who breaketh up the sea, — 
according to the opinion of many commentators. Some 
say that the words mean : my skin has rested ; when I 
thought that my skin, ie. my body, would rest. It is 
the style of this book to say for ** his body," ** his skin,** 
as (Job. xviii. 1 3) : it shall devour the members of his skin. 
and becomes melted, 01^97^ = melted, as (I^s. Iviii. 8), 
they melt away like water. Or, and became loathsome, 
as (i Sam. xv. 23) : for thou hast despised the tvord. 
Having mentioned his troubles in the nights, he adds 
that he can rest in the day neither, for 6. My days — 
the days of my happiness are past and swift, as 
(Deut. xxxiii. 25) : and as thy days shall be thy rest, 
days, meaning days of happiness, the latter being 
understood. Or, my days are swift, in fleeing away 
without happiness and rest. The days are compared 
to a weaver's shuttle, which swiftly goes and returns 
in the web. In the same way the days of his misfor- 
tune come round again, and are spent without hope. 
I see no longer any hope for me. Some say that mpn 
here is like (Josh. ii. r8): the line (nipn) of scarlet 
thread \ and it means that there is no thread or cord 
to weave in the web. Having mentioned the shuttle 
that moves to and fro with the threads, he says that 
thus he had come to his end, like the shuttle that 


remains without thread or cord. He says to God : 
ICven if I were in good health 7. my life is wind, and 
when 1 die my eye shall no more see good ; as David 
said (Ps. Ixxviii. 39) : a wind that passes away and 
comes not again, which passage in that book means the 
sjime. Thus to see the good that 1 had before the 
Satan put forth his hand against everything 1 had. 
8. The eye of him that sees me. '•mt my seer, he that 
sees me. thine eyes. For, indeed, to do good unto 
me to-day, and to-morrow I am not, means that the 
good which thou doest unto me is only for the time 
being ; this he proceeds to explain. 9. The cloud is 
consimied and gone, and that cloud will not come 
back again, thus he that goes down to the grave shall 
come up no more. He explains this ** not coming up 
again.'' 10. He shall return no more to his house, to 
have enjoyment therein with his wife and his children, 
neither shall his place know him any more, i,e. the 
people of his place, as (Ezek. xiv. 13): when a land 
sins against me, Le. the men of the land. For all their 
love hjis already been lost. If it is thus the way of 
man to be vanity during his lifetime, 1 1. Also I, as I 
cannot live for ever, as he says afterwards (v. 16) : / 
loathe vty life, I shall not live for ever, I will not re- 
fi:uin my mouth, from asking for death, why should I 
live in suffering, as mine eye will not again see that 
good, as mentioned above. According to the plain 
meaning he does not deny with this the resurrection 
of the dead. 12. Am I a sea, to be subject to storm, 
to thy stormy wind all day, as (Is. Ivii. 20) : And the 


wicked are like the troubled sea, for it cannot rest, or 
a sea-monster, that is accustomed to the storming of the 
sea ? that thou settest a watch over me ? that I shall 
not die. ipato, in the same sense as it was said to the 
Satan ; only spare^ nom, his life. \ 3. When I say, i.e. 
I am so tossed by the storm, that if I were to say in 
my heart my bed shall comfort me, on which I may 
rest, and sleep, and forget my troubles ; my couch 
shall bear my complaint with me, as (Num. xi. 17) : 
and they shall bear the burden of the people with thee, 
and thus I shall be eased ; 1 4. Then thou scarest me, 
thou frightenest me with dreams ; for the Satan does 
not suffer him to sleep, and, if asleep, he frightens 
and confuses him with visions of sufferings when he 
awakens, so that he should not rest, and blaspheme 
the sacred name. 15. And my soul chooses stran- 
gling, so greatly is it disturbed by dreams and visions, 
that on account of its troubles my soul would be 
willingly strangled in the bedclothes. \>V^x:i — 
estranglement ; like a man that dies suddenly beneath 
his garment, because he is unable to breathe, death 
than my bones, rather than my bones that are the 
stays of my body. Some explain it : my bones also 
choose death. Ibn Ezra explains it : rather than my 
bones to abide in, for the body is the dwelling of the 
soul. 16. I loathe my life, for even in good health : 
I would not live for ever. As, in the end, I shall die ; 
therefore, let me alone, and do not set a watch over 
me to keep me alive, for my days aje vanity, such 
days as I shall henceforth prolong. 17. that thou 


shouldst magnify him, by wealth and honour, and that 
thou shouldst set thy heart upon him, to do good 
unto him, since thou doest visit, him i8. every 
morning, when he is fresh ; in the sense of (Eccl. 
xi. lo) : for youth and vigour of lite morning are 
vanity, for he is (Job xiv. 2) : like a flower that 
comes forth and is cut down. And try him every 
moment, with various kinds of suffering. 19. How 
long will this iiist, that thou doeet not look away 
from me, as (Is. xxii. 4) : therefore .... look 
away from me, parallel to let me alone, nor let me 
alone, so as not to increase my sufferings, till I am so 
weak that I swallow my loathsome spittle, because I 
have not the strength to throw it forth. For this is 
the way of sick and enfeebled persons, to again 
swallow their spittle. 20. I have sinned ; suppose, 
that which the people think about me, be true, and 
that all this has befallen me on account of my sins, 
what can I do unto thee.*^ as (Micah vi. 6) : Where- 
with shall I come before the Lord, and bow myself 
before the high God ? That is to say, what can I do 
to repair my offence, that would be in accordance wifh 
Thy great glory ? Preserver of man ; of a man like me, 
ujx)n whom thou hast set a watch, to keep me alive, 
and to chastise me. Why hast thou set me, made 
me alive to be unto thee for a mark, to provoke thee 
to anger each time thou seest me. To thee, I am 
thus a provocation, and also to myself I am a burden, 
for I am weary of my life. Or, ^\iych may mean, that 
I should meet thy hand and thy blows, as (Job xvi. 12) : 


he has set me up for a mark for him. 2 1 . And what, 
i.e. and what will there be if thou dost not pardon 
my transgression, to remove it from before thine eyes, 
and my iniquity, to pass it over, and to kill me. 
Then I shall be a mark no longer unto thee. For 
now, willing as I am now, that I shall lie down in the 
dust, and be no longer a burden to myself ; and thou 
also shalt seek me diligently, as I have been a mark 
unto thee to take thy vengeance of me, but I shall 
not be, and thy mind shall be at rest regarding me, 
and I shall be a satisfaction of spirit to thee. As for 
the phrase, and I shall be a burden unto me, it is, 
according to the plain explanation, unnecessary to 
assume here a Tikkun Soferim. Thus far Job's reply 
to Eliphaz, who had said to him (v. 2) : for vexaiioft 
kills the foolish man^ the reply to which was (vi. 2) : oh, 
that my vexation were weighed. The word (v. 3) : / 
have seen the foolish taking, root meaning : like thee, is 
met by Job with the reply that even to the wicked had 
not befallen that which had befallen him. He further 
replied to him (vi. 28), and now be pleased to look upon 
me etc. till the end. Bildad says to him : If thou hast 
refuted Eliphaz's saying : I have seen the foolish taking 
root^ [I reply to you] (viii. 8), For inquire, I pray thee^ 
of the former age. Regarding Job's saying (vi. 29) : 
return again, my righteousness is in it, the reply is 
(viii. 3) : Does God pervert judgment ? 

Cap. viii. — i. Then answered Bildad the Shuhite 
... 2. How long, refers to both the following phrases ; 


namely : and a mighty wind, i,e. : how long will the 
Tvords of the mouth be a wind of anger, t?? means 
strong, as (Is. xxviii. 2) mighty tvaters overflowing. 
All thy words are in anger and wrath to contend 
against God. 3. Does Gk)d, doest thou intend to say 
that God perverts judgment and righteousness? 
Indeed 4. If thy children have sinned against him, 
and he sent them from before his face, as for their 
transgression, i.e. because they have transgressed 
against him, as (Jeremiah xv. i): Though Moses and 
Samuel stood before me, yet my mind could not be 
toward this people, send them away from before me and 
let them go forth. 5. And if thou, who art left behind 
them crushed and broken, wouldst seek diligently unto 
Gk)d, and supplicate unto Him, and not (address Him) in 
words of strife and murmuring, as thou hast begun. 6. 
if pure in heart, and upright in deeds. Surely now, with- 
out delay. He would awake for thee. His good spirit 
to do good unto thee in thy latter end. and make 
the habitation of thy righteusness prosperous, with 
children and grandchildren, deservedly, according to 
thy righteousness. This reply accords with that which 
really happened to him in the end, (Job xlii. 12) : God 
blessed the latter end of Job etc. 7. And thy beginning 

because thy latter end will greatly increase. 

Bildad would convey his meaning to Job : certainly, 
since we see that, after the death of thy sons, God had 
not awakened for thee His good spirit to comfort thee, 
but His hand is still stretched out against thee, to 
afflict thee, we know that thou art punished for thy 


sins. He, therefore, said to him : if thou wert pure 
and upright, as thou sayest ; since prayer without 
devotion of the heart does not avail, as (Is. i. 15): 
yea^ when you make many prayers I ivill not hear. 
Therefore, (z/. 5) : if thou hadst sought God diligently, 
if thou hadst prayed to God, when they (thy sons) 
were still alive, with uprightness of heart, as thou 
didst sacrifice burnt offerings, {y, 6) he had now, 
immediately, have awakened to thee. . . . But since 
thy prayer was not in uprightness of heart, thou 
didst remain to receive sufferings according to thy 
wickedness. According to this conception xhw\ is 
an expression of peace ; — thy children would not 
have died. Ibn Ezra explains the habitation of 
thy righteousness as the soul, and D^uh as an ex- 
pression of reward. 8. About the former genera- 
tion, the h of "inb means about as (Ex. xiv. 3) : 
and Pharaoh tvill say of the children of Israel And 
apply thy heart to search out and to ask further 
about their fietthers, namely, of the former generation, 
and you will see that this is the way of the world. 
9. For we are but of yesterday, for one generation 
only is a mere shadow, it is, therefore, necessary 
to search out two or three generations. 10. Shall not 
they teach thee, what their fathers told them, and 
besides, utter words out of their heart, to show you 
by parables and examples, that without purity and 
uprightness of the heart nobody will prosper, even 
though he pray the whole day. The parable which 
they will show you is taken from the herbs of the 


field : 1 1 . Oan the rush become tail without mire ? 
i.e. Can it pride itself, to become great and tall, 
without mire, n^? as (Ezek. xlvii. ii): i/ie miry 
places thereof, meaning "a pool." 12. In its green- 
ness, in Its moisture, it will not be cut down, for 
the purpose of using it. it withers, as (Ps. cxxix. 6) : 
which ivithers before it is plucked up. It withers, 
at the end of the verse refers to the preceding 
phrase : it is not cut down, so that it may wither. In 
the same way : (Ps. cxxix. 7), wherewith the reaper fills 
not his hand, i.e. so that it is not reaped. It may 
also be explained thus : As long as it has yet its 
moisture it will not be cut down, i.e. it cannot be 
plucked with the hand, it is too moist on account 
of the water it contains. And before any other herb, 
although it prides itself on its tallness and height, 
acquired by the scent of the water, // ivithers before 
all other herbs, at the time of heat and drought, 
when the waters decrease, because it was wont to 
be watered. 1 3. So are the paths of all that forget 
God, who have no purity and uprightness of heart, 
no moisture, i.e. no fear of God, but they are like 
the hypocrites who are not within what they are 
on the surface. 14. Whose ibD3 confidence is 
cut off, is diminished, and a spider's house, as 
(Is. lix. 5): and weave the spiders web. For 15. 
If a man shall lean upon his house, i.e. the spider's, 
or the house of the hypocrite, and imagines that 
he shall hold &st thereby, but it shall not stand, 
the contrast to Lev. xxv. 30, and the house shall be 


made sure. All this refers back to {v, 5) : If thou 
woutdst seek diligently unto God .... (z/. 6), if thou 
wert pure and upright, and not like the hypocrite 
alluded to. Having mentioned the rush that does 
not grow without water, he resumes : 16. He is green, 
on account of the mire and the water, even before the 
sun, and the heat, even while it lasts he shall be green, 
and over his garden, over the whole surface of his 
garden over which he spreads his shoot, and roots 
. . . . and shall fill all, even 17. about the heap of 
stones, which is a hard and dry place, his roots shall 
be tangled, this way and that way. And instead of 
the place of stones he shall prepare a reflige, a nno 
(harbour), to grow and thrive in ; or rx\rv\ is like nim 
(Dan. viii. 5) ; a notable horn. The meaning is, it 
shall be tangled [grow luxuriantly], since the moisture 
of the mire and the water come to it from below. 
Thus also the man who is pure and upright in his 
heart, and in whom is the moisture of the fear [of 
God]. No trouble shall injure him, nor any adversary, 
nor any evil occurrence, all of which is compared to 
the sun and the stones that are mentioned. 18. If he 
destroy it, whosoever destroys it, [if it be destroyed], 
and remove it, i.e. that rush from its place, from 
the heap and the place of stones where it grew up. 
Because it said in its heart, that, if it grew so much 
upon a place of stones and a heap, how much larger 
would it grow, in a place where there is soft mould? 
But it denies him, the rush and the reed, him who 
removed it, as if it would say to him : I do not 


recognize thee, I have not seen thee, for now it is 
constantly ashamed, for the heap and the place of 
stones from which it was removed was 19. the joy of 
its way, which (way) was superior, and its prosperity, 
where it grew better than it does now in the soft soil 
in which it was planted. And out of the other dust, 
from which it was removed, they spring, i.e. its roots 
that were tangled (grew luxuriantly), as mentioned 
above, and its former place was better for it. Thus 
also the man, if he is pure and upright, and mishaps 
befall him, and he sees wicked people prosper without 
an adversary, and without evil occurrences, do not let 
him envy their deeds, to say (Ps. Ixxiii. 13) : Surely in 
vain have I cleansed my heart. And do not let him 
be destroyed from his former place — his former self, 
to leave the uprightness of his way. This is similar 
to what Asaph says (Ps. Ixxiii. 4) about the words of 
the wicked : for there are no bonds to their death, 
Eliphaz said something similar (v. 2) : and jealousy 
kills the silly one. Some say that iiidt {v. 16) is a 
sort of herb that is moist even without mire. He 
proceeds to explain how the righteous prospers 
although evil occurrences befall him. For 20. Gkxl 
will not cast away a perfect man, to consume him 
when trouble comes to him. Neither will he uphold 
the evildoers, for if thou art ever pure and upright He 
will uphold thee. 21. Till he fill thy mouth with 
laughter and thy lips with shouting, against those 
who do evil unto thee, as (Is. xlii. 13): ^ shall cry, 
yea, he shall shout aloud, lie shall do mightily against 


his enemies. The n of nW? stands instead of the m. 
22. They that hate thee shall be clothed with shame, 
when they see that they cannot prevail over thee. 
This is the way of the perfect man, but the tent of 
the wicked, that are not pure of heart, shall be no 
more, as above (y, 14) : and his trust is a spiders web. 
Therefore, seek thou again his countenance diligently, 
and he will return thy captivity^ and have compassion 
upon thee (Deut xxx. 3). Job replies to this : 

Cap. IX. — I. And Job answered and thus is the 
argument. 2. Of a truth I know it is so, that the 
wicked is likened to grass, as (Ps. xcii. 7) when the 
wicked spring as the grass \ and that he that returneth 
unto Him shall be compassionated ; and that the 
righteousness of a man restoreth strength to him, as 
thou hast said in thy similitudes ; but how should man 
be righteous with God in the day of His fierce anger ? 
for even the righteousness of a perfectly righteous 
man will not avail him in the day of His anger, for 
(Eccl. iii. 17) God will judge the righteous and the 
wicked. And thus is the argument of the answer. 3. 
If he should desire, the man who is chastised, to 
contend with him, at the time of his judgment, to 
say what is my transgression and my sin, and to 
arrange his pleas of justification ; he (God) would 
have so many answers, that the man would not be 
able to answer, or to reply to his words, even one of a 
thousand ; this is proved by the context below ; for 
4. Wise in heart is he, and he knows what he does, 


and, moreover, he is mighty in strength. For the 
wise is not always mighty, and vice versa ; and thus it 
is in all cases. Who haa hardened against in'm, 
words, to confute him in judgment, so that his word 
should be harder than that of God. nmprr like mfn 
(2 Samuel xix. 44) : and the words of the men of 
fudah were harder than the words of the men of 
Israel, and be at peace? and go forth from him in 
peace ? for he will not confute him in the end. The 
context shows that this hardening refers to the words. 
He proceeds to show that man cannot contend with 
Him, for He 5. removes the mountains, and 6. 
shakes the earth out of its place, for the sin of man. 
Or, mountains is used here metaphorically for princes, 
as (Mic. vi. 2) : Hear, O ye mountains, and they 
knew it not, he let them know what it is for. Or, 
it means : although they knew it not, for they have 
no understanding, as (Hab. iii. 8) : Was the Lord 
angry with the rivers? But the context proves the 
first explanation to be correct, for it is said (Job x. 2) : 
Show me wherefore thou contendest with me. and 
the pillars thereof, of the earth; as (Prov. ix. i): 
She has hewn out her pillars, tremble, trembling has 
taken hold of them, nisf?D = trembling. 7. Who says 
to the sun, which rules the day and behind (upon), 
the stars, the light of the night, he puts a seal, as 
(is. xiii. 10) : they shall not give their light : the sun 
shall be darkened in his going forth, and the moon 
shall not cause her light to shine. And all this on 
account of the iniquity of the generation. -r^3, behind 


(upon), as (2 Kings iv. 4) : and shut the door upon thee 
and upon thy sons. 8. Who alone stretches out the 
heavens. When mentioning the stretching out of the 
heaven, he says : He alone, on account of the vastness 
of the vault (ceiling) of heaven, for a man cannot 
stretch out evenly one curtain without assistance, and 
treadeth upon the high places of the sea, when their 
waves raise themselves, so as to be visible on the dry 
land. He mentions : 9. the Bear, Orion, and the 
Pleiades, who direct the world, the chambers of the 
south, i.e. the storm and the whirlwind that are there, 
as (Job xxxvii. 9) : out of the chamber (of the south) 
comes the whirlwind. The Pleiades and Orion are also 
mentioned in Amos (v. 8), and in the Speech from the 
whirlwind (Job xxxviii. 31, 32), where we shall explain 
it with God's help. Having mentioned in detail earth, 
heaven, and those that direct them, and the majesty of 
the sea, he comprises all, saying : 10. Who does great 
things past finding out, so as to enumerate them. 
Having said (v. 5) that he removes the mountains 
and overturns them in his anger, without stating 
the reason to the children of man, for should he 
do so, they would repent. In this Job sinned, and 
to this Elihu replied that this is not Mis way, 
(Job xxxiii. 16) : But he uncovers the ear of men 
etc., {}b. v. 29) : twice and thrice with a man. i r. Lo, 
he goes by me, as Eliphaz said (iv. 16): /*/ stood 
still, but I cotdd not discerti the appearance thereof 
Referring to the words {v. 3) : if he should desire • 
to contend with me, he proceeds : Were I to come 


to him to arrange before me my pleas of justifica- 
tion I should not perceive when he comes, and when 
he passes on, which way he went by, so that I could 
supplicate to him to restore my righteous dwelling, 
which he overturned in his anger. And even if 
I did discern, he would pass by suddenly, in the 
way of snatching. This is the meaning of 12. He 
snatches, as (Prov. xxiii. 28): She is like one that 
snatches. Or, the word means : he tears (the prey). 
Who will say, etc. . . . For 13. Gtod will not with- 
draw his anger, in spite of man arranging his pleas of 
justification before him. Therefore, The helpers of 
arrogancy do stoop under him ; They who help with 
a strong hand and an arm raised on high. We find 
the terms ** arrogance" and **help" in juxtaposition: 
(Is. XXX. 7) And Jtgypt helps in vain, and to no pur- 
pose, therefore I call this nm arrogance, nm denotes 
haughtiness and dominion; to help by force. 14. 
How much less I, the humbled and crushed } For 
1 5. Though I were righteous I would not answer, 1 
should not have the confidence to speak against him ; 
much less would I make supplication to him that would 
judge me. 16. If I had called and he had answered, I 
should not have believed that he had given his heart 
to my supplications. How much less would I contend 
with him, for at the beginning of his reasoning. 1 7. He 
would break me in a tempest, he would darken me ; 
or, he would break me, in his tempest, and multiplies 
my wounds without cause, he did not make it known 

to me. Also now 1 8. He will not suffer me to take 



my breath and my soul to him, for me to die and to 
rest. But, ^3 = but, he fills me with bitterness, and 
satiates me with evil sufferings. Or, ••mi i\ii^ may be 
explained as (i Sam. xxx. 12) : Ats spirit came again 
to him — that he will restore me to manly health. 
According to the first explanation the phrase is like 
(Eccl. xii. 7) : and the spirit returns unto God\ (Job. xv. 
13) : thou retumest thy spirit to God, 19. If to 
strength I look forward, to be helped against him, he 
is stronger than I am ; and if to judgment, in words 
of contention, who will appoint me a time, who will 
set a day of meeting, between him and me. This 
accords with that which was said above (z/. 4) : who has 
hardened himself against him and prospered? But 
now, even if I had a day of meeting appointed for me, 
and I should be willing to declare my righteousness, 
He would — so wise is He — declare mc guilty from my 
words, and if 1 am innocent He would yet prove me 
perverse. For 21. I am innocent now, and all this 
has befallen me. I do not know my person (my soul), 
what is good for it, whether I should seek to keep it 
alive. I despise my life, for what does my innocence 
help me.** 22. It, my soul, is all one to him, whether 
she be righteous or sinful, it is all the same, for he 
destroys the innocent and the wicked, and why should 
I wish for life any more? in the sense of (Keel. iii. 17): 
God judi*es the righteous and the wicked, Ibn Ezra 
takes it as a question : Do I not know my soul? Does 
not my soul know whether she is pure.** 23. If the 
scourge: If the Satan come before him with the 


scourj^e of his tongue, to accuse man and to kill him 
suddenly, witliout first inquiring into his righteousness, 
but devours and destroys him suddenly ; at the triad — 
when he tries — the innocent, with sufferings, he will 
mock at it. For Job knew that this was the way the 
trial had come upon him. He proceeds to say what 
is meant by ** the scourge." 24. The earth is given 
into the hand of the wicked, i.e. the Satan, who is 
intent upon condemning man before his Creator for 
no reason. The faces of the judges thereof — who are 
the gods — ^he covers, in judgment, and shows aspects 
and ways in his arguments to prove man guilty. This 
I see and discern, as it has befallen me. If it is not 
according to my words, who, then, is it, that did all 
this to me.*^ 25. And my days; indeed, the days of 
my happiness are swifter in their running, than a 
runner, more than a runner. Above (vii. 6), he 
compared them with a shuttle, which also runs in the 
web. 26. With the hostile ships, like the ships of 
enemies and robbers, that suddenly fall upon man. 
Some explain n^«, (ships) that carry fresh corn, that 
run swiftly, because (their owners) want to sell whilst 
it is still fresh. Some say that ships are meant made 
of reeds as (Is. xviii. 2) : in vessels of reeds over the 
water \ they are called mw, because the ships are 
made whilst the reeds are still fresh. Like the eagle 
that swoops, that flies when he hastens to eat, thus 
the Targum translates (Habak. i. 8) : like the eagle 
that hastens to cat : hyxh D'^NtoT im3D. like an eagle 
that flies to eat. 27. If I say, if I were to say in 


my heart I will forget my complaint, and comfort 
myself ; I will put off my countenance, my anger, as 
(i Sam. i. i8) : she had no longer her countenance, i.e. 
her countenance of wrath. nySl«), and I strengthen 
myself to hope for help (to come) to me, as 
(Amos V. 9) : Who brings sudden destruction upon 
the strong. 28. I am afraid, then I say to my heart, 
behold my time has come, and my sorrows, my 
troubles will yet befall me. I know that, as I am 
innocent and righteous before thee thou will not hold 
me innocent, and 29. I shall be wicked, the lot of the 
wicked shall be my lot, innocent as I am. If so 
why should I labour in vain ? to forget my complaint 
and to be strong till thou doest hold me innocent. 
Indeed 30. If I washed myself in snowwater, which 
cleanses better because it is cold and sharp. And 
cleanse lii? in purity my hands, as (Ps. Ixxiii. 13): 
and washed my hands jVpDl in purity, because all 
work is done with the hands. 31. Then in the ditch, 
i.e. mire and clay, and mine own clothes shall abhor 
me, compare (Zcch. iii. i): Joshuah the high priest, 
that the Satan stood by his right hand to hinder him, 
in reference to the filthy garments which he wore ; in 
the sense of (Jerem. ii. 22) : though thou wash thee with 
lye, and take thee mtuh soap, yet thy iniquity is marked 
before me. 32. Not a man as I am, is he, that we 
could come together in judgment, so that I could 
arrange my pleas of justification. ^iZ- There is not an 
umpire betwixt us, that might lay his hand upon us 
both to bring about a settlement, or that we were 


alike at the place of meeting. The umpire between 
us could 34. take away his rod from me, so as not 
to chastise me, and the terror of him, of his words. 
35. Then I would speak my words without fear, if he 
were a man like me, for I do not conceive myself to 
be a sinner and a transgressor that I should be afraid 
to reason with him. Therefore 

Cap. X. — I. My soul loathes, njppj is an expres- 
sion of loathing, as (Ezek. xx. 43): and you shall 
loathe yourselves. For my righteousness does not 
profit me in the least. Therefore, I will give free 
course to my complaint, and my anger, to be heavy 
upon me till I die. I shall say no more what I said 
before (ix. 27) : / will forget my complaint and be 
strengthened, but I will speak in the bitterness of my 
souL This concludes the argument (ix. 27): If I 
say ^ I will forget . . . It can also be explained : My 
soul loathes if 1 forsake, i.e. if I do not speak ; or, I 
shall speak, as (Ps. xxxii. 3) : when I kept silent, my 
bones tvaxed old. Having declared: / shall speak, he 
explains, that he would say : 2. Do not condemn me, 
if I am righteous; as (Ps. xxxvii. 33): nor condemn 
him when he is judged. Show me first wherefore thou 
contendest with me, it is this to which Elihu replies 
(Job xxxiii. 13): IVhy doest thou strive against him, 
for that he gives not account of any of his matters. 
3. Is it good imto thee, and proper; to oppress man's 
judgment, and his righteousness, and despisest the 
work of thy hands. Even though he have sinned 


against thee, thou shouldst have mercy on the work 
of thy hands. Is it good to thee that upon the counsel 
of the wicked — referring to what he said before 
(ix. 24) : the earth is given into the hand of the wicked. 
thou dost shine, immediately, as soon as the scourge 
of the tongue comes to thee ? To consume and 
destroy the work of thy hands. — In a Midrashic way 
(it can be explained thus). Three participate in 
creating man ; God, his father, and his mother. 
(Babli Kiddushin, 30^; B. Nidda 31a). Therefore, 
he says : Is it good for thee that thou oppressest, 
[withholdest] from me the part of the father and the 
mother, that which is due to their portion ; that thou 
despisest the work of thy hands, which is thy portion } 
The word nypin means, thou hast revealed and shown 
that this is thy will. Compare (Deut. xxxiii. 2): He 
shined forth from mount Par an, (Ps. 1. 2): God has 
shone forth. 4. Hast thou eyes of flesh ? To look 
to the appearance and not to the heart, or seest thou 
.... a parallelism — Since a judge can only go by 
that which his eyes see. 5. Are like the days of man 

who, if he does not avenge himself this day 

of his enemy, he may be dead to-morrow, or he (the 
enemy) may flee to another country, and no vengeance 
can be taken. Therefore, he hurries to take his 
vengeance, and kills suddenly, without inquiry or 
investigation. Cf (Ps. cii. 28) : Thou art the same, 
and thy years have no end 7. With thy knowledge, 
S^ = with, as (Num. ix. 11) : with unleavened bread 
and bitter herbs, where Si? = with. He says: since 


thou lookest upon the heart, and dost understand all 
the formation of the thoughts, thou shouldst have 
shown that thou knowest my heart, that I am not 
wicked, (and thou shouldst) not (have acted) upon the 
counsel of the wicked, as mentioned above {v. 3); and 
also that ( Deut. xxxii. 39) : there is none that can 
deliver out of thy luind, — at any time thou art willing. 
The correct explanation is that of my father — the 
memory of the rij^htcous is for a blessing — : IVith 
thy knowledge that 1 was not wicked, in regard to all 
that has befallen me, but there is none that delivers 
out of thy hand, as said Koheleth (Eccl. iii. 17) : God 
judges the Hghteous and the wicked, 8. Thy hands have 
framed me, referring to what he has said {v, 3) : thou 
despisest the work of thy hands, Ibn Ezra says that 
^7^ is like (Ex. ix. 3) : The hand of the Lord is^ and 
^rap is an expression of pain. And dealt with me, as 
(Zeph. iii. 19) ; / will deal with all them that afflict 
thee. Together round about, without escape. The 
correct (explanation is, together round about, when thc^u 
hast made a hedge about me (Job i. to), all round, 
and my cattle had increased in the land (Hid), thou 
dost destroy me, and my substance and children 
did not escape. 9. That as clay, and remember that 
unto the dust thou wilt bring me again ; the judgment 
which I shall meet there will be sufficient for me, 
let there be rest for me whilst I live. 10. Thou 
hast poured me out, the seed in the womb of the 
mother; and curdled me like cheese, and clothed 
me 11. vdth skin and flesh, to strengthen which, and 


in order to bind the parts of the body together, thou 
hast knit me together, and interwoven with bones 
and sinews. In Ezekiel the bones are mentioned 
first, then it is said (xxxvii. 6), And I will lay sinews 
upon you, and afterwards : and will bring flesh upon 
you. But those of Ezekiel were bones cast over the 
field ; therefore that which is lower was created first, 
and afterwards that which is above. But here the 
commencement of man's creation is spoken of; that 
which is smallest is formed first within the mother : 
the skin, and afterwards the flesh, and afterwards the 
bones, in order that the bones should not injure 
the mother's womb. 12. Thou hast granted me life 
and favour, to preserve me in my mothers womb, 
that I should not dissolve. And that which thou 
hast deposited, i.e. the soul, which thou hast deposited 
in me. preserved my spirit, that I was not stricken 
down, on account of the troubles that came to me. 
Some explain ^n^^pp^ : when I consigned my spirit 
into thy hand, the charge taken by thee was true 
to me. 13. Yet these things, of which thou hast 
spoken thou didst hide in thine heart, thou didst not 
show them when the scourge of the tongue came to 
thee. I have known, and seen that this is with thee, 
when thou didst judge me. 14. If I have sinned, 
thou wilt guard me, since I am the work of thy hands. 
And if iniquity were found in me whilst thou didst 
guard me, thou wouldst not acquit me of my iniquity ; 
I should not have asked of thee but to take retribution 
for all. But since thou hidest the counsel of the 


wicked iii thy heart, 1 5. If I be wicked, woe unto me, 
and if I be righteous, yet I shall not lift up my head 
in judgment, indeed I am filled with ignominy, and 
see my aflUction, and thou seest my affliction. 16. 
I'or if it will exalt itself and be very great, thou 
huntest me as a lion, and liest in wait for my life. 
Ibn Ezra says that n^r"), it becomes high^ refers to my 
affliction, which becomes stronger every day, and 
returns time after time, as (Lam. iii. 3) : surely ^ 
against me he turns, thou showest thyself marvellous 
against me, to make my plagues marvellous, cf. 
(Isa. xxix. 14): a marvellous work and a wonder. 
1 7. And thou further renewest thy witnesses against 
me, and increasest thy indignation, and hast hot thy 
fill of me. He proceeds to explain what these wit- 
nesses are; namely, Changes, as (i Kings v. 28 [14]), 
every month nMshn by changes \ illnesses with inter- 
mittent heat and cold, day by day. and time, the 
duration of each illness whilst it lasts. Since thou 
doest thus unto me, 18. Wherefore hast thou brought 
me forth out of the womb ? I had given up the ghost, 
and then 1 9. I should have been as though I h€id not 
been, I had never been, without any remembrance, as 
though I had been brought forth from the womb to 
the grave. 20. Are not my dajrs few, even if they 
were all happy. Therefore, cease and set thyself 
away ftom me, and leave me alone ; for the opposite 
meaning [of n'^m] see Is. (xxii. 7) : and the horsemen 
set themselves [in array"] at the gate, where it means : 
they strengthen themselves to fight, nj^'^ni*'), that I 


may be strengthened for a time, a little, the few days 
I have to live. 21. Before, as if it were written: 
before I go to the land of darkness and the shadow 
of death, whence I shall not return. 22. A land of 
thick darkness, i.e. the darkness which prevails before 
the rising of the dawn, as (Amos iv. 13) : that makes 
the morning darkness, it means, when it must shine 
and lighten. Without order, there is no order of day 
and night, for it is always dark, and when it shines, 
and when it shines forth and rises over all the world 
to give light, it is like darkness. Jobs argument in 
this speech was, that death is preferable to life. For 
the righteous has no profit from his righteousness in 
the end, for he (God) destroys the innocent and the 
wicked by the scourge of the tongue that comes 
suddenly before him ; and he says : why should I 
labour in vain ? For I go to the land of darkness. 
All this IS replied to by Zophar. 

Cap. XI. — I. And Zophar answered 2. Should a 
multitude of words, by reason that there is a multitude 
of words, not be answered by others who hear them } 
And should a man who has lips to speak continually 
be justified? 3. Should he be silenced by thy 
devices, ^j^^jj, by the words which thou devisest out of 
thy own heart against God s ways and his attributes, 
to say (ix. 22) : // is all one, therefore I say, He 
destroys the innocent and the wicked, etc., and (x. 3) : 
thou shinest upon the counsel of the wicked. Wouldst 
thou cause to hold their peace and be silent men, and 


a people like us ? Or ^a^nrn means, wilt thou consider 
us like deaf people, who do not know the secret and 
counsel of God, so as to reply to thee to every word, 
and d(X^st thou, on this account, mock us, and no man 
make thee ajshamed to silence, when thou sayest : 
4. My doctrine is pure, and is words of truth ; and I 
am clean in thine eyes, so that thou needst only to 
investigate my words to find them so? Thus thou 
speakest to God, r/C (x. 7) : with thy knowledge that I 
am not wicked. It can also be explained that these 
words are addressed to Job : thou sayest " I am 
clean," and thus thou appearest in thine own eyes, 
but not in the eyes of all those that are wise of heart. 
But 5. Oh, that God would speak, would speak, as 
against the multitude of words [v, 2) ; and open his 
lips, as against a man of lips (of constant talk) {ibid.). 
Me would tell thee his hidden things, which it is 
impossible for us to know. Therefore thou justifiest 
thyself before us, but should He open His lips, 6. 
He would show thee the secrets of wisdom, accord- 
ing to thy judgments that are hidden from men ; or, 
in reference to what thou didst say (x. 2) : Show 
me wherefore thou contendest with m£^ and by 
which thou justifiest thyself, and he will show 
thee, that double the punishment that thou hast 
received, thou oughtst to have received at his hand, 
according to the sound wisdom and the profound 
Justice which thus would become known, and know, 
how much he will yet chastise thee, that he will exact, 
ni^, that he will be unto thee like nmi3, a creditor, who 


Oppresses the debtor, for thy iniquity, and he has 
not yet collected all his due from thy hand, according 
to thy iniquity; and not as thou hast said (ix. 22) : 
he destroys the innocent and the wicked. Some say 
that nor is an expression of ** oblivion," as (xxxix. 
17): because God has made her to forget wisdo7n\ 
He still deals with thee as if he forgot a portion of 
thy iniquity. The Targum of romn, (Prov. iv. 5) 
forget is >xayr\. This is Ibn Ezra's opinion, because 
it is most improbable that nor here should be like 
(Deuter. xxiv. 10): when thou art the creditor of 
thy neighbour, 7. The deep things; canst thou find 
out, and succeed in finding his ultimate thought, and 
the ultimate object of his judgment, for which he 
judges man, that thou justifiest thyself? 8. The 
heights of heaven, i.e. the place where thy actions 
are judged, what canst thou do ? What doest thou 
to be there .^ Hast thou been there to know the 
arrangements of my judgment.-^ Having mentioned 
the height of heaven, he further says : that which is 
deeper than the grave, i,e. wisdom, as (Eccl. vii. 
24) ; exceeding deep, who can find it out ? what canst 
thou know to attain to it? Having mentioned height 
and depth, he proceeds to mention breadth and length, 
in accordance with (Job xxviii. 12): but where shall 
wisdom be found? It is the secrets of wisdom men- 
tioned above {y, 6), compare (Job xxviii. 23): God 
understands the way thereof in the speech commenc- 
ing : And Job continued. 10. If he changes, man's 
glory and his wealth, and shuts him up, on account 


of his words, like a leper, who must be shut up (Levit 
xiii. 4). and gathers, and brings him back again to 
his community after having been shut up. Or, tid*; 
means, he delivers up man into the hand of the 
iniquitous and the wicked, to judge him, as he said 
(Job ix. 24) : the earth is given into the hand of the 
Wicked, V'rrp:'}, he called an assembly about him, to 
give evidence as to his actions. Who can reply to 
him, to say, thou hast acted unjustly ? For his 
wisdom is hidden from mankind ; referring to the 
secrets of wisdom mentioned above (v, 6). Therefore 
he says : 1 1. For he knows the vain men, as (Ps. 
Ixxviii. 37) : for their heart was not right with hint. 
He sees iniquity, of theirs, and the world thinks that 
he considers not, because he does not take immediate 
vengeance, but he is slow to anger, and knows, though 
he is silent. When they (the iniquities) are for- 
gotten by man, then they are brought in remembrance 
before him, and man thinks that they are unjustly 
brought home to him. 12. And an eloquent man, i.e, 
a man mj, supplied with T3 talk and eloquence, is 
void of understanding, ij^jn, his heart and thought 
shall bo undone, and not be able to reply to him. 
and before the wild ass s colt, that has no sense at all, 
man, that has sense, shall be bom, and be like cattle 
with it. This is R. Eliezer's explanation. But it 
can be explained thus : ni^, hollow, like (Ex. xxvii. 
S) : Iwlloiv, 1113, ivith planks \ he who has not cared 
about the enjoyment of his body, but is like one that 
fasted. iiV*, shall take hearty and he who is void of 


sense, but is like a wild ass's colt, shall strive after 
wisdom, till he again attains to the nature of man. 
Therefore he says : 1 3. If thou set thine heait aright, 
to supplicate to Him. He mentions "the hands" in 
reference to **the heart," as (Lam. iii. 41) : Let us lift 
up our hearts with our hands. 14. If iniquity that 
thou hast committed with thine own hand, or if it 
is in thy tent, committed by one of the people of 
thy house. 15. Surely then shalt thou lift up thy 
face without blemish, no blemish shall be on thee, 
and not as thou hast said (x. 1 5) : and if I be righteous, 
yet shall I not lift up my head. Thou shalt be stead- 
fast, p$^D is a thing that is setded firmly, as (Job 
xli. 16): his heart is as firm as stone, and shalt not 
fear, that he will again deliver thee into the hand of 
the enemy. 16. For thou, who art chastised now, 
shalt forget the misery of thy chastisements and 
thy diseases, so well will it be with thee, as waters 
that sweep by and pass, and will not sweep by 
again, thus shalt thou remember thy sufferings. 
And, in reply to that which he (Job) had said 
(x. 21, 22): / shall go . , . , to a land of thick 
darkness .... and shadoiv of death, without any 
order of day and night ; he (Zophar) says to him : if 
thou shalt do thus, then 1 7. More than the noonday, 
which is the light of day, shall thy life arise ; and 
when thou thinkest that the light of the noonday 
becomes dark, and turns to thick darkness, which 
takes place at evening time, for the light of the noon- 
day continues to become darker even till the shadows 


of the evening. Or, like the morning, which becomes 
continually lighter, shall be the thick darkness which he 
mentioned. The light of thy life is more enduring 
than the light of noonday. (Job xi. 17) And behold 
"rSn expresses * rust ' in the language of our Rabbis, for 
it is the opposite of light. The word n\f^r\ is the 
same as riD'u^n, and formed like riDiSn, no'tpn. — no'u^n 
cannot be from the root ^^r\, just as little as noipin 
could be siiid to be from D^pii. 18. And thou shalt 
be secure, if thou removest iniquity and wrong far 
away from thyself and from thy tent. And thou shalt 
search and spy out for thyself a rest, as (Deut. i. 22) : 
that they may search for us. But since the word 
rtppm in this verse is parallel to nnip^^, thou shalt be 
secure, therefore R. Eliezer explains it thus : when 
thou shalt understand to be ashamed and confounded 
in thy security, by seeing others smitten, then shalt 
thou take thy rest in safety. And we have found 
the word w^1 parallel with pntoi, (Job vi. 20) They 
were ashamed because they had trusted, they came 
thither and were confoimded. According to Ibn Ezra 
mom means : as if thou hadst been digging round 
about thee, as people dig round the walls of a city. 
19. And many shall make suit unto thee, to benefit 
them, or to intercede on their behalf. 20. But the 
eyes of the wicked, who look forward to thy death, or 
the wicked who do not, like thee, put iniquity far 
away from themselves, shall fail, for they shall not see 
their desire. And refuge is perished from them, they 
shall find no place for a refuge, npip, breathing out. 


is an expression of grief, as (Jerem. xv. 9) : she has 
breathed out her soul. So that finally they shall be 
confounded and ashamed, and thou shalt be secure. 
This is Zophar's reply to Job, who imagined that God 
hunted him like a lion, and set up his witnesses 
against him, and who scoffs at his companions, that 
they shall not answer him. But were God to open 
his mouth, he would answer him, for no man can find 
out the deep things of God. To this Job replies : 

Cap. XII. — I, 2. And Job answered .... In 
truth .... The meaning is : thou didst say that my 
boastings caused men to hold their peace ; certainly 
because you are a people and one company. For 
Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar had answered him, there- 
fore he chides them and says : because you are three, 
you think, that when I silence you, I silence all the 
people of the world, and that I am a wild asss colt 
(xi. 1 2), and you imagine that all wisdom is in you and 
not in me, and that all wise men of the world die 
when you die, and when thou sayest to me that no 
man can find out the deep things of God, and that 
an empty man like me is without understanding. 
3. I also have understandhig as well as you. All of 
them adopted one way and one method of condemning 
him ; he, therefore, addresses one of them on behalf 
of all. I am not inferior to you, in degree of wisdom, 
and who knows not such things as these? namely, 
that no man can find a reply against the Holy One. 
But I who stand as 4. a laughing stock, and an 


object of scorn, to his neighbour, whose duty it was 
to comfort and support him [his friend] at the time of 
his trouble. For if he would call upon Qod, for this 
that he is scoffed at, at the time of his trouble. He 
would answer him and execute judgment upon the 
scoffers, as it is said (Prov. xxiv. 17, 18): rejoice not 
when thine enemy falleth^ .... lest the Lord shall 
see, and it displease him. This laughter with which 
you meet me is directed against a perfect, righteous 
man. For I cry out on account of my trouble, and do 
not scoff, as thou didst say (xi. 3) : Thou scojffest, and no 
one makes {thee) ashamed. 5. The torch is a contempt, 
when its smoke rises, to the fiett one (the happy) who 
is at ease. mnid^S, to the man who rm^ (Jerem. v. 
28) is fat, and who says : throw it into the cross-road, 
because he cannot bear its smoke for (Ps. Ixxiii. 5) 
they are not in trouble like other men. More than 
this, when he sees people that pass the road fall over 
it and being burnt by it, he laughs at them and 
despises them, and remembers not, in the fulness of 
his ease, that he may himself fall over it. But, in the 
end, he is destined that his feet slip over it, without 
being able, like one of the others, to rise up quickly, 
because he is so heavy and fat. Consequently he 
suffers more injury than all those who fell and at 
whom he laughed. He proceeds to explain the like- 
ness. 6. The tents are prosperous, i.e. of that fat 
man who is at ease, in regard to robbers ; he fears no 
robbers ; the S = in regard to, and he has seciuity 

in regard to those who provoke God, that they will not 



provoke or frighten him, for he does not think to fall 
into their hands. Thus he is without fear in regard 
to him whom God brought into his hand ; i,e. those 
who provoke God, whom God brought and delivered 
into his hand ; such others as have no luck like him- 
self, at whom he laughs, (thinking) that God will not 
bring him into their hands, and the end is that he 
brings him (into their hands) in (his) peace. All this 
refers back to (z/. 5) : those whose feet slip. Contempt, 
at ease, secure, are all parallel expressions, compare 
(Ps. cxxiii. 4) : the scorning of those that are at ease, 
the contempt of the proud. It refers back to (z/. 4) : 
he calls upon God cmd he will ansiver him. Baal 
Haparchon explains "rs^ : the torch which gives light 
is despised, compared with the gladness of him who is 
at ease and prosperous, but, in the end, his feet will 
stumble over it. My father — the memory of the 
righteous is blessed — explains td, as it is repeatedly 
used in this book, to denote sorrow ; and Job speaks 
thus: Behold me now at whom the people laugh. 
How this case has been changed, that sorrow and 
contempt have come to him who ought to be shining 
with fat, and that he whose feet ought to slip, who 
ought to have no footing, is secure and firm on his 
feet ; and that the tents of him upon whom robbers BXiA 
such as provoke God ought to fall prosper in security, 
to him to whose hand God, i.e. the judge, has brought it. 
Therefore they laugh at me. Thus Rabbi Simeon 
told me in the name of my father, (of their fathers?) 
peace be with them. Ibn Ezra says that the S of tdS 



is a servile letter, t^d*? = iTDl, on account of the sorrow, 
the sorrow which is contemptible in the thought of 
him who is at ease. For n^nm^?*? comp. (Ps. cxlvi. 4) : 
his thoughts perish. Such a thing causes a man s feet 
to slip; comp. (Ps. Ixxiii. 12): my feet were gone. 
They are at ease, for he sees the robbers, t.e. such as 
practise violence openly, at ease ; for him who brought, 
referring to such as serve images, who makes his god 
with his own hand. 7. But a43k now, thou Zophar ; 
thou who sayest (xi. 10) : If he change, and shut up, 
and call an assembly, who shall hinder him ? and thou 
dost think that thou hast spoken wisely, that very 
wisdom will be told thee by the beasts, and the birds, 
and the earth, and the fishes of the sea. Comp. 
(Job xxviii. 14) : The deep says, it is not in me, and 
the sea says .... i.e. if they had a mouth they would 
speak thus. Having mentioned beasts, birds, earth, 
and fishes in particular, he continues : in general : 
9. Who, of all the creatures of the universe, does not 
know that the hand of the Lord has wrought this to 
me. 10. For everything happens through Him, for 
in his hand is the soul of every living thing; and 
since all the souls are in his hand, and no one, besides 
him, can work bad or good, who has killed my sons, 
who chastises me if not he? 11. Does not the ear of 
everybody who hears of what has befallen me, try 
this to know it } even as the palate the food that is 
tasteful to it .^ 1 2. And with the aged is this wisdom, 
that no one, besides him, works bad or good, for 
{v. 16) with him is strength and wisdom. I further 


heard the following explanation. Job says ; I thought 
that with aged men is wisdom, and that you had under- 
standing, since you have length of days — referring to 
the beginning of his speech, — wisdom shall die with 
you ; but it is not as I thought, there is no wisdom 
with you. He continues 13. With him — God alone 
— is wisdom and also might, for one can be wise 
without being mighty. 14. Behold, he breaJceth down, 
that which he breaks down no one can build again, 
and what he shuts up, no one can open. This, I 
think, corresponds with that which Zophar said 
(xi. 10) : If he change, this is referred to by : he 
breaks down and it cannot be built again, which is the 
opposite (change) to building ; and he shut up : this 
is referred to by he shuts up a man ; he assembles is 
referred to by 15. he withholds the waters, i.e. he 
assembles them from the place where they flowed at 
first and turns them into a parched land and they dry 
up, and who can produce them again ."^ referring to 
the preceding phrase : there can be no opening, for no 
one can open again (Is. xxii. 22). And he sends them 
forth, afterwards, as (Job v. 10) : and he sends waters 
upon the fluids ; he causes them to rain down, and they 
change the earth to become green again, as the place 
for grass and herbs and blossoms, which had withered 
before because of their (the rains') absence. Some 
explain ^Dorr'), they overturtt the earth, withered it in 
the case of the generation of the flood, and who will 
withhold them } Having mentioned {v. 1 3) that with 
him is wisdom and mighty he continues in the same 


Strain i6. With him is strength, to make one man 
stronger and more distinguished than another, and 
sound wisdom, to come with devices over him. For 
the word rrjd^n must be explained according to the 
context, the word denoting either counsel, or wisdom, 
or might. The deceived and the deceiver are his, the 
deceived and he who deceives him. The deceived, 
who does not know how to be on his guard, who is 
devoid of counsel like Ahab ; and the deceiver, the 
lying spirit that entered into Zedekiah the son of 
Chenaanah, to entice Ahab, and who made him horns 
of iron and said to him : with these shalt thou push the 
Syrians (i Kings xxii. ii). He (Ahab) believed him 
and did not believe Micaiah who warned him against 
going to war. And like Ahitophel, whose counsel 
was like the word of a man of God, and Absalom, 
to whom God sent a deceiver, namely Hushai the 
Archite who turned his counsel. And like Rehoboam 
the son of Solomon who listened to the counsel of the 
youths, and not to that of the elders. 17. In this way 
he leads the counsellors themselves away spoiled, as 
if they had stripped their garments from their bodies, 
comp. (Mica. i. 8) : / will go stripped and naked, 
(Ps. Ixxvi. 6) : the stouthearted are spoiled, and the 
judges of the land, he makes fools, they err in their 
actions, in their judgments, so that they are considered 
foolish and silly. Comp. (Is. xl. 23) : he makes the 
judges of the earth as vanity. He further says : in 
this way 1 8. The bonds of kings, the yoke and bonds 
placed by them upon others, he looseth, to rebel against 


them, comp. (Ps. cxvi. i6) : thou hast loosened my bonds. 
And bindeth their loins with a girdle, to rebel, and 
prevail over those who had hitherto kept them in 
bonds. And those who 19. were Priests, i.e, princes 
and honoured men as (2 Sam. viii. 18) : and the sons of 
David were priests ; he leculs away spoiled, as if he had 
spoiled them ; D'»?n'^H'), and the mighty he overtumeth 
from their might. 20. He removeth the speech of 
those who were trusty; R. Eliezer explains tdo as 
(Genesis xix. 3) : and they turned in unto hi?n, 
(Judges iv. 18) : turn in to me, (in French) tourne ; the 
expression to the trusty induced him to explain it 
thus, otherwise, D'^ddmd, from the trusty ought to 
have been written. He, therefore, explains it : who 
turns the speech, and counsel of folly and error to the 
trusty in their counsel, who never erred before. 
R. Saadiah says that the d of d-^ddm is paragogic, like 
the D in "^SDp, an end (Job xviii. 2), and it stands for 
didmdS, those who speak, as (Jer. xxiii. 31): and say. 
He says. os?tsr\, and the speech, as (Jon. iii. 7) : dy 
decree of the king He takes away, so that they 
become foolish in their words. Through this 2C. He 
poureth contempt upon princes and honoured men, 
rpyci^ and the belt, as (Is. xxiii. 10) : there is no girdle 
anymore, (Ps. cix. 19): and for the girdle, whereivilh 
he is girded continually, rrip is formed like rrmo, 
the anointed of the God of Jacob (2 Sam. xxiii. 1); 
mo is formed like nso (forehead). Those who con- 
nect this word with n^, the breastplate be not loosed 
(Ex. xxviii. 28), are in error ; the latter word is 


formed like nr^\ it shall not be measured (Jer. xxxiii. 
2 2), and its root is nrWy as proved by the Dagesh. 
The meaning is : the strength of the masters of the 
world who stand in their strength before their enemies ; 
these are like the strong ones as mentioned in the 
last speech (Job xli. 7) : his strong scales are his pride. 
Streams are called D'^p^pw for this reason, that they 
(low strongly. He looseth, and weakens from their 
loins. R. Joseph Kara explains: He pours contempt 
upon the princes*, those who were princes, on account 
of the abundance of their produce, and boasted thereof, 
will meet with contempt, because he looseth the girdle 
of the streams of water that are dried up, cf. (Ez. vii. 
1 7) : all knees shall be weak as water. Having caused 
to err and having led astray the kings, and the princes, 
and the trusty, as mentioned, without their knowing 
whereat they stumbled, 22. He discovers to them things 
out of dSprkness, i.e, the counsel which was deep to 
them, as (Dan. ii. 19) : Then was the vision revealed 
unto Daniel in a vision of the night, and {ib, ii. 22) : 
he reveals the deep and secret things, he knows what is in 
the darkness. He says that he discovers to them the 
counsel that was to them like darkness, from which 
they ought to have taken warning. Not having taken 
the warning they were ensnared and caught ; And 
brings out to light the shadow of death of their way, 
until they recognise that through which they stumbled. 
23. He increases the army of the nations when they 
go up against their enemies, in order to destroy them \ 
such as the four kings ; and Sisera who fell into 


Deborah's hand in spite of his numerous chariots ; and 
the kings of Midian (who fell) into the hands of the 
three hundred who had lapped (the water), etc. ; 
for he collects them together to destroy them 
in a moment, like Sennacherib and his army. 
They did not know Gods counsel, to stir up 
their spirit to fight in order to destroy them. He 
spreads the nations abroad. After the mention of 
those that were settled peacefully, whose spirit was 
roused to leave their places, so as to destroy them, 
the subject is further explained in a different way ; 
namely, that he spreads abroad those nations, whose 
spirit prompted them to settle down all over the 
earth, here and there, and do not wish for war, but 
only to settle peacefully for a length of time ; he leads 
them away, desirous as he is to drive them forth from 
there and to lead them by dark ways ; like Pharaoh 
and his army into the Red Sea, and their leaders did not 
see what was before them. Therefore he says : 24. He 
takes away the heart of the chiefe of the people of the 
earth, who lead them, but to lead them astray in a 
wilderness where there is no way trodden for them ; 
like those whom Elisha led into Samaria, who were 
smitten with blindness. Therefore, 25. they grope in 
the dark without light. Thus far he spoke of the 
leaders, and not of the counsellors ; Job mentioned all 
this, because Zophar had said to him (xi. 6) ; and thai 
he would show thee the secrets of wisdom ; he therefore 
treated at length these hidden things. He now resumes 
the subject of the commencement of his speech. 


in all your consolations as there is in that sinew, 
called Ellil, which cannot be healed. Some explain 
physicians of h'ht^ = false physicians, (physicians) of 
idols that cannot heal, S'^Sn from Sn (not). It may 
also be explained, physicians that are nought and 
miserable comforters (Job xvi. 2). 5. Oh that you 
would altogether hold your peace, and it should be 
your wisdom, more so than by your answering me 
foolish things, for a fool, when he holds his peace, is 
counted wise (Prov. xvii. 28). 6. Hear now my 
reasoning, — what I reason before God, and the plead- 
ings of my lips, since you say that I contend, hearken 
ye, and you will then understand rightly, before you 
answer me, that there is no rebellion in my words. 
7. Is it for Gk>d, = is it for God's sake that you speak — 
according to your opinion — , that you speak against 
me unrighteously, so as to flatter him, and for him, 
and in his behalf you answer me with deceitful 
words .'^ 8. Will you respect his person, and honour 
him by deceit, that you speak in his behalf.*^ And 
if you contend for Gk>d, i.e. in his behalf, and you do 
not rightly understand my words : 9. Is it good for 
you that he should search you out and see the way 
in which you flatter him and respect his person ? — 
or as one deceives a man do you imagine to 
deceive him, and to deny, (saying), we have not 
respected thy person.*^ cf (2 Kings iii. 14): %vere it 
not that I respect the person of Jehoshaphat. 10. 
Surely, he will reprove you for the thoughts of your 
heart ; or in secret : that you would deny your words 


against him, but surely (i Chron. xxviii. 9): he 
understands all the imaginations of the heart. The 
words you respect persons are to be taken in the same 
sense as when spoken by God (Job xlii. 8) : for I 
shall respect his person, ii. Shall not his rising up 
in judgment make you afraid. Sn^ip like Nm^n (Ps. 
xciv. 2) : lift thyself up, thou judge of the earth, Ibn 
Ezra explains inw© as his fire, as (Judg. xx. 40) : and 
the blaze began . . . and in the language of our 
Sages (Mishna, Rosh Hashana, ii. 2) : they light 
beacons n'lNimo pN^^mo : make you afraid, it ought to 
make you afraid ; and his diread should fiedl upon 
you, for you ought to have feared the punish- 
ment of his judgment. 12, For your memories 
before him, if he gave his attention to search you out, 
you would be compared to dust and ashes. To ba^cks 
(coverings) of clay, as (Ezek. xvi. 24), and thou didst 
build for thyself ^ an eminent place, H e refers to 
the monument of dust that is thrown over the dead, as 
if it were a back and a heap over him. He means : 
your backs and your pride will become backs of clay 
out of which you were formed (job xxxiii. 6), to 
crush you in his anger ; therefore he says your 
memories, remember ye that you are compared to 
ashes. 1 3. Hold your peace .... that I may speak 
as (Ps. xxxix. 4) : While I mused the fire zvas kindled, 
because one who is crushed by sufferings finds relief in 
speech. He, therefore, says and let come on me 
what will, i.e. whatever may come to give me relief. 
He proceeds : 14. Wherefore should I take my flesh 


in my teeth, to keep silence so long, and if it is 
understood that speech will afford me relief. R. 
Eliezer explains it thus : / shall speak, and if he 
should pass over me to judge me and to reprove me 
for my words, what matters it should he even kill me ; 
this it is, indeed, that I desire. This he explains by 
saying For what, ue. on account of what evil that 
I expect him to do further to me do I place myself in 
danger and take my flesh in my teeth and my life in 
my hand, in that I argue with him about death, when 
it is this that I desire. 1 5. Behold if he slay me yet 
will I wait for him and watch, yet I will first argue 
my ways before him. He says my flesh in my teeth, 
because speech issues through the teeth, cf. (Eccl. v. 
5) : suffer not thy mouth to cause thy flesh to sin, 16. 
He himself shall be my salvation, although he has 
dealt very bitterly with me ; for I find comfort in this 
that a hypocrite shall not come before him, such as 
you are, who condemn me so as to flatter him ; and 
even if he should kill me. This is meant at the 
end of the book by (Job xlii. 8) : and viy servant 
shall pray for you. Therefore : 1 7. Hear diligently 
my speech, whether it contains any iniquity against 
him ; and my declaration, that which I declare 
and tell. 18. Behold now, I have ordered my 
cause and my argument (before him), therefore I 
know that I am righteous, for I am no more 
than a supplicant, and prove my ways that are 
good before him. 19. Who is he, among you, that 
will contend with me, in the place of the Holy One, 


blessed be He, and condemn me, in that which I 
speak before him, which is not spoken in rebellion and 
in trespass (Josh. xxii. 22). For now, if you reprove 
me with the words that I speak and confute me, I 
shall hold my peace and speak no more, and give up 
the ghost in my sufferings. And what is the cause 
which I shall sustain before him ? , , . . 20. Only 
two things, which he will mention in the next verse. 
Then I will not hide myself from thy face, so as not 
to speak the words of my defence, do now unto me 
only this kindness. Therefore he uses the word 
* only,' give me an opportunity that I may be able to 
speak, and if there be iniquity within me, kill me. 
21. Withdraw thy hand from me. The hand is 
mentioned, because it is known that the stroke pro- 
ceeds from the hand of man. In the same sense, it 
was said above (ix. 34) : Le/ him take his rod away 
from me and his terror .... All this is only a 
repetition and elucidation of what he said before, that 
there is no rebellion and trespass in arranging his 
words before God, when ordering his cause. 22. 
Then call, as (Deut. xv. 9) : and he shall cry against 
thee, an expression denoting * speaking first,' in the 
same sense as (Is. xliii. 26) : declare thou, that thou 
may est be justified, i.e. speak first, that thou may est be 
justified; because (Prov. xviii. 17): he that pleads his 
cause first is just. — and I will answer in my defence. 
Or I shall speak my words first, to mention those 
things that are good before thee, and thou answer me. 
Choose which of the two thou likest. And answer 


Vie : 23. How many are mine iniquities and sins, as 
against my good ways, that I may know whether they 
outweigh each other. My transgression — intentional 
sins — and my sin — committed in error — ^make me to 
know first. This thou shouldst do and punish after- 
wards. 24. Wherefore hidest thou thy face, in order 
not to hear me, and holdest me for thine enemy, and 
doest not reprove me first to let me know the reason .^ 
He now proceeds to make it clear to them that he is 
not contending with his Maker for his judgment, but 
that he is no more than a supplicant, viz., 25. Wilt 
thou harass a driven leaf like me, and the dry stubble, 
for if it were moist the wind would not move it so 
much, but when it is dry it is easily moved. 26. That 
thou writest bitter things against me, at once, without 
bringing me to judgment ; and makest me to inherit 
the iniquities of my youth, which thou oughtst not to 
have remembered. 27, in the stocks, td denotes a 
prison and the stocks in which prisoners are placed, in 
the language of our Sages (B. Pesachim 28a) : the 
vtaker of stocks sits in his own stocks, iTDion. The 
plain meaning may be, that id is like td, lime ; like a 
man who throws lime, or flour, or .dust round his 
house or his rooms, in order to trace the footsteps of 
anyone who may come there ; and he marks all his 
paths, and the footsteps become known, and whither 
he turned from there, and he pursues and overtakes 
him if he comes there on another night, compare 
(Ps. Ivi. 7) : they mark my steps. This is also the 
meaning of : thou drawest a line about the soles ot 


my feet, ix. thou art like one who traces and writes 
my footsteps in lime in order to capture me. My 
uncle R. Benjamin explains it thus : thou puttest a 
seal upon the chain ('^dJni;) = nitmrn) which thou placest 
on my feet ; and this is the meaning of thou engravest 
(iij^nnn). 28. And he, namely the leaf and the dry 
stubble mentioned above, even if no attention be paid 
to it, will of itself be consumed like a rotten thing, 
then why shouldst thou notice him while he is alive ? 
Or, and he is possibly connected with the next verse ; 
And he. 

Cap. XIV. — i. is a man bom; there are many 
such instances. Bom of a woman, who brings him 
forth to sin, and all his formation is putridity. Thou 
oughtest not to consider it worthy to foster such 
anger against him and to take vengeance. Pew ot 

days 2 he continues not but is like a driven 

leaf, and ftill of unrest on account of his misfortunes. 
This should be sufficient, even if no more come over 
him. 3. Even upon such a one dost thou open thine 
eyes, to judge him while he lives ; and me, who am 
a driven leaf and dry stubble, and unclean, being 
born of woman, thou bringest into judgment, to take 
particular notice of me. 4. Who can bring a clean 
thing out of an unclean ; how can he, whose birth is 
in uncleanness, whom his mother cofueived in sin 
(Ps. li. 7), — how can he be cleansed and justified 
again .^ No man can cleanse me of this, retrospec- 
tively ; for whatever was, was. For cleanness and 


righteousness are only of avail for the future. We 
can also explain it thus : who can make clean by 
plagues, such one as I am to day ? No one, for there 
never was one plagued like me. 5. Since his days are 
determined, this refers to the verse man that is born 
of woman, of few days. D'^^iiir means determined , to 
live up to a certain time, i.e. the number of his months 
is with thee, to remember them, and to notice them, 
as to how long he has lived already and how long he 
will live ; and in the end thou hast appointed his 
bounds, and the complete time which thou hast 
determined for him, and he cannot pass that time 
even by so much as one minute. Since it is thus, 
then, during the time which thou has determined for 
him 6. Let him alone, do not distress him, that he 
may cease from being full of unrest, as mentioned, 
till he be willing and accomplish his work as one 
hired by the day. 7. For there is hope of a tree, that 
if it be cut down from the earth, it will renew again 
its stem and grow, and the tender branch thereof will 
not cease from the earth. And yea, 8. though the 
root thereof wax old in the earth, — for on account 
of its great age it is useless, or in the dust — ^^ = *im, 
or — the stock thereof die. 9. Through the scent of 
water, i.e. even not really water, but only a little 
of moist earth, and it produces a harvest and fruit 
like a plant, i.e. another fresh and youthful plant 
But 10. Man dies and is weak, because he has been 
weakened already and cannot bear the weakness 
therefore he dies. We are compelled to explain it thus, 


because man is weak before he dies. Cf. (Ex. xvi. 20) : 

and it bred worms and stank, but it is known that it 

stank before it bred worms. And he expires then 

altogether, without renewing again strength of life. 

II. And if the waters are gone from the sea, entirely, 

to come upon him to restore him to life, and the river 

be parched and dried up to moisten him and to make 

him sprout up, 12. And man, every man, still lies 

down, and does not ever rise; Till there be no 

heavens, till no heaven is left over the earth, men 

shall not awake, neither he nor others, for the sake 

of all the waters of the world, whereas the old tree 

returns to its former state even by the scent of water ; 

how much more so if the water of the deep waters 

it from below. 13. Who would give (oh, would), 

that thou wouldst behave thus unto me, that in the 

grave thou wouldst hide me, like the root of the dead 

tree, that waxed old in the ground, and thou wouldst 

preserve me there from decay, until thy wrath is past 

from me ; that thou wouldst appoint me a set time 

and a term, like that which is hidden and imprisoned. 

and then thou wouldst remember me, after thy wrath 

had passed away, and thou hadst restored me to my 

position in the land of the living, like a tree that buds 

after it was dead. For then I should cry out all day 

for my sufferings during my lifetime. 14. For if a 

man like me die, shall he live ; shall he come to life 

again and renew his stock .'^ Then, all the days of my 

appointed time, during which I were hidden in the 

grave, in the days of the appointed term set me by 



thee» I should hope, and bear the pangs of the grave 
till the end of my cha,nge would come, 1 5. that thou 
wouldst call me from the grave, and I were alive and 
answering, and thou wouldst have a desire, r|DDn as 
rrnoDDD (Gen. xxxi. 30) : thou longedsl, — an expression 
of desire ; — to the work of thy hands. Ibn lizra says 
that my change is to be taken like (Eccl. i. 4) : one 
generation goes and one generation covics^ because the 
dead passes away and the born remains. 1 6. But now, 
since I have (? no) hope and trust to be renewed and 
to revive, thou shouldst have numbered my steps, and 
not, as said above, marked all my paths, and thou 
shouldst not have watched over my sin, and have 
waited for 1 7. my transgression to be sealed up and 
preserved in a bag, as (Gen. xlii. 35) : the bundle of 
their money, and to accumulate and join iniquity to 
iniquity, and collect it all for the day of death to take 
thy vengeance then, as I say (thou dost) now, but, if 
during my lifetime, immediately, thou wouldst punish 
and judge me, I should not now have objected. Ibn 
Ezra says that the meaning is : and thou dost not 
watch except for my sin, according to his opinion the 
word except is to be understood, cf, (Eccl. ii. 24) : 
There is nothing good for a man [except] that he should 
eat and drink — and according to Ibn Giath it means : 
18. And surely, it is not so, for if a mountain flails, 
which is great, it fadeth till it falls, and the rock is 
removed out of its place 19. And the stones of the 
mountain are groimd by the waters, till the latter 
throw them to the earth. And there is the hope that, 


after their fall, herbs will spring forth on them, as 
before, and that the new particles of the stone, from 
its place, will be joined together as dust of the earth 
by the grinding of the waters. They have suffered 
no loss through this, they only descended, but there 
they endure for ever. But the hope of man to live 
again, thou hast destroyed. The n, (3rd fern, sing.) 
of r|iiDC)n agrees with rh^w (understood), a stream of 
water, whose Waves wash away the dust of the earth. 
20. For thou prevailest over him, and bringst him 
down for ever, without hope, for he will not return 
after thou hast prevailed over him. ^noRnn can also 
be taken as uprooting, taking away the strength from 
him. According to R. Jacob — the memory of the 
righteous is a blessing — it means : as the falling 
mountain, and as stones that the waters grind have no 
more hope thus thoti hast destroyed the hope of vtan. 
But 1 consider more probable the explanation written 
above, for he compared man to a tree that had died 
and sprouted again ; not so man. The mountain that 
falls and the stone that is ground to powder, these 
receive thereby no injury ; not so man, for he dies and 
there is no hope. The verses : ** for there is hope of 
a tree,*' etc. may also be explained thus : There is 
hope for a tree .... even if it wax old and its stock 
die in the dust, yet it will bud from the scent of the 
waters, but man, if waters fail from the sea, and the 
river water the earth till it be dried up, is not able to 
live again, changing his countenance after his death, 
and sendest him away, finally, and he will return no 


more. 21. If [his sons] n^T become numerous, as 
(Gen. xiii. 2) : And Abram was very tid rich in 
cattle, in silver and in gold, he knows it not at the 
time of his death, and he does not turn his heart to it 
to rejoice thereat. ^i^??i they decrease, and he per- 
ceives not, so as to wail over them. 22. F*or he does 
wail except for his flesh that pains him, and for him- 
self his soul mourns. He is only concerned about 
this, and he has no desire regardinj^ his house after 
him. So heavy is thy hand upon him. The grief 
that he was to meet at his latter end should have been 
enough for him, and thou shouldst not have pained 
him during his life. This is Job's reply, to show his 
friends that he had not spoken in transgression, but 
that he only intended to prove before him such things 
of his as were good, and that he wanted God to let 
him know his transgressions and to punish him after- 
wards. But as long as he had not told him that he 
had sinned, he should not judge him, but he should 
have compassion upon all his works. Eliphaz's reply 
to this is not good ; namely, that God deals with the 
wicked in the manner he dealt with him, that destruc- 
tion comes suddenly over them. Therefore God was 
angry with him. But Elihu gave the proper reply, 
that it is God's way to reveal to men s ears his reproof, 
two and three times, and it will be good unto them 

Cap. XV. — 1,-2. Eliphaz answered .... Should a 
wise man make answer with knowledge of wind, 3. 


"T^in, can he judge through the thick darkness? and 
(Gen. xxxiv. 31) rraTOrr, shall he deal xvith our sister 
as with a harlot ? This is the rule whenever [the 
interrogative rr] is joined to one of the letters noDiii. 
But there are exceptions where the dagesh is found as 
(Numbers xiii. 19): D"»inD3n, whether in camps? and 
(2 Sam. iii. 33): vcxcnsn . ... as a fool dies? An- 
other explanation is : Art thou the first man born, 
that thou didst not see the past generations, and the 
way things are arranged in the world ; that it is not 
God's way to do what thou demandest, to tell his sins 
to man, and to go in judgment with him, seeking to 
prove thy words before him. Or doest thou hear, 
perhaps, his judgment in the secret counsel of Gk>d, 
more than other men, and is wisdom little unto thee, 
of his secret counsel and the reasons he gives, why 
he judges the world in this manner ? 9. What dost 
thou know of his secret counsel that we do not know ? 

10. Both the greyheaded and the very aged men, who 
have seen generations as well as thou, and thou art 
not the first man. It is explained below {zk 18) : they 
have not hid it (that which c^vci€) from their fathers. 

11. Is it too small for thee, that we comfort thee and 
speak in secret with thee that God will comfort thee ; 
namely, that he will have mercy upon thee when thou 
returnest to him, or is, perhaps, the thing secret. 
}s^ is an expression of covering, as (i Kings xix. 13) 
to^n and he wrapped his face in his mantle (2 Sam. xix. 5) 
and the king bM*? covered his face. The meaning is 
is it hidden from thee, and doest thou not know, that 


parallel to his angels. \ 6. How much less one that is 
abominable, that is brought forth in uncleanness and 
iniquity. r6^5, yf/ZAy, as (Ps. xiv. 3) they are become 
filthy (Ezek. xxiv. 6) : the caldron whose scum is in it, 
and whose scum is not gone out of it. It is an ex- 
pression of scum and filth. A man that drinks 
iniquity like water, contrasted with the heavens are not 
clean. 17. I will show thee, hear thou me, ix. 
Although we do not know his secret counsel in his 
judgments, yet hear thou me, that which I have seen 
I will declare, and not that whicli comes from my own 
heart only, and from my conclusion, about which thou 
couldst say '' thou art mistaken.'' But 18. Wise men 
tell us, and have not hid from us, from their fathers, 
who were righteous men, how they were in the world, 
they and their seed after them. 19. Unto whom alone 
the lajid was given, cf, (Isaiah Ix. 21) : the righteous, 
they shall inherit the land for ever, and God did not 
allow a stranger to pass among them, to possess their 
inheritance, as (Lam. v. .2): our inheritance is turned 
unto strangers \ but their seed are established therein. 
He proceeds to explain what the wise tell. 20. All the 
days that the wicked prospers he travails and is afraid, 
'^^innp is from the root hrry. Others explain it thus : 
it was said before that no stranger passes in the midst 
of those that were mentioned, ue, the righteous ones ; 
therefore, the righteous man is in hopes all the time 
that the wicked, who passes in the midst thereof, 
prosper; ^'^^inno as (Ps. xxxvii. 7): Be silent to the 
Lord, and wait patiently for him, denoting hope. 


many thought. Some say that rrroh is like ^rv^, 
flame, which is found in this book (xli. ii), and 
'denotes destruction, for that king will certainly de- 
stroy the city and utterly slay all. He proceeds to 
give the reason why all this had come upon him : For 
whilst he was in his wealth and strength 25. he 
stretched out his hand against Ood, to rob and 
despoil, saying there is no God ; and against the 
Ahnighty, those that were under the Almighty, and 
he bids Defiance to them. 26. He runneth upon him 
with a neck with the thickness, the bosses of his 
bucklers, to rob and make booty with his strong neck 
and the thickness, the bosses of his bucklers, which 
are expressions of firmness and strength, as (xli. 7) : 
his channels of shields are his pride, with the thick- 
ness refers to the thickness of the neck ; his bticklers, 
to the bones ; the bosses are the muscles that 
strengthen the body. This is Ibn Ezra's opinion. 
And what is it upon which h(; trusted ? 27. Because 
he covered his fiEtce with his fSettness, derived from 
robbery, and his rich focxl ; and from his exceeding 
fatness he has * a mouth ' upon his flanks ; ie. fat 
which is doubled up upon his flanks, which has the 
appearance of a mouth. Thus he said ** there is no 
God,*' whilst in this prosperity. But now it is differ- 
ent. 28. The cities shall be cut off and over- 
thrown, and houses shall never be inhabited, 
and he is there without shelter against showers and 
rain. It may also mean, that he dwells in cities, in a 
place where there is no habitation, to dwell there for 


the purpose of doing evil, such as are destined to be 
heaps, which ^"rnynn are destined from the days of old 
to be heaps and everlasting ruins. 29. He shall not 
be rich any more, his substance shall not continue, not 
even the little that was left him ; neither shall bend, 
shall be pitched, to the earth even a tent, which is 
usually pitched. 0*730 = of that which is theirs. The 
meaning is, that this wicked man, who was accustomed 
to despoil and to rob, and to join house to house, will 
not be able to rob any more, so that he be able to 
pitch his tent in those cities that have no houses, of 
all that he robbed of theirs. This, I think, is the 
meaning ; I have seen many explanations that make 
no sense. Or, it means : that none of all the people 
of the town shall again pitch his tent on the place of 
those houses, but the place shall be for monsters and 
ostriches. Having said (v, 23) that the day of dark- 
ness is ready at his hand, he proceeds : 30. He shall 
not depart again out of that darkness, his ofBshoot, 
i.e. his children — cf. (Ezek. xvii. 4) : he cropped off the 
topmost of the young twigs thereof- — ^the flame shall 
dry up, so that it shall have no moisture and growth. 
Therefore the heat dries it up ; and he departs by the 
breath of his mouth, like chaff that cannot stand 
against the wind. All this is said metaphorically, cf 
(Ps. xcii. 7) : When the wicked spring up as the grass, 
31. He shall not believe, he that has been deceived 
by vanity, as one that stretched his hand against 
God, does not believe that he will enjoy his wealth 
peacefully; cf. above (z/. 22): he believes not that 


hi shall return out of darkness ; for^ certainly, vanity 
shall be his recompense, for every violent robber. 
32. It shall be ftiU before its time, namely, the above 
mentioned offshoot ; it shall wither before it bore a 
branch. And his branch, — Sn??) like (Lev. xxiii. 40) 
noD branches of palm trees— he shall not believe that 
it shall not be green, but he will think that it will be 
full of sap and green. 33. Yet when he shall uncover 
— D^DTT is an expression of uncovering, cf (Jer. xiii. 
22) : thy heels are uncovered. When he shall uncover 
as the vine uncovers its unripe grapes, which is the 
beginning of the fruit after the bud and the blossom, 
then his offshoot shall be full and wither. Cf (Isaiah 
xviii. 5) : For afore the harvest, when the blossom is 
over^ and the flower becomes a ripening grape, Ibn 
Ezra says that the m in vht^n stands instead of the 
reduplication of the last radical (mSd for SSo), and 
compares it with (Ueut. xxiii. 26) : thou mayest pluck 
rrhho the ears, and in the language of our Sages : 
he crushes it and smells at it (b. Beza, 33b.), cf 
(Is. xviii. 2) *iMn, rivers have spoiled, for ^ni. Since 
Wl {v. 31) is written without an m, some explain it 
thus : he who was deceived m»n by a valuable and 
good thing does not believe that it is a recompense 
for his deeds. 34. For the company of the hjrpocrite, 
who does not love God with a perfect heart — cf (Is. 
xxix. 13) : with their mouth and their lips they honour 
me, but have removed their heart far from me — are 
justly barren, without remembrance, like a mast on 
the mountain ; and it is just that fire shall consume 


■ - — 

and destroy the tents of bribery, cf. (z/. 28) : houses 
which no man inhabits. Because 35. He conceives 
mischief, i.e. the evil thought that is in the heart 
before it comes forth ; and brings forth iniquity^ — 
brings it forth into actuality ; — and their belly pre- 
pares deceit, this alludes to him who designs in secret, 
to say, hypocritically, that no evil was done. This 
was Eliphaz's argument. He condemns Job for 
wishing to argue with his Creator, why he had not 
told him his transgression and his sin. By doing so, 
he annulled the fear of him. He ought not to have 
despaired of God s consolations ; for this was God s 
way to punish the sinners without letting them know. 
Job replies to this that his consolations are miserable, 
that he knew himself that no man is righteous, and 
that God punishes the wicked without letting them 
know. But this is when the wicked are known ; and 
ihcir transgression is known, and they themselves 
know their transgressions, cf. (z/. 25) : because he has 
stretched out his hand against Gody for such a one 
cannot conceal, for all his neighbours recognize his 
deeds. But as for me, whose sin is [unknown] ; there 
never happened to any evildoer in the world what has 
befallen me, in respect of property, my person, and 
my children. 

Cap. XVI. — i, 2. Then Job answered, I have 
heard such things, that one born of a woman cannot 
be righteous before God for even his holy ones are not 
clean in his sight (xv. 15), and that the consolations of 


-■ ■ 

God are great and good, and that it is good to return 
to him and to supplicate ; but ye are all miserable 
and idle comforters, even thou Eliphaz, who art the 
grreatest among them. 3. Or what provokes thee that 
thou answerest such things? Ibn Ezra explains 
^^'Ho^ = will be too strong for thee and overcome 
thee ; what evil, that thou hast found in me, is too 
strong for thee, and overcomes thee, to induce thee to 
speak wickedly against me ? for thy speech is only fit 
for a man, whom an ordinary misfortune and accident 
has befallen, but not such as has befallen me ; as he 
says : 4. if your soul were in my soul s stead. Some 
explain it thus : if your soul were in my soul's stead 
I should speak even thus against you, but the explana- 
tion is inadmissible. It ought to be interpreted thus : 
I also, of whom you said that I answer with a know- 
ledge of wind (xv. 2), and do away with fear {ib. 4), 
should speak like you, if I were like the wicked you 
mentioned, whose sins and transgressions are known, 
and with whom you compare me. But if your soul 
were in my soul's stead, if you had been smitten like 
me, for no transgression, and I were tranquil and 
healthy like you, I should have joined together for 
you consolations and goodly words, to encourage and 
strengthen you, and should have shaken my hecul 
about you; — in the sense of (Jerem. xviii. 16): he 
shall be astonished and shake his head — to weep and 
wail about you, knowing and recognising that you 
were not smitten in the usual way. 5. and the move- 
ment of my lips, in my consolations, should assuage. 


But now, that I am smitten and you are the comforters, 
6. If I speaJi:, even I, like a man who tells his grief to 
his friend, my grief is not sjssxiaged, by your words 
which ought to strengthen me, and if I forbear speak- 
ing, so that you might not vex me, what part of my 
grief departs from me? My grief will be all the 
greater, if I hold my peace. 7. But now it has made 
me weary, namely, the grief of which he spoke. Or, 
**A^" has made vie zveafy ; namely, God ; to whom he 
says, thou hast made desolate all my company ; i.e, 
my body ; to this refers : 8. Thou hast shrivelled me 
up, wrinkles appeared on my face, cf. (xxii. 16) : thai 
were shrivelled up. I n the language of the Sages the 
word denotes the spreading of the wrinkles — I have 
become wrinkled before my time, it was a witness ; 
namely, all that has happened unto me. And my 
leanness rises up against me, no fatness is left in me, 
and the evidence is before me. It can also be ex- 
plained as a rejoinder to Eliphaz, to whom he says : 
But now thy word has made me weary, in that thou 
didst say, both the greyheaded and the very aged 
man .... (xv. 10) zvhich tvise men have told .... 
(ib, 18), thou hast astonished and silenced— jiiQ-'jdn like 
(xxi. 5) : Turn unto me, 'io»m and be astonished — all 
my company and my associates, who hitherto spoke as 
I do, now they will speak like thee. And thou hast 
shrivelled me up, cut short my words as to this, that 
certainly my transgression is a witness against me, 
and ^B>np my denial rises up against me, my lying 
statement, that I have not sinned, which testifies to 


my fB.ce that I have sinned. If you spoke to me like 
this, I should be unable to reply. But as he does not 
know of any sin of mine, what value has thy objection, 
that he does not tell their sin to the notorious wicked, 
who are unable to say ** I have not sinned".^ He 
ought to have told me^ for (I) do not recognise any 
sin of mine. 9. But without delay, suddenly, he has 
torn me in his wrath, at once, without a pretext, and 
hated me, for his hand is still stretched out against 
me. And when my adversary sees it, he gnashes 
with his teeth upon me, and sharpens his eyes upon 
me. And when the world sees that his anger is 
kindled against me, 10. they gape upon me with 
their mouth, to swallow me up, after the manner of 
the hypocrites and such as respect persons ; and ihey 
do not pray to God for me, but they smite me 
upon the cheek reproachftilly, and gather themselves 
together against me. pwV'^n: = they ^father them- 
selves together [To pM^on'']. cf, (Jer. xii. 6): they 
have cried m^o all together after thee, (Is. xxxi. 4), 
a multitude of shepherds, to scoff at me. Some say 
that the words he has torn me in his ivrath are to 
be connected with the following words my adversary, 
1 1 . Gtod deUvers me to the ungodly, i.e, the 
adversary, to judge and chastise me, and places 
my remedy in the hands of the wicked and the 
hypocrites ; the remedy of my consolations that are 
not right. ""p^T may also be an expression of 
perverting, as (Numb. xxii. 32): for the way is 
perverse. They are two roots. Thou hast placed 


be said of the horn only, but of the whole body. 
Menachem compares it with 1^2?, his yoke, in which 
word the dagesh shows that it belongs to reduplicated 
roots (^^) ; R. Jacob (Tarn) approves of this ex- 
planation. He explains it thus : / have sewed sack- 
clolh upon my skin, I have covered all the skin and 
afterwards I put a yoke of dust upon my horn, so 
that the horn was covered with dust, and the body 
with sackcloth, the Loaz (French) for TiS'pS:? will be 
then . . . . , for the yoke upon his horn was of dust, 
and not of wood and iron. This interpretation seems 
probable to us. Ibn Ezra explains ^tHtcs = I have 
brought up, like (Nehemiah viji. 6), ^:?'ioi with the 
lifting up of their hands. 1 6. My face is shrunk, cf. 
(Lam. ii. 11): my bowels are burned^ and in the 
Talmud (Chullin, 56a), its entrails are shrtmk, it is 
an expression of shrivelling up and shrinking. 17. 
Although there is no violence in my hands ; nobody 
can say about me, that I robbed and committed 
violence. And my prayer is pure ; clean and proper. 
I never prayed to God to bring misfortune (to any 
man). Or, — I have not prayed because I had 
sinned. Some say '•n^pro is an expression of ahhn, 
judges, — for my judgment should be pure. 18. O 
earth, cover not my blood, so that my innocent blood 
that is shed should be forgotten ; cf (Ezekiel xxiv. 8) : 
/ have set her blood upon the bare rock, that it shotild 
not be covered', that it should not be forgotten. And 
let there be no place for the lament of my cry, that 
the place would prevent it coming before him. I 


found in the treatise Soferim (iv. 9) that ^mi of 
DipD •»rp ^Mi belongs to those names (of God) that may 
not be blotted out (?), in that case the vocalisation is 
h^\ and the meaning, that God will provide a place 
to receive my cry. 19. Even now, that the lot of the 
wicked has befallen me ; behold, my witness is in 
heaven, he knows my ways, that I have not sinned, 
and he that vouches for me is on high, this is a 
parallelism. 20, My interpreters, who ought to have 
interpreted in my favour, seeing that you are my 
friends ; who ought to have comforted me, and 
prayed for me instead of condemning me ; — know 
ye, that my eye pours . out tears unto Qod. 2 1 . Who 
would plead for a man, for any man, such as I am, 
with Qod ; — who is it that sinned against him, who 
deals treacherously with his friend ; whether I sinned 
against him, as they say ; or whether they deal 
treacherously with me, as I say. 22. For when a few 
years are come, the years of man's life, that are 
meted out to him, will come quickly, and he goes 
the way whence he shall not return. Therefore, I 
I plead while I am still alive. 

Cap. XVII. — i. And already my breath is ii\jured, 
while I live, for when a man is stricken with diseases, 
he puts forth an evil breath from his mouth. My 
days are extinct, my happy days ; they will not be 
bright any more ; would to God, that the grave were 
for me. Or, it means ; the grave is for me during 
my lifetime, for my flesh is clothed in worms and 


mould, as if I were in the grave, and none of you 
comforts me. 2. Surely, there are mockers with me, 
the diseases, which change every moment on him. 
And by their provocation, i.e. your words [o'^^nri] cf. 
(Gen. xxxi. 7) : and your father Snn has deceived nie. 
mine eye abides, for even at night, when I remember 
your words, or feel my sufferings, I have no rest ; for 
I do not sleep, they embitter my life. 3. Give now a 
pledge, (addressing) God ; \be surety for vit\ be 
surety for me for good (Ps. cxix. 123). Or, he 
addresses Eliphaz. Who is there that will strike 
hands with me; cf. (Prov. xxii. 26): be not thou of 
them that strike hands ; after the way of a man that 
makes another a promise about something. 4. For 
thou hast hid their heart, thou Eliphaz, who spoke 
the first in my condemnation, to say, that all this 
came to me on account of my wickedness ; thou hast 
hidden the hearts of thy other friends from under- 
standing, for they say that I am wicked according to 
thy words therefore shalt thou not exalt [thyself], and 
boast about thy words. But if he addresses God, it 
means : thou hast covered [them] up with their fatness 
so that they do not understand ; for they see the grave 
ready for me during my lifetime, and my troubles, 
and they add pain to my pain by condemning me. 
Therefore shalt thou not exalt them, nor cause them 
to prosper, for they are no more than hypocrites, — 
as mentioned before (xiii. 8) : ivill you 7'espcct his 
person ? — 5. For a portion will lihphaz denounce his 
friends. Or, p^oV nieans, smoothness of lips and 


hypocrisy ; — my friends say that I was hypocritical to 
thee, as he said (xv. 34) : for the company of the 
hypocrite is barren. Therefore God informs the friends 
-me and them — who of us all is the hypocrite. And 
fts for him who shall be found to be the hypocrite, 
the eyes of his children and of his company feul in 
looking for help, as they said about me (v. 4) : let his 
children be far from safety, and (xv. 34) : for the 
company of the hypocrite, etc. 6. And he placed me, 
has not God caused me to stand in the past, when 1 
was in my glory, to rule and correct peoples with the 
rod of reproof. And a Topheth, and a blaze of fire, 
burning like the Topheth, which blazes for ever, I 
was to them formerly; so much were they afraid to 
approach me, for I used to remove the wicked from 
the earth. And they teU me : for the company of the 
hypocrite .... that I was hypocritical and respected 
persons in judgment ; and from whose hand have I 
received a bribe .•*.... and God placed me to be a 
proverb and a byword. Ibn Ezra says that the sub- 
ject to **he placed me" is **the pain,'' or ** Eliphaz," 
and I am now a n9in tabret and a harp before them, 
for laughter, — they scorn me. Or now is *'a filthy 
place." 7. And ... is dim through grief, they 
grieved me with their words, rrjm., as (Gen. xxvii. i) : 
and his eyes were dim, for grief darkens the eyesight. 
And my formations, my days, or the members that 
are formed, cf, (Ps. cxxxix. 16) : the days were 
fashioned. Or, the form of my face is all as a shadow 
through their insults. 8. Upright men shall be 


astonished at this evil, and confused, as these add 
pain to my pain. And he who is mnocent like me, 
who knows in himself that he has not sinned, against 
the hypocrite, i.e. his friend who deals treacherously 
by him and shakes him, he shall stir himself up, he 
shall strengthen himself to contend against him, for 
who can be silent at this ? 9. And not that he turns 
away from his righteous way. so as not to serve 
him, but the righteous shall hold on his good 
way, and shall not leave the service of God through 
this, and shall not say : See, what happened 
to Job, who served God in vain (Malachi iii. 14). 
And he that has clean hands, whose hands are free 
from violence, shall get stronger and stronger; in 
the purity of his hands, and not after the manner of 
the hypocrite when misfortune befalls him. The mean- 
ing of: 10. and indeed, they all, is, all that they 
say about me as you did ; or, it means : I say to 
all upright, pure, and righteous men : Return ye and 
come now, and let them judge between us, and I shall 
not find a wise man among you, not even Eliphaz, 
the oldest among you. For they will see: 11. My 
days are past, my happy days are past and annulled, 
cf. (Deut. xxxiii. 25): and as thy days so shall thy 
strength be, i.e. thy happy days, — my purposes are 
broken oflf, the thoughts that I had of dying in 
happiness and peace — to that extent I considered 
myself pure and clean of hands — , all these are 
broken off and past. The possessions of my heart, 
as (Obad. 17): their possessions ; this is also the 


me after they have not profited me even in my 
lifetime? i6. For even the bars of the grave, when 
they shall carry me on bars and staves, even then 
Bhall go down with me the worms and maggots that 
are upon me, and not like other people, over whom 
worms have no power, except after death. And if 
together above the dust, if my body had been com- 
plete, with my members, and then buried ; — if my 
body had not been broken and consumed while I 
live, so that the dust of the pit cannot cause me to 
be decomposed ; there would have been rest unto me. 
But my members fall off from me before I am buried, 
after the manner of the diseased and stricken. If 
so what comfort is it to me, that thou sayest (xv. 1 1 ) : 
Are the consolations of God too small for thee ? Con- 
sequently, j£?7^ are miserable comforters (xvL i). This 
is the interpretation of R. Rliezer, which is correct. 
Ibn Ezra explains it thus : m, The bars of the grave, 
i.e. its branches ; metaphorically, as if the grave were 
a tree below, cf. (Ezek. xvii. 6) : and it brought forth 
Dm branches ; or they go down refers to the bars. 
Some explain it quite differently: (v, 12) those 
mockeries mentioned {v. 2) change night into day, 
and the light, which I enjoy now, shines now near\ 
was only like one moment before the darkness. — 
{y. 16) The bars, i.e. the children, that are to man 
like the branches of a tree. As they issue from the 
body of the tree, thus the children issue from the 
body of man; cf (Ezek. xix. 14): And fire is gone 
out of the rod of her branches, and (Job xviii. 13) : 


is right ; for he constantly cries and complains about 
the chastisements which are inflicted in his life, and 
none of you replies. With your eyes you see that we 
are stopped, and stayed by him in our words, n^m 
is an expression of stopping up, jWDto is the Targum 
of D^DHD (Gen. xxvi. 15) : //le Philistines had stopf>ed 
them up. But I will answer him. Thou hast said of 
God (xvi. 9) : He has torn me in his wrath and hated 
7ne, not so he, but thou art the man 4. that tears and 
destroys himself in anger, and thy heart is wroth 
against God. Shall be forsaken for thee : is it for thy 
sake, — saying as thou doest that he regards thee as 
his enemy — that we must say that God has forsaken 
the earth and given it into the hand of the wicked, as 
thou sayest (ix. 24) : the earth is given into the hand of 
the wicked, and that He takes no account of the 
righteousness of the just, but (xvi. 11) delivers them 
to the ungodly, to consume and destroy them ; and 
shall the rock be removed out of its place, so that his 
world be destroyed, and that he restores not unto man 
his righteousness [referring to xxxiii. 26]. Are we 
obliged to say for thy sake only that he acts as thou 
sayest, that never happened to any man what happened 
to thee.*^ 5. Yea, the light; he explains: the world 
proceeds now also on its regular course and has not 
been changed for thy sake. For the light of the 
wicked shall be put out as usual, cf. (Ps. cxviii. 12) -. 
they are quenched as the fire of thorns ; and as thou 
didst say about thyself (xvii. i) : my days are extitut. 
The case is not thine alone ; (v. 6) shall be put out 


thyself. Why did he not perceive his net.^ lo. 
Because his noose is hid in the ground, metaphori- 
cally ; he was not told of his trangressions and sins, so 
as to beware and repent, and he imagined that he was 
innocent and of pure hands, therefore he did not 
beware of the stumblingblock, and was confident like 
thee. But afterwards, ii. Terrors make him afraid 
on every side, so that he thinks he cannot escape 
except by that way, but the gin is spread at his feet, 
cf, (Prov. i. 17) : the net is spread. Then he becomes 
aware that he had not walked on the right way, other- 
wise he had not stumbled. 1 2. His strength shall be 
hunger-bitten, referring to (z/. 9) : the starved shall lay 
hold of him. Or, his strength, ie. he who robs him, 
shall be hungry to eat that which was his. And 
calamity shall be ready day by day at his sida 
1^7*75^ = at his side. His strength denotes perhaps 
his firstborn, cf. (Deut xxi. 17): the beginning 0/ his 
strength ; and ^Jy3^ his rib, i.e. his wife, who is from 
his rib. 13. Until this strength shall devour the bars 
of his skin ; or he himself .... the branches of his 
body and the flesh of his ozvn arm (Is. ix. 19) and his 
children, from hunger. Which sufferings are worse 
than thine ; for (Lam. iv. 9) : they that be slain by the 
sword or the plague are better than they that be slain 
with hunger. And there is a difference between him 
who devours his own flesh while he is alive and him 
whom the worm devoureth. The firstborn of death 
shall devour his members, some say, the prince of 
death, cf (Ps. Ixxxix. 28) : / will make him my first- 


his roots from beneath. He continues: 17. His re- 
membrance perishes and he has no name ; 1 8. because 
he was driven from light into darkness ; referring to 
what he said above (z/. 6) : the light is dark in his 
tent. — ^and is chased out of the world, like (v. 7) his 
own counsel shall cast him doivn. — 20. They that come 
after shall be astonished at his day ; those who shall 
rise up afterwards, and see the desolation of his house. 
And they that were before, that were in his days, and 
saw him ; fright seized them, about themselves, lest 
they are dealt with like him. — 21. But such, all this is 
only fit for the dwellings of the unrighteous, of him 
who is unrighteous and thinks himself perfect and 
upright. But once his tent is desolate, it is revealed 
that iniquity has dwelt therein, and this is the place 
that knew not Gk)d. He did [not] recognise his 
Creator, to turn away from the way, of which he 
was confident that it was the right one, this is the 
place of iniquity, which he mentioned .... (.'^) Thus 
far Bildad's reply : thou also didst think that hitherto 
thou walkedst the right way, and wast confident that 
thou wouldst spend thy days in happiness. But when 
thy purposes and thy trust were broken off, thou 
shouldst have known, that the way, about which thou 
wast so confident, was not the right way, otherwise 
thou wouldst not have been ensnared and caught 
thereon. In replying to thee I have not, like our friend 
Eliphaz, referred to notorious evildoers, whose trans- 
gressions, robbery, and violence are known to all ; but 
to unconscious evildoers, who, like thee, think that 


has subverted me and surrounded me with his nets : — 
but the Satan chastised his body on every side, and 
stirred up the mind of his friends to shame and 
condemn him, so as to vex him more. Know ye now, 
that God has subverted me, and caused me to come 
to the place where the net and the gin is, of which 
Bildad said (xviii. 8) : for he is cast as a net unto his 
own feet, (ib. 9) : a gin takes him by the heeL — And 
he compa£»ed me with his net, which he placed round 
the spot where I walked to catch me. [Otherwise] 
there was no net in my way, for my way was right, 
without any stumblingblock. And how can it be 
known now that God has subverted me } By this : 7. 
that I cry, about the wrong of the snares that compass 
me, that he may let me know the reason, and what is 
my transgression and my sin, and I am not answered ; 
— and he docs not answer me, saying : So \righi\ is 
thy Judgment, thyself hast decided it \ (i Kings xx. 40) 
thou hast transgressed against thyself, thou hast walked 
on the way of thorns and snares (Prov. xxii. 5) — I cry 
out, that there should be a plea for man with God 
(xvi. 21), so that he do not destroy. If there were a 
]w(!igv[\^nt I should argue my ways before him (referring 
to xiii. 15). But I cannot come before him, for — 8. He 
has fenced up my way that I cannot pass, and besides 
this, he has set darkness in my paths, cf (Lam. iii. 6) : 
He has made me to divell in dark places. It is put 
metaphorically : like one who cries before a king, who 
pretends not to hear him, and orders his imprisonment, 
so that he should not come before him any more, as 


if he had hated him from the first. He does not allow 
him to arrange his defence, and orders to strip him of 
his garments. Therefore he says : — 9. He has stripped 
me of my glory, after I was caught in the net, and 
taJcen the crown from my head; this shows that he 
(Job) was a great and crowned prince. Or, it is an 
allusion to (i. 20) : and he shaved his head, — 10. He 
has broken me down on every side; — from all that 
was mine ; cattle, flocks, children, even to my body, 
so that I have no standing ; and I am gone, (Fr.) 
fus tressailli, I am entirely gone, for there is no 
soundness in my flesh (Ps. xxxviii. 4). — ^And my hope 
he has plucked up like a tree, which is entirely torn 
up, roots and all, and not like a tree that is hewn 
down, but has its root still in the ground ; for such 
there is hope ; as he explained above. For all this 
his anger is not turned aivay (Is. v. 25). Therefore, 
he says : 1 1 . He has kindled his wrath against me. 
12. His troops come on together, his armies ; i.e, the 
misfortunes, accidents, and sufferings that came to 
him. 13. He has put my brethren for from me; 
Ibn Ezra says that ^tr\ {v. 12) is from the same 
root as pf?D a pricking briar (Ezek. xxviii. 24), and is 
used here in the same sense as (Hos. ii. 8): / shall 
liedge up thy way with thorns. Or, it is like 'iSd 
(Is. Ivii. 14) : Cast ye up, cast ye up. This never 
happened to any wicked man, 14, 15. that his kinsfolk, 
and his familiar friends, and those that sojourn in his 
house, and his maids, and the members of his house- 
hold. . . . 17. that his breath is strange to his wife. 



. . . 1 8, 19. That young children despise him. . . . 
And his friends are turned into his enemies. — And he 
calls unto his servant and he. does not answer {v. i6). 
The word D'^S^y {v, 1 8) means men of iniqtdty, wicked 
men, ox young men. Zophar replies to all this. I explain 
it thus : my breath is strange even to my own wife : 
referring to what he had said before (xvii. 14): [I 
have called] the worm my mother, and my sister, he 
says now : I have supplicated my servant and my 
wife concerning the children of my own body to remove 
them from me. He alludes to the worms that encom- 
pass him on all sides. The S of "^j:?^ = concerning, as 
(Exod. xiv. 3) : and Pharaoh shall say "^Dif? concerning 
the children of Israel. The children of cannot refer 
to his real children, for they were dead. And they 
speak against me, *ii*t construed with the n always 
denotes ** speaking unfavourably of one" as (Numb, 
xii. i) : And Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses, 
(id. xxi. 7) : because we have spoken against the Lord 
and against thee ; but when it is construed with the 
S it denotes the opposite, only in the way of prophecy. 
. . . Those whom he loves have turned to enemies. — 
20. To my skin and to my flesh the bone cleaves, cf. 
(Lament, iv. 8) : their skin cleaves to their bones : it is 
withered, it is become like a stick. The one frees itself 
from the other, and sticks no longer ; he proceeds to 
say this : and I escape by the skin of my teeth ; for 
the teeth, that are bone, escape from the skin. This 
I understood from the commentaries of R. Jacob, the 
memory of the righteous is a blessing. — 21. For the 


hand of Gkxl has touched me, and my plague is not 
temporary, but a continuous plague (Is. xiv. 6). O ye, 
my friends ; ye, who are my friends. This is said 
in the same sense as (Cant. viii. 6): the fiame of the 
Lord] for anybody can quench ordinary fire, but 
not that which comes from God. 22. Why do ye 
persecute me as God? cf. (Zech. i. 15): /or I ivas 
but {a little) displeased^ and they helped forward the 
affliction. You ought to have been grieved your- 
selves, and not to have opened your mouth wide. 
And why .... are you not satisfied with my flesh ? 
23. Oh . . . that they were inscribed in a book I 
First he says : that they were written — he intends 
to use a parallelism — on any place so as to be 
visible to men ; on the wall with orpiment or 
vermilion ; then he adds, as a climax, that they 
were written in a book ; again : that they were 
inscribed for later generations ; and, again : 24. with 
an iron pen and lead ; and before completing his 
sentence, he adds : that they were graven in the rock 
for ever. For an iron pen engraves deeply on the 
rock ; but the writing may not be visible on account 
of the whiteness of the stone ; therefore, lead, which 
is dark, is put into the incisions, which makes the 
writing visible and lasting for ever. 25. And I know, 
the 'I refers to : why do you persecute me ; you ought 
not to have fallen off from me ; and the last, i.e. 
when all my friends shall have left me, and those 
who loved me shall have betrayed me, he shall stand 
up for me as a redeemer, and justify me. Therefore 


I want my words to be written down, that they shall 
not be forgotten from the heart. It can also be 
explained thus : And I know that I have a redeemer 
alive, who will justify me by his words and not con- 
demn me. If no such be alive now, he will arise in 
later generations and justify me. Upon the dust 
means: in the world, cf, (xli 25): Upon earth there 
is not his like ; (xxii. 24) : 26. And lay upon the dust 
thy ore. And after my skin has been thus destroyed^ 
after my skin has been beaten, cf. (Is. xvii. 6): as 
one beats (the top of) an olive tree ; — and my skin was 
broken by the strokes. My desire has been that my 
words should be brought before him ; and from my 
flesh, which is stricken and destroyed, I wished to 
see Gk>d, to answer me (the question) why I was 
smitten with these plagues } Some say that niS^j here 
denotes a judge ^ who executes judgments on my flesh. 
It may also be explained thus : after they saw that 
my skin is destroyed, and I am struck down with 
sufferings, that, which I mentioned before, happened 
to me : All the men of my counsel abhor me {v. 19), 
and condemn me by their words, saying, that these 
troubles have reached me only on account of my 
wickedness; and they know no other way, (but) to 
condemn me. R. Samuel. — And from 7ny flesh, frpm 
the condition of my flesh and the state it is in, I see 
God, and know hrs power. 27. That which I see, for 
myself, and my heart knows its own bitterness, 
(Prov. xiv. 10), and no one else; and my eyes have 
seen and recognised my sufferings, and no one else. 


for my reins are consumed within me, and no one 
oan know it but I ; he mentions the reins because 
they are the seat of counsel. 28. If you say, is there 
a.ny one of you who says : why do you persecute him ? 
a.nd that the root of the matter is found in him, that 
he is chastised with diseases. Or, it means this : 
"Why is he i)ersecuted refers to (z/. 22) : JVAy do you 
J>ersecute nte as God? is not the root of the matter 
found in him? for if his way had been upright he 
would not have stumbled on it. 29. Be ye afraid of 
"the sword, that you be not smitten like me, since 
you magnify your mouth against me. For wrath, 
to which a man provokes his friend, vexing him in 
the day of his trouble, to grieve his heart by his 
ivords ; the pimishment of the sword, the punishment 
is that the sword is brought upon him who does this ; 
-^f. (Gen. iv. 13): vty punishment is greater than I can 
^ear, the punishment with which thou doest judge 
«ne. For this reason, set your heart, to know my 
destruction, which is so great upon a wise and 
intelligent man .... for the m of pirn is a servile 
letter, it has the same vowel as (Cant. i. 7) rvchf^, 
^or why should I be, (Judg. v. 7) : '•nopi:), that I 
Deborah arose, pT is the verb like pT, the word 
xneans that there is a judgment, and Ibn Ezra 
explains it thus. — Thus far Job's reply : God has 
subverted me {v. 6) ; he cries out against the wrong : 
if his (Job's) way had been perverse, he ought to 
have been warned, that he was on the way of dark- 
ness. Further : all his friends had betrayed him, 


and the men of his counsel abhorred him ; he also 
mentions the relation in which he stood to his own 
wife and his own servant, which was unnatural even 
in the case of the notoriously wicked. Further : he 
knew that all this was from God, for the root of the 
matter was not found in himself. For when the wicked 
falls, he is despised by his enemies whom he had 
robbed and against whom he had committed violence, 
but not by his own servant, his own wife, and his 
whole family. Zophar replies to this (xx. 27) : the 
earth shall rise tip against hinu 

Cap. XX. — 1, 2. Then Zophar answered, Therefore, 
to these thy words ; my thoughts give answer to me, 
the word to reply to thee ; — and by reason of this my 
haste is within me ; >p\r\ = my haste; to answer thee ; 
for I cannot refrain myself to wait in accordance with 
our friend Bildad's instruction (xviii. 2) : Consider and 
afterwards we will speak. 3. Because I hear the 
reproof which puts me to shame, with which thou 
arguest, and reprovest us in judgment, saying (xix. 29): 
be ye afraid of the sword. This is not a reproof from 
love, but of reproach and shame ; — and the spirit, out 
of my xmderstanding, understanding as I do thy words, 
provides me with an answer, to answer thee ; — or, 
•»53)^, in the Kal : answers vie, — 4. Hast thou known 
this, as the usual course of the world ; -^^p, from the 
time, since man was placed upon earth ; namely, that 
— as thou sayest — it is not the usual course that the 
wicked cry out of wrong and are not answered (refer- 


ring to xix. 7) ? 5. For the tritimphiiig of the wicked 
does not endure, but is short, and is broken and lost 
in a moment. And the joy of the hypocrite is, as it 
were, but for a moment, cf. (IVov. xii. 19): but a 
lyin(^ fo?i(>ne is but for a viovtcnt ; for it is not from 
his ancestors, it did not endure. . He calls r\pn him 
who shows the world, as if he loved God, whom he 
only serves from hypocrisy and fear. 6. Though his 
excellency mount up to the heavens, iK^b) = his height; 
until his head reach unto the clouds, so that he imagines 
that he shall never fall. 7. Like his own dung, iS^j:? 
like (i Kings xiv. 10): as a ntan sweeps away the 
dung. Or, 'iSSaD, when he rolls from the clouds, 
which he mentioned ; he shall i)erish for ever from 
among men. He was raised, so that his fall might 
be visible and known ; cf, (Ps. cii. 11): for thou hast 
lifted me up, and cast tne away, — Until, 8. He shall 
fly away as a dream and be not found ;— he shall be 
chased away as a vision of the night. 9. Thy eye 
which saw him, ^nD^t;) = saw him. shall behold him 
no more, the aforementioned eye, in his place. 10. 
.... shall oppress his children, the dagesh in ^sv 
denotes the absence of the s : the poor oppress his 
children. Some explain 'iST like pn, favour; they 
shall make their peace with the poor about that which 
they robbed them of. This is also Ibn Ezra's ex- 
planation ; but in view of verse 19: for he has 
oppressed and forsaken the poor, the former explana- 
tion seems right, as he proceeds : and his hands shall 
give back i^iK his strength; that which he stole by 


his Strength, his hands shall return. Or, 'id'im = the 
iniquity in his hand, as (xi. 14): (/ pN, iniquity be in 
thy hand, put it far away. For if he is not willing to 
restore it, what he ought to restore, whilst he still 
possesses his .wealth, others will restore it against his 
will. II. His bones and members axe fiill of the sins 
of his youth. vp'iSy, from the root xh^. But the 
word is rather to be explained as that which was 
hitherto hidden and concealed from men, who thought 
him to be righteous ; whilst he secretly stole and 
murdered, and concealed his deeds. Now God re- 
veals them by chastisements, so that men understand 
that all this is the consequence of his sin, and that he 
was not righteous, as the world considered him. Thus 
they do also in regard to thee. But it shall lie down 
with him in the dust, as thou didst say about thyself, 
that thou shalt be buried in plagues, full of worms 
and rottenness. He proceeds to explain the hidden 
sins, and the way in which he deceived men, so as 
to be considered righteous. 12. Though wickedness 
be sweet in his mouth ; though wickedness were 
sweet in his mouth so as continually to rob and 
steal in secret. Though he hide it under his 
tongue, and is silent, so as not to reveal it. 13. 
And keep it still within his mouth. This is the 
concealment, which he spoke of as his hidden 
sins, which he did not want to reveal, either at the 
beginning or at the end. Wherever the expression 
''under his tongue" occurs in the text, it denotes 
silence, as my father — the memory of the righteous is 


a blessing — explained (Cant. iv. ii): thy lips drop 
honey, when thou speakest ; honey and milk are under 
thy tongtie, when thou are silent; cf. (Ps. Ixvi. 17): / 
cried unto him with my mouthy and high praise was 
under my tongue. 14. His meat in his bowels, i.e. 
he will not be able to continue the concealment as time 
is prolonged, for, in the end, his bread and his victuals 
when they go down into his bowels are turned to him 
into gall of asps within him. Or ; in the end, he shall 
himself reveal the matter, for nothing of what was gall 
of asps within him shall remain in his inside. 15. 
Riches and goods he has swallowed down in secret, 
and he shall vomit them up again in public ; out of 
his belly in which he had hid them, Qod shall cast 
them out ; and shall reveal his hidden iniquities ; and 
thus- his nakedness shall be revealed to the public. 
1 6. The poison of asps, contrasted with the streams of 
honey {v. 1 7) ; both expressions are metaphorical ; 
cf. (Deut. xxix. 17) : that bears gall and wormwood. 
It is the nature of the asp, when it bites a man, to 
stick its mouth into the flesh and pour poison therein ; 
in the same way as the breast enters the mouth to put 
milk therein, nypw, viper, a sort of wild beast, cf 
(Is. xiv. 29) : out of the serpents root shall come forth 
an adder. But if you say that this is his judgment in 
this world, but that in the world to come he shall have 
enjoyment with the righteous, because he has already 
received his judgment; therefore he says: 17. He 
shall not look upon the rivers, the flowing rivers 
wherein is honey and butter. 18. That which he 


laboured for he shall restore ; he (Zophar) spoke 
before about restoring that which he (the wicked) had 
stolen ; now he says, that even that for which he had 
laboured himself, and which he had obtained as reward 
of his trouble, he shall restore, in addition to that 
which he had stolen, — in the same way as he shall 
restore the riches, that are its exchange ; Le. the stolen 
riches in exchange of which he now gives the riches of 
his labour. This is the meaning of the D of fr^n?, in 
the same way as, for the opposite has come to pass. 
And he shall not rcgoice even at the riches of his 
labour. . The word i^j^ has the Kanietz, and is of the 
same formation as (Gen. xli. 30) : aud all 2?!^ the 
plenty shall l>e forgotten^ it was, therefore, explained as 
the labour of the people whom he robbed ; we can also 
explain it, as the produce of his own labour. 19. For 
he has oppressed and exacted in secret from the poor, 
in order to join house to house, f eld to field (Is. v. 8), 
by robbing them, and he thought he would be able 
thus to build them up ; but it is not so. This is the 
same as (f. 15): God shall cast them out of his belly : — 
20. (namely) : For he did not know when he was quiet 
in his belly that %v^s full of robber)*. Of that which it 
ooyeted, which his belly coveted, that was covetous 
to eat of stolen goods, he shall not save aught. 21. 
There was nothing left, because he aK-ays trusted in 
robl>er)\ he did not leave anything. Or, there shall 
be nothing left of what he deyoured ; but he did not 
set his heart to this, therefore .... shall not endure 
and last long. But 22. In the ftilneas of his soffl- 


ciency, and the plentiful food in his full belly, when 
he imagines to enjoy it, then he shall be in straits ; 
so much so, that the hand of every one that is 
in misery and weak shall come upon him to put 
him to straits and to destroy him. 23, When he is 
about to All his belly, then (God) shall cast the fierce- 
ness of his wrath upon him ; he shall not be allowed 
to enjoy his bread. And he shall rain upon them 
(Ps. xi. 6) snares y fire and brimstone \ upon the things 
he coveted, and the things he left, while he is eating. 
io^n^ means his /ood\ some say it means his flesh. 
If 24. he flees from the iron weapon ; such as the 
sword and the like, which, on being drawn from its 
sheath, flashes and burns, and frightens him against 
whom it is drawn. It shall strike him through. It 
means, if a man flees from the sword — which is possible 
— he cannot flee from the bow ; for the arrow over- 
takes him, and enters, and sticks in his belly, — that 
was mentioned (z^. 23). 25. He draws it forth ; when 
he wants to draw the arrow forth from his belly, the 
shaft being outside, and (the point of) the arrow 
within, the shaft shall go forth from the body of the 
arrow, and the arrow shall remain. And even if he 
is able to draw forth the arrow itself, which is the 
lightning, cf. (Prov. xxv. 18): a sharp arrow, of its 
gall shall go ; Le. if he draws out the arrow, some of 
its gall — of the adders venom and the poison with 
which it was anointed — shall go, and remain in his 
belly to cause rottenness and swelling. Terrors axe 
upon him, upon the man of whom he said (t/. 6) that,. 


in his wickedness, his excellency mounted up to the 
heavens ; he has to be in constant fear. This is the 
explanation of this verse, and I did not find any other 
explanation preferable to this. 26. All darkness is laid 
up for his hidden things, ix, his concealments mentioned 
above (z/. 11); which he concealed from men. They 
shall also hide from him what happens to him, until 
the time when it comes. Or, it means : he shall have 
darkness in the place where he thought that much 
happiness was hidden for him. A fire not blown shall 
devour him ; not an ordinary fire, but as (Is. xxx. 33) : 
the breath of the Lord, like a stream of brimstone, 
doth kindle it. It shall go ill with him that is left, 
i.e. let no one of his household think that he shall 
escape ; for, woe unto him that is left, wherever he 
may be found For of all of them, 27. the heavens 
shaJl reveal the iniquity, that is secret and concealed ; 
and thus they shall answer to his crying out of wrong 
(xix. 7). And the earth rises up, for all men shall 
hate him, cf (Nahum iii. 19) : there is no asstiaj^'njr to 
thy hurt ; for they are turned into his enemies ; even the 
men of his counsel, as thou didst say (xix. 19) : that all 
the men of thy counsel abhorred thee. 28. The increase 
shall be rolled away, Sji^ = shall be rolled away and be 
for others. Some explain the word from the Targum 
(Aramaic), as (Exod. v. 12): to gather stubble, '•^'•a ; 
for all his increase shall be stubble. Ibn Ezra explains 
Sr, he shall be exiled from the place of his increase ; 
he shall be led out into exile, shall flow away ; namely 
his produce ; the wine and oil. in the day of his 


wrath ; of God s wrath, on account of the robbery and 
the iniquity that are in his hand ; and not, as he ex- 
pected, in rivers flowing with honey and milk {v. 17). 
29. This is the portion ; such is his judgment, as thou 
hast said about thyself, on account of thy works. And 
the heritage of his saying, some explain it : for the sin 
of his tongue ; others : and the heritage appointed unto 
him by Otod ; ie. thus it was decreed upon him from on 

Job replies to this. Only he takes another line of 
argument. For hitherto he had said : That which has 
befallen me has never befallen to anybody. Their 
reply was : everything that has befallen thee is that 
which is due to the wicked ; it is his portion and 
heritage from God ; so that he found no reply to this, 
for whatever he might mention of his lot, they would 
declare to be the portion of a wicked man. Then he 
answered them {v. 7) : Wherefore do the wicked live ; 
for sometimes the wicked is happy, and the righteous 
meets only with misfortune all his days. By this 
argument he defeated them, and they found no addi- 
tional reply to his additional argument. For they had 
adopted the rule that all wicked men are, in their life- 
time, punished in their body, like him. Thus he 
defeated them, by saying, that many wicked men 
spent their days in happiness and die full of sap, and 


Cap. XXI. — i, 2. And Job answered and said 
.... and let this be ; and let this, your setting your 
heart to listen diligently to my words, be unto me in 
the place of your consolations, with which you should 
have comforted me. 3. Suffer me, deportez mot ; and 
aAer that I have spoken, thou shalt mock ; i.e. after 
I have spoken, each of you shall mock as much as he 
likes. For my words are true, and cannot be mocked. 
The singular is used after the plural, because each 
answers him separately ; or, it may be, that he refers 
to Eliphaz who answered him first, as I explained on 
the expression (xvi. 3) : What provoketh thee .... 
4. As for me ; he means thou hast said that this is the 
portion of the wicked, that it is his due to be stricken 
like me. Am I stricken in my body, my chiklren, 
my property, so that I shall be as a proverb to every 
wicked man; --my talk, that this should be the 
thing they talk about } cf. (Deut. xxviii. j^^^ : thou 
shalt become a proverb and a byivord. If so, why 
should I not be impatient, and die. And it may be 
explained and as for me why do you wonder at my 
cry and that I speak and argue with a wise man.** 
And if so my talk is only for the sons of men who 
have no intelligence, for my talk is not for the wise. 
Why should I not be impatient^ so as to speak no more 
through my grief ."^ 5. Turn ye imto me, to under- 
stand my words, so as to distinguish between me and 
the wicked to whom you compare me. And be 
astonished, be silent, as (Dan. iv. 16) : was astonished 
for a while. And lay your hand upon your mouth, so 


as not to listen. 6. And if, ue. if it be according to 
your words ; I remember, that which he is going to 
say (z/. 7) that the wicked live. Or, if I remember 
means : if I take your words to heart so as to 
remember them, then I am troubled ; — and horror 
takes hold on my flesh ; trembling, because I am 
different from all other wicked men, about whom you 
said : (xx. 29) : This is the portion of a wicked man, 
etc. My reply to you is: 7. Wherefore do the 
wicked live, and prolong their days in honour ; they 
become strong, this is also a repetition ; c/. (Ps. Ixxv. 
6) : Speak {not) with a haughty neck, 8. ... is 
established before them, firm ; cf. (Judg. xvi. 26) : 
ivherenpon the house restSy ( i Kings ii. 46) : and the 
kingdom ivas established ; all these are expressions of 
firmness ; before them, whilst they are alive ; with 
them, and not exiled away from them, but (able) to 
support them and to nourish their old age. And their 
offspring, namely : of their children, cf. (Ps. cxxviii. 6) : 
thoii shalt see thy children s children, pecue upon Israel. 
For this is the way of those who fear God ; and not 
that of the man who buried all his children on one 
day, whom you call wicked. 9. Their houses are in 
peace, without fear, and not — as Bildad said — 
(xviii. 14) : he shall be rooted out of his tent wherein 
he trusteth \ and — as Zophar said — (xx. 28): The 
increase of his house shall depart ; and — as Eliphaz 
said — (xv. 28): houses which are not inhabited \ this 
(z/. 6) I remembered and was troubled. — Neither is 
the rod of God upon them ; as it is upon me, to be 


chastised every day. lo. His bull impregnates the 
female with which it has joined ; and does not cast 
out the seed, but it congeals like cheese (ix. lo). The 
Targum has rbpD'' nS, thus the Sages say pnbprDw, 
vomitives ; it is a name for anything that is cast out ; 
and, the female being pregnant, she calveth without 
casting her calf. 1 1. They send forth their little ones 
without fear, and as for my children even in the house 
the mishap befell them ; and their children, because 
they are a great joy, dance without evil chance, and 
exult like the strong ones (the bulls). 1 2. They lift up, 
their voice ; understood, although not mentioned, cf, 
(Is. xlii. 11): let the wilderness and the cities thereof 
lift up (their voices). And rejoice at the sound of the 
pipe ; but my sons did not live long in the rejoicing of 
their feasts. 1 3. They spend their days in prosperity, 
without illness or plague ; and in a moment they go 
down to the grave, without suffering, and not like me, 
(vii. 15) whose soul chooseth strangling. Or, :oy\:^ 
may mean rest, like 27'uio, repose. Thus far, he 
mentioned their prosperous state, now he is going to 
mention what their actions are. 14. They said unto 
Qod, Depart from us, for it is idle to serve God 
(Malachi iii. 14). For we desire not the knowledge 
of thy ways ; contrary to (Ps. xxv. 4) : Show vie thy 
ways, O Lord. 15. What is the Almighty that we 
should serve him, %vhat is the profit that we should 
keep his observance (Malachi iii. 14); — and what 
profit should we have, what enjoyment should we 
have if we pray unto him, cf (Jen vii. 16) : pray not 


thou for this people ^ neither entreat me. i6. Lo, their 

prosperity is not in their hand ; all the prosperity 

which they enjoyed, they did not make for themselves, 

but it came to them from God ; and now he says 

(z^. 15) : what profit should we have if we pray unto 

him ; and nevertheless the counsel of the wicked is 

&r from me ; I do not speak like them, nor do I do 

according to their actions, although I know of their 

prosperity. 1 7. How oft is the lamp of the wicked put 

out? as you said (xviii. 5) : yea^ the light of the wicked 

shall be put out ; and how oft cometh their calamity 

upon them? (xviii. 12) : and calamity shall be ready 

at his side. He distributes lines to them in bis anger, 

contrary to (Ps. xvi. 6) : The lines are fallen unto me 

in pleasant places y (Ps. Ixxviii. 49) : he casts upon them 

the fierceness of his anger. 1 8. So that they be as chaff 

before the wind, which is easily thrust aside, and as 

chaff that the storm carries away ; — referring to the 

wicked, of whom thou hast said (xx. ^')\ he shall perish 

forever like his own dufjg, they that have seen him shall 

say, where is he ? Thus it shall be to them, according 

to the judgment of the wicked. And after they have 

to such an extent (v. 13) spent their days in prosperity , 

and in a moment they go down to the grave ; — 1 9. Gtod 

lays up his strength for his children, he preserves for 

his children after him that which he had robbed with 

his power. He is at ease, and his seed after him shall 

be cut off; and this is his vengeance. But he ought 

to have paid to the wicked during his lifetime, that 

which laid up for his children, that he may know 



and recognize, that it is on account of his evil actions ; 
according to thy words regarding my lot during my 
lifetime ; this is that he may know (Ps. Iviii. 1 2) : that 
there is a God, that judgeth in the earth, 20. Let his 
own eyes see his destruction, as it happened to me. 
and of the venom of the Ahnighty, i.e. he shall drink 
of the venom of asps, like me, within whom are the 
arrows of the Almighty (vi. 4), 21. For what 
pleasure has he in his house after him, that he should 
bewail, and take to heart, the chastisement of the 
judgment of his children ? — and the number of his 
months is cut off in the midst, from him. The word 
^s^jn is like (Prov. xxx. 27) : Yet go they forth all 
of them separated, it is an expression of rebelling 
(? — arranging?). Ibn Ezra compares it with (Ps. 
Iv. 24) : they shall not live out half their days ; — he 
shall not return again to his house to rejoice in them, 
for what does he care about them, as long as there 
was peace in his days. 22. Is it for God to teach 
knowledge? Is it (incumbent) upon God, to teach 
him to know how to fear him, and to repent, for that 
which is after htm, that they take a lesson from him ; 
and to repent because {y. 19) : he lays up his iniquity 
for his children, and he [is of those who] (z/. 13): 
spend their days in prosperity? rvn, knowledge, 
refers both to the preceding and the following phrase : 
Is it for God to teach man to know his way, and to 
know, that he judges those that are high, and to make 
them know his hand and his power, that they take a 
lesson ? It can also be explained thus : is there any 


of you who speaks in the place of God, that he shall 
teach to know, what this rule is ? For, according to 
your words, not all wicked men are alike, for there are 
such that are chastised like me. 23. And this, the 
wicked one, who dies in his fUll and complete strength, 
he is wholly at ease and quiet, without fear, healthy, 
and full of days. And thou shalt see another 25. 
wicked man who dies in bitterness of soul, and has not 
even a burial ; — like me. The h of ]^vfp0 is paragogic, 
like the h in (Hos. xiii. 5): nnNf?n. His breasts, 
v^-'ipi; = breasts, ieitns ; — a place for collecting fat ; 
in the language of the Mishna (Menachot 86a) : iAey 
are placed in the olive press. And the marrow of his 
bones are moistened, nj^tf*; = full of moisture, cf. npmo, 
drink. Should you say that there is a difference 
between him who dies at ease and quiet, and him who 
dies in bitterness of soul. It is not so ; for — 26. They 
lie down alike in the dust, and, together, the worm 
covers them. Consequently, he was unhappy in his 
lifetime, and is unhappy in his death. How then 
should the world take a lesson, seeing, that a 
thoroughly wicked man dies in rejoicing of soul. 
Therefore are your words vanity. 27. Behold, I know 
your thoughts, which you had about me when I 
was in my glory ; you were jealous of me in your 
heart, and the devices of wickedness and wrong which 
you wrongftilly imagine against me now, and which 
you disclose, saying : 28. Where is the house of the 
prince ? and where is the tent of the dwellings of so 
and so, and such and such, the wicked ? they are 


gone, lost for ever through their iniquity. 29. Have you 
not [asked] them that go by the way, who know 
all the events and occurrences of the land ; cf. 
(Lam. i. 12): Is it nothing to you, all that pass by\ 
(Jerem. vi. 16): Stand ye in the ways and see, and 
ask for the old paths. . 30. That to the day of 
calamity ia 8i)ared, to the day of death, the evil man, 
all misfortunes and mishaps; and he perceives them 
not till the very day when he dies, and till the day 
when — the wrath, the sufferings of death come to him ; 
and he has no day of trouble except that day ; cf. 
(Job xxxviii. 23) : which I have reserved against the 
time of trotible ; i.e. I have withheld till that day ; 
but he should have seen {v. 20) his destrtution, and 
drunk the venom from the Almighty^ like me. 31. 
Who shall declare his way to his face ; who is there 
to rebuke him whilst he lives, saying to him, why 
doest thou do thus? as it was said above (xx. 27): 
the heavens shall reveal his iniquity, and the earth shall 
rise up against him. Or, that he return to God, cf. 
(Eccl. viii. 4): who may say unto him. What doest 
thou ? — and he who has done the evil, who shall 
rei)ay him, seeing that he spent all his days in 
prosperity. 32. And he, after having sinned all his 
days, shall be borne to the grave in honour ; on the 
contrary, not even the grave is a grave to him, and 
he does not live in evil sufferings like me. And as 
for his days being curtailed — it is not the case, for 
he shall [die] quickly over the stacks of com ; for the 
produce is not gathered in, so as to put in stacks, 


before it is ripe ; thus he shall also die full of days. 
^pipf> =s Ae shall hasten^ to die without suffering. 33. The 
clods of the valley are sweet unto him, as (xxxviii. 38) : 
and the clods cleave fast together ; so full of days is 
he, that his only happiness is to slumber, and the 
clods are sweet to him at the time of his death. And 
all men shall draw after him, and say, would that I 
were as full of days as this one, and that I might die 
without suffering, and be buried in honour like him. 
He says all men including even those that are perfectly 
righteous. And before him there are innumerable, who 
are jealous of his peace and his honour. Or, there 
were innumerable before him who died like this. 
34. How then do you comfort me with vanity ; since 
there are completely wicked men, who are prosperous 
in life and death, and who, while they are alive 
(Ps. Ixxiii. 5) : are not in the trouble of men in their 
lives, neither are they plagued with other men^ as I 
am, smitten as I am, whilst I live, more than they. 
How do you comfort me with vanity } and your 
answers : which you give me (xx. 29) : this is the 
portion of the wicked man, — remains fedthlessness and 
treachery, in that you condemn me. Some take 
iMj;)? like lion imo) (Levit. xviii. 6) : kin of his flesh \ 
they are akin to faithlessness, as (Numb. v. 12): she 
commits a trespass against him ; therefore, its accent 
is on the penultima 

These are Job's words about the wicked who 
rebel against God. After God benefited them 
in every way, they say (z/. 15) : What is the 


Almighty, that we should serve him ? Neverthe- 
less, he does not withhold from them any good, 
either in money, or in health, or in children, or in 
longevity ; so that they may recognize and know in 
their lifetime, that he gives them everything. As 
for me, crushed, chastised, and injured, from whom 
the counsel of the wicked is far {v. i6), who have 
served him from my youth, and thanked him for the 
good that he gave me ; he has killed my children, he 
has taken all that was mine, he has chastised me with 
severe chastisements, till I prefer death to life. 
Eliphaz replies to this, that those wicked were not 
wicked to others ; that God only chastises a man 
during his lifetime, when he was bad to others ; — 
measure for measure. In the same way as he crushed 
orphans, and sent widows empty away, and stripped 
the naked of their clothes, thus it is done to him. //e 
crushes him before the moth (iv. 19) during his lifetime, 
and sends him forth empty of his children and his 
money. But if he is not bad against other men, but 
only to heaven, he does not chastise him during his 
lifetime ; for (xxxv. 6) : if thou hast sinned, what chest 
thou against him, ? that thou shouldst be chastised 
measure for measure for this ? This is the argument 
according to the words of Eliphaz. 

Cap. XXII. — i, 2. Then answered Eliphaz . . . . 
Oan a man teach Gk>d? Is there a man who can 
teach God, what he must do ? For, if does teach, 
if he wants to teach God, God is wiser than they. 


He uses the term j3)p7, in reference to (v. 21): 
acquaint now thyself ivtth him and be at peace. This 
I found in R. Jacob's commentary. But R. Eliezer 
says : Can a man be profitable untOy and help, God, 
that he could learn his good deeds and ways ; for if 
he were profitable to, and helped, him in his deeds, 
and in his words, he would become wise, and turn 
his heart to him to do him good, and to be profitable 
to him, measure for measure ; as he continues to 
explain. 3. Is there any plea49ure to the Almighty, 
when thou aj*t righteous, or is there any gain to him, 
if thou makest thy ways perfect ? that thou sayest 
(xxi. 1 6) : the counsel of the wicked is far from me. 
What has God gained by thy service, that thou 
seekest thy reward } Or what have they taken away 
from him, that he ought to have chastised them 
during their lifetime, because they said (xxi. 15): 
what is the Almighty^ that we should serve him ? 
4. Is it for fear of thee, because thou sayest, that he 
does not judge others like thee, that he reproveth 
thee ; that he entereth with thee into judgment, to 
chastise thee during thy lifetime ? For thou also, if 
thou hadst not sinned more than they who say what 
is the Almighty^ that we should serve him (xxi. 15) ; 
thou wouldst not have been smitten during thy life- 
time. 6. For thou hast tckken pledges of thy brother 
for nought, who owes thee nothing, and thou sayest 
that he does owe thee. And as thou didst say of him : 
(z;. 5) Is not thy wickedness great. For this thy 
mishaps and occurrences prove, that thou hast done 


suchlike things — such as he enumerates — ; and thou 
makest thyself out to be a righteous man whom thy 
fellow-creatures do not recognize. And thus 6. thou 
hast stripped the clothes of the naked; for thus it 
must be explained, because it is impossible to strip the 
naked, for he had no clothes to strip ; and these are 
the very chastisements which thou experiencest. 
And wouldst thou say: but if I did these wicked 
things, I have done good things against them ; therefore 
he says : 7. Thou haat not given water to the weary 
to drink in thy house, so that others did not know and 
recogfnize it; and thou hast withholden thy bread — 
thou hast not met them with bread and water. All 
this thou shouldst have been able to do, without men 
discerning it. 8. But the man of arm thou hast been, 
who has the land, and with the [strong] arm thou 
didst steal and rob, and didst say, that they owed it 
thee. And no one said to thee, what doest thou? 
because people thought that thou didst act according 
to right ; and thou wert confident that they could not 
take it away from thee with the [strong] arm, nor by 
judgment ; for thou wert one whose countenance 
was respected, and who would compel thee to pay? 
In the same way — 9. Thou hast sent widows away 
empty of their property ; and the arms of the ftither- 
less have been broken by thee. He says and the 
arms, corresponding to {v. 8) //le man of arm. It may 
also be as R. Solomon (Rashi) explains it: is it, 
because thou wast great, that thou shalt possess the 
land, and because thy countenance was respected 


shalt thou abide, and prolong thy days thereon ; n^: 
like (Deut. i. 46) : iimni you abode in Kadesh. 10. 
Therefore snares are round about thee, during thy 
lifetime, now ; more than (about him) who said 
(xxi. 15) : what is the Almighty, that we should serve 
him ? For on such he inflicts evil only after their 
death, as thou didst say ; because, they have not, 
like thee, harmed others. He proceeds: 11. Doest 
thou trust in this, that the darkness, and evil, and 
trouble, thou wouldst not see, nor that abundance of 
waters shall cover thee } to rain upon thee snares 
(Ps. xi. 6) for thy evil deeds. Or, it may mean, the 
darkness of the waters that obscure the clouds, doest 
thou trust in them ? 1 2. Is not God in the height of 
heaven, and behold the height of the head of the stars, 
that they are high, higher than he. In this thou 
trustest 1 3. And thou sayest, when thou percei vest, 
that thou doest not see darkness and evil, what does 
Qod know of that which I do .'^ Oan he judge through 
the thick darkness which intervenes between him 
and me.'^ 14. Are not thick clouds a covering to 
him, that he sees not about my deeds. And the circuit 
of heaven; y\r\ == the circuit, as (Is. xliv. 13): 
niinoii, and with the compasses. 15. Wilt thou .... 
the old way, the prosperity of the old way of the 
wicked, which wicked men have trodden, and pros- 
pered on, to envy them, because they were not 
punished for their sin ; and to plead with him, why 
he inflicted more evil upon thee more than upon them } 
But he also inflicted evil upon them ; 16. Who were 


snatched away and cut off from the world, before 
their time, and in a place where their foundation was 
poured out like a stream, like the men of the genera- 
tion of the flood. And thou sayest, it were better 
for me to be like them. 1 7. What can the Ahnighty 
do to them when they serve him ? 1 8. And he filled 
their houses with good things ; but as for me, the 
coimsel of the wicked is far from me ; therefore, thou 
shouldst have benefited me more than them. But 
thou hast inflicted more evil upon me than upon them. 
Doest thou imagine that thou shalt be cleared in 
judgment in this way.*^ Is it not, that 19. the righteous 
see his downfall, and are glad, and the innocent laugh 
them to scorn, like Noah and his sons, who were left, 
whilst the others died by the stream that was poured out 
over them, and the earth was their foundation. 20. Is 
it not, is not this true, that they who rise against us are 
cut off, as by the waters of the flood ; and that the 
remnant of them, z.e. their children is destroyed? 
The fire has consumed, like Sodom, ^sp^p is like 
irop. Ibn Ezra explains it : If the innocent (v. 19) 
is not cut oflF. The innocent who is lao-^p, our 
opponent ; and it means that we are witnesses that 
the innocent has not died. R. Eliezer explains it : 
that if our substance is not cut off, also Dnn\ that 
which remained of them, the fire has consumed. And 
thou enviest their prosperity during their lifetime, 
and thinkest to clear thyself in judgment in this way ; 
because he inflicted evil on thee during thy lifetime. 
Relinquish thou that way; and — 21. Be profitable, 


and help thyself, with him, and be at peace, then thou 
shah be in peace. 22. Receive, I pray thee, instruc- 
tion from his mouth, through us, and lay up his words, 
which we speak for him, in thine heart. 23. Thou 
Shalt put away unrighteousness, that which thou hast 
stolen and robbed, far from thy tents. 24. And place 
thy fortress on the dust, and not, as thou didst say to 
him (xix. 10) : he breaks me down on every side, and I 
am gone. And strengthen on the rock the streams of 
Opbir, that they shallnot be moved, 25. And the 
Almighty shall be thy fortress. ^^"^ = l^sio, thy 
fortresses. Some say that the 1 of i^si is a servile 
letter, and the word means, against thine enemies ; to 
injure them. And precious silver, durable wealth, 
shall be thine; cf. (Prov. x. 15): The rich mans 
wealth is his strong city^ nioyhn = the strength of the 
reem (Numb, xxiii. 22). 26. For then shalt thou be 
able to delight thyself in the Almighty, to ask with 
confidence for that which thy heart desires ; and then 
Shalt thou lift up thy face unto God, and not, as thou 
didst complain (x. 15) : and if I be righteous, yet shall 
I not lift up my head. And then, if — 27. thou shalt 
make thy prayer imto him, he will preserve me, and 
not as thou criest and he does not answer ; and then 
shalt thou pay thy vows when he shall have delivered 
thee, as Jonah said (Jonah ii. 10) : that which I vowed 
I shall pay, and as David said (Ps. cxvi. 14) : / shall 
pay my vows unto the Lord) which was done after the 
God has fulfilled their request. 28. And then thou 
shalt decree a thing and it shall be estabhshed unto 


thee. D^^^ has a short Kametz instead of a Shurek. 
— And not, as now, that (xvii. 1 1 ) : my purposes are 
broken off. And then light shall shine upon thy ways, 
and not, as thou sayest now, that (xix. 8) : he has set 
darkness upon my paths, 29. For even when others 
cast down, thou shalt say, there is lifting up; i.e. 
thou shalt be able to lift him up and raise him with thy 
words. And him that is lowly of eyes, — the opposite 
of the haughty of eyes (Ps. ci. 5). God shall save for 
thy sake. Ibn Ezra explains it : For thou shalt teach, 
that, when the wicked are made low, they are made 
low on account of their haughtiness, and that God will 
help a man who is lowly of eyes. 30. Thus he shall 
deUver him that is '•pD '•m not innocent, as if '•pD pw ; 
how much more canst thou be of profit to thyself. 
According to Ibn Parchon ^pj •'m [is like ••pD otm, the 
innocent], as (Ezek. xviil. 10) : and he does one, nw for 
nnw. Cf, (Ps. cxli. 3) : the door of my lips ^ Vr for rhn. 
Ibn Ezra explains "^pD "^w the innocent island, like 
(Is. XX. 6) : the inhabitant of this •»m island^ as con- 
trasted with (Ezek. xiv. 13): when a land sinneth 
against me ; and thou shalt be deUvered through the 
cleanness of thy hands. 

This is Eliphaz's reply to Job : Because he had 
stolen and robbed, and broken the arms of orphans 
and widows; therefore, there are snares all round 
about him. He imagined that God neither saw 
nor knew of all his wicked deeds. Further, that 
God only grants tranquillity during their lifetime to 
those who are wicked only to heaven. But if a man 


is wicked to his feiiow-creatures, he chastises him 
whilst he is alive, like him (Job). — Job replies to this : 
Regarding the assertion that he had stolen, and broken 
the arms of the orphans ; would to God that I were 
able to order my cause before him (xxiii. 4), and that 
/ would know the words which he would answer me 
{id. 5), if he would say that I did this, according to 
thy words Regarding the assertion, that there is no 
happiness to such evildoers as harm others, he replies, 
that there are ever so many who steal and do violence 
to others, yet God imputes it not during their lifetime 
at all a^yb/^ (xxiv. 12). 

Cap. xxiii. — i, 2. Job answered .... my com- 
plaint is bitter, cf, (2 Kings xiv. 26) : the affliction of 
Israel is very bitter ; the meaning is : my complaint is 
more bitter than all complaints. Or, Even to-day, 
when I thought to have rest from your contentions, 
so that you would not again put me to shame, is my 
complaint and my anger still bitter, on account of your 
words. Or, even to-day, after your consolations. — 
My hand, Le. the trouble I meet with, is more heavy, 
than I sigh for and complain of. R. Eliezer says, thus 
he says : my stroke is heavy together with my sighing, 
which I sigh because you testify against me that I 
have stolen and robbed. S^ like (Numb. ix. 11): with 
unleavened cakes and bitter herbs shall they eat it, 
where S^ = with. Therefore there are snares all 
round about me. 3. to his seat, the place of his 
throne to order 4. my cause before him about this. 
For iD9«j)p is the pleading by words. 6. Would he 


contend with me with strength, in the greatness of 
power which he has beyond mine? Not this is his 
rule ; but he would give heed unto me ; because he 
knows, for he proves the reins and the heart ; nor will 
he (contend) with pretexts from something else, but 
only (keep to) the contention. Ibn Ezra explains 
Dhr like (Is. xli. 20) : and consider attd understand. 
No, there is no one that understands me but he. 7. 
There the upright, at the place of his seat and the 
place of his judgment, mentioned before (vv. 3, 4), 
there is uprightness and righteousness, straight and 
made right • with him. Some say njiD = he who 
reasons with him ; and I should be delivered for ever 
from him who judges and chastises me now ; for I 
should no longer be delivered into his hand. 8. 
Behold, forward — In every place where I walked, I 
walked with confidence, for neither forward nor back- 
ward did I meet with him who would chastise me, and 
was not concerned lest he would chance on me. 9. 
.... when he did work judgments on others, I did 
not see it. He weakens on the right, chastising others 
till they were weak, I escaped from his hand. 10. For 
he (God) knew and recognized already in his judgment 
the way that was mine ; he tried me, and like gold I 
went forth, without blemish and iniquity. For — 11. 
To his steps, etc. — yr\^ (y. 9) is the Targum (Aramaic) 
of riHiM 1 shall see ; therefore, it has the accent on the 
penultima. The East is meant by forward and the 
West by backward. This is confirmed by (Is. ix. 11): 
the Syrians before, and the Philistines behind. The 


left denotes the North ; for whosoever goes towards 
the East has his left towards the North. — Or, I walk 
forward, namely to God ; for thus he began {v. 3) : 
OA^ that I knew where I might find him, — He hideth 
the right {y. 9) ; he covers the South. — 'iii^tj? (v. 11) 
in his path, and turn not aside, either to the right or 
to the left. 1 2. The commandment of his lips, I have 
kept (t/. 1 1 ), and the same word ^T\y^^ I have kept 
governs '»pno, more than my necessary food, "^j^ cf. 
(Prov. XXX. 8) : the bread of my portion ; (Gen. xlvii. 
22): and they did eat their portion, I was eager to 
treasure up the words of his mouth more than my 
portion and my food, that they may not depart from 
my heart. Or ; •'prrp ; ftom the statute which he has 
set me, and from the commandment which he has put 
upon me I shall not turn aside, for / have treasured 
up the words of his mouth. Or ; •'pno, from the habit 
to which I was accustomed from my youth. 13. And 
he is one. Some say that the 1 of tiim;i is paragogic ; 
then it means : because he is One in the world. It 
may be also explained thus: But he with one word 
judges man, and who can turn him again from his 
judgment.*^ Ibn Ezra says that the 1 of Tn^^? is indeed 
not paragogic, but it implies a great mystery. — ^and 
when his soul desires, he at once concludes his judg- 
ment ; how then can I order my cause before him ? 
Having said : ft*om my appointed portion, I have 
treasured up, he proceeds : — 14. For he ought to have 
completed my appointed portion and my judgment, 
by first investigating my actions, and to repay me 


according to my righteousness, and, behold, many 
such things are with him, namely, to complete the 
appointed portion of others, and to benefit them. But 
I have not had that privilege. Some explain it : For 
he completes my portion, the portion of chastisement 
with which he commenced to chastise me ; and many 
such things are with him, he does not requite man 
according to his works. 15. Therefore, because he 
does not requite man according to his works, I am 
troubled before him, to come in judgment with him, 
and when I consider his ways, I am afiraid. 16. For 
Gk>d has made fietint ; how then can I open my mouth 
before him 'i 1 7. ^ryof^ is an expression of perpetuity, 
for I was not cut off for ever because of the darkness 
that was upon me, and the thick darkness did not 
cover up from me till my death. According to this 
explanation >*S refers also to the latter clause. Or, the 
meaning is : And the thick darkness covered up from 
before me, so that he did not chastise me any more ; 
and then I was not troubled at his judgment. Or; 
the darkness covered up from before me, that I came 
forth into the world ; for that was my desire. 

Cap. XXIV. — i. For why is it that from the 
Almighty the times of man are not hidden, and 
night is light . before him like day ; so that man 
cannot do anything without God knowing it the 
instant it is done ; — he explains these times later 
(v. 14) : rises with the light, (z/. 16) : he digs in the 
dark. And they that know him, who ought to 
know him, and to recognize that he sees everything. 


do not see his days, nor his judgment, and his ven- 
geance ; that he pays them while they live ; so as to 
know, that God sees their actions when they do them 
in darkness ; that the times of their wickedness ai^e 
not hidden before him. For his days cf. (Is. ii. 12) : 
For there shall be a day for the Lord of hosts^ i.e. a 
day of vengeance. Or ; those that know God have 
not seen his days refers to those whom he is going 
to describe : they that remove the landmarks. No 
other explanation is correct (or, the other \z.e. the 
second] explanation is not correct). He proceeds to 
explain their times. 2. They remove the landmarks ; 
it is they (Is. v. 8) : who Join house to house^ field 
/^yf^^f that remove the landmarks. They take away 
flocks, and feed them for themselves ; and thus the 
subject proceeds, and concludes (z/. 12): yet God 
impuleth it not for folly. 4. They turn the needy out 
of the way, out of every way. He means that the 
poor turn away, from their fear that they will lay in 
wait against them in the roads ; and they leave them 
and go another way. 5. He compares them to the 
wild asses used to the desert; to lay in wait the 
passers by. They go forth to their work. And what 
is the work they go forth to do in the morning? to 
seek for prey. The wilderness is for him, the afore- 
mentioned wild ass ; for bread ; that those young men 
shall eat, who go in his company to rob. Desert and 
wilderness^ a parallelism. 6. In the field, his provender, 
that of other people ; — they cut, to steal it. Or, it 

may mean in the field, when its produce is (Is. xxx. 24) 




savoury provender which is not yet dried up. Its 
owners cut it because of ... . and (Judg. vi. \\) to 
hide it from them. And the vineyard of others, — the 
afore-mentioned wicked take its latter growth, its 
growth; cf. (Amos vii. i): the beginning of the s/toot- 
ing up of the latter growth. It may refer to (the 
vineyard) of another wicked man, his companion. 
^(Ijj5^ = they are late ; namely, the vintage. R. Eliezer 
explains : And the vineyard of the wicked, who looks 
forward to the time of taking in the vintage, — they 
will take it in ^tfg^, whilst there is still the latter 
rain, the raindrops at summer time. They do not 
wait to gather it in till sunrise, lest these wicked 
men come and gather it in. The tillers of the ground 
hasten to cut their produce before it is ripe, and 
they gather in the vintage before it is ripe ; — 8. from 
the showers of the mountains, the rain that fell 
upon it — , from fear of these wicked men. The 
affair about Midian proves this (explanation, for it is 
written there (Judg. vi. ii): that Gideon was beating 
out wheat to hide it from the Midianites, 7. They lie 
all night naked, because the clothes were taken away, 
and they have nothing to cover themselves with in the 
cold. And those poor, that have no clothing and are 
hidden beneath the rocks, 8. are green, they become 
green through the excessive cold ; — or, they are wet, 
as (viii. 16) he is zvet. 9. They pluck from the breast, 
cf (Is. Ix. 16): thou shalt suck the breast of kings, the 
suck of the fatherless, the place whence his food and 
nourishment issues. Or, they pluck the fatherless 


from the breast of his mother, and deal violently with 
him, and sell him. And that which is of the poor, 
'h'^rv, they cast lots for, c/. (Ps. xxii. 19) : /Aey divide 
my garments among them^ and upon my vesture they 
do cast lots. It means, they divide among them his 
inheritance and his fields ; the term Sin applies to 
land only. Some explain it like (Ex. xxii. 25) : if thou 
take to pledge. 10. They cause him, the captive, to 
go naked before them. And hungry, and from the 
hungry. Or, the robbed people have only a sheaf to 
divide ... . carry away the rest. 11. Between their 
walls, between the walls and the fence of the vine- 
yard, cf. (Jerem. v. 10) : Go ye up upon her walls. 
They make oil, they crush the olives to make oil ; 
which is called ins*', because it gives out light like 
D'nrrs, noonday. And within the vineyards they 
tread their winepresses for themselves, and the 
owners suffer thirst. 1 2. From out of the city men, 
cf. (Deut. iii. 6) : destroying every city, the men, i.e. 
the household of the robbed ones, ^pjjr, cry ; because 
of these robbers. And the soul of the wounded, cf. 
(Gen. iv. 10) : the voice of the blood of thy brother^ cries 
out to heaven. Imputeth it not for folly, to punish 
them in their lifetime, and to make them aware that 
he knows their works ; cf (Jer. xxiii. 13) : I have seen 
folly. Behold, the times of their misfortunes are not 
hidden before him {y. i), and there are none that are 
lost and chastised like them, although they do not 
see his judgment whilst they live. How then can 
ye say that I am being chastised for evil done by 


me? These people prove that it is not so. 13. Of 
them that rebel against the light ; they abhor light, 
for all their deeds are in the dark. Or, it means : 
God, who is the light of lights. Some explain it : // 
is they that were of them that rebel against the lights 
and not I, about whom thou hast said it ; namely 
(xxii. 14) : thick clouds are a covering to him, that he 
sees not. Far be it from me to speak like this. But 
it is they that spoke like this: namely: — 14. the 
murderer riseth with the light . . . . — 15. saying. No 
eye shall see me. •'Tj'io? may be from the root T^^ 
(and mean) with the setting of the sun, according to the 
custom of thieves, who go in the dark ; and therefore 
he says (z/. 1 3) : they know not the way thereof ; 
namely, of the light ; and to this Bildad replies 
(xxv. 3) : and upon whom does not his light arise ? 
(who) is not visible to him ? — nor do they abide in the 
paths thereof (z/. 13), where the sun shines, lest they 
be discovered. Some explain it : they know not his 
ways, God s ways, who is the God of judgment ; they 
therefore acted in the way they did ; saying, God sees 
not ; and they abode not in the paths of his judgment, 
in which he judges the wicked, (z/. 14) With the 
light ; immediately, when the daylight has come, with 
the rising of the dawn, when the caravans set out, 
then he goes before them, and sits in ambush on the 
road. Therefore he says : he killeth the poor and 
needy, and takes away his property, which he can do 
by violence only and openly. And in the night, 
when he can take it in secret, he is as a thief, who 


ransacks houses for the sake of money. Some explain : 
and in the night ; if he meet a caravan, in the night, 
near daylight, he is as a thief who ransacks houses. 
Thus he comes in secret and darkness, and snatches 
up all he can, without murdering, and goes away. 
The Agadic explanations are well known, {v. 15) 
The eye also of the adulterer, having spoken about 
the thief, who hates the light of the day, he now 
speaks about the adulterer, who resembles him in his 
ways, waiteth for the twilight, ie. the evening. No 
eye shall see me. He thinks, he is safe, since no man 
sees him. As for God, he does not fear him, for he 
thinks in his heart, that thick clouds are a covering to 
him, that he sees not, as thou hast said about me. 
and a covering, and with a covering on his &ce, so 
that no man sees him, for he puts a veil over his face. 
Or, Ae turns his face, as (Dan. xi. 18) : he shall turn 
his face to the isles. 16. He digs in the dark,— this 
may refer both to the thief and the adulterer, — to 
enter and to do mischief ; and when day comes, they 
shut themselves up. Another explanation is, they 
mark the houses to recognize them in the night And 
they shut themselves in to sleep, thinking that no one 
knows what they did in the night, when they hide by 
day. They know not the light of the day, and the 
way thereof. Some explain : they know not the 
light, they do not think that God sees them. 1 7. For 
together the morning ; the morning is night in their 
eyes ; in regard to this, that a man recognizes his 
friend, it is to them terrors and shadow of death. 


Some explain t!)^ they should have known. It 
may be that the morning (is said) to be night in their 
eyes in reference to this, that God knows the terrors, 
i.e. the wicked deeds which they do (in) the shadow 
of death, the night. For they say — since he does not 
know them (?), and they hide with the light of the 
day — who will see us and who will know what we did 
by night ? and morning and night are together equal 
in their eyes. For God knows by day when they 
hide themselves everything they have done, and 
knows by night the same as by day ; but they do 
not know his light ; and why all this ? because they 
do not know the light of his ways, that he is the God 
of judgment. For he is — 18. light in his fall upon 
the flEice of the waters, he smooths and makes very 
light for them the slipperiness of their fall on earth. 
The word hhpT\ denotes lightness. It means that 
their fall is not difficult, and the stroke of severe 
chastisements such that they shall rise up no more, 
to fall into deep pits that they rise not up again 
(Ps. cxl. 1 1) ; and he shall not turn again by the way 
of the vineyards ; to the straights (?) instead of the 
fields of others which they have stolen and mowed off, 
and carried the sheaves of the hungry {v. lo). Then 
shall be done to them as they did. 19. Drought, failure 
of rain, also heat rob him of the waters of the snow, 
the winter. For extreme drought dried up all 
moisture and bloom gained from the waters of winter. 
This is measure for measure, which God metes out 
to them in their lifetime, for the robberies committed 


by them on vineyards and winepresses. And they 
have sinned (even unto) the grave ; they are worthy 
of death by what they have done, for they killed their 
owners through thirst and hunger, and murdered them 
if they resisted them. God metes out to them lightly. 
But he should have chastised them, body and soul, 
in their lifetime, like me, for they have sinned even 
unto the grave, and are more guilty than I. This is 
R. Eliczcr s explanation. Ibn Ezra explains it : What 
is the reward of these wicked men ? that God turns 
unto them morning to shadow of death ; for he knows 
upon them the terrors of the shadow of death, and makes 
them like a thing that floats upon the water, as a reed 
is shaken (i Kings xiv. 15); and he does not know 
them ; that they perish, they, and their portion, and their 
vineyards by the snow waters, and also drought and 
heat consume them, thus they shall go down to the grave. 
The passage, He is swift, may also be explained thus : 
There is another class of robbers, that commit robbery 
on the sea, because their portion on earth is cursed, 
and they are afraid to practise robbery. They, there- 
fore, go on the sea, for if they again go on earth they 
will be cursed and despised ; therefore they are recog- 
nized, therefore do they not turn by the way of the 
vineyards. To the grave have they sinned ; there they 
shall receive their judgment, but they shall receive 
no chastisement while they live. 20. Oompassion 
shall forget him, he shall justly be loathed and 
despised whilst he lives, and chastised without mercy, 
and forsaken like me. Dijj, there shall be no man, 


whose bowels shall yearn for him. they shall be 
sweet to the worm, like me (vii. 5) whose flesh is 
clothed with worms. Not that (xxi. 23) : he shall 
die in his full strength, being wholly at ease and quiet ; 
— he shall be no more remembered, his name shall be 
blotted out ; — and umighteousness shall be broken as 
a tree, so that no man shall learn from him to do like 
him, and the others remain (?). 21. For he shall 
devom* the barren because she beareth not, so as to 
cause his name to be remembered ; his seed shall not 
be established for him ; and, even if he marry a widow, 
that has borne already, and he wishes to establish off- 
spring for himself, he shall do no good to himself 
therewith, for she shall cast her young. The Agadic 
explanation is well known. 22. God causes these 
mighty to continue by his power, to let them live, 
because he is longsuffering to them, and has his eyes 
upon their ways that they stumble not. Or ; the 
wicked draweth away other mighty men, that are 
waxen fat and shine (Jerem. v. 28), and pride is a 
chain about their neck (Ps. Ixxiii. 6) — . by his power, 
to chastise them whilst they live ; so that he rises up 
in the morning, and says : Would God^ it were even 
(Deut. xxviii. 67), and is not sure of his life, for the 
fear of his heart, and the sight of his eyes (Deut. ih.\ 
which the wicked causes him. 23. And God — gives 
him to be in security, their houses are in peace front 
fear (xxi. 9) ; and he rests thereon to do as he pleases, 
thinking : there is no God ; although his eyes are on 
their waya Him and his companions, he allows him 


to do as he pleases whilst he lives ; and therefore the 
wicked does not know it. But — 24. They are exalted 
a little ; so that he does not reprove them for being 
exalted, so as to be lofty, so that he should always 
have to lower and humble them, and to break their 
haughty arm, cf. (Ps. cii. 11): and thou cast me away, 
and he was not fully able to do evil. And when they 
are become poor; cf. (Lev. xxv. 25) : if thy brother be 
waxen poor ; for on account of their great poverty he 
does not reprove them, for exalting themselves. Like 
all that are taken out of the way, like [the rest] of 
the world that are crushed by chastisement and 
poverty. Or, l^spjir like (v. 1 6) : and iniquity m^p 
sloppeth her mouth \ (Is. Hi. 15): kings shall close 
their mouth against him. The simile is applied to 
the poor of the earth ; then shall their height be as, the 
height of the ears of corn ; when the tops thereof 
become heavy, they have no more power and arm to 
do evil — to grow. 25. And if it be not according to 
my words ; that if he would chastise all of them at 
once whilst they live they would be prevented from 
doing evil ; — Who is it now that will prove me a liar 9 
For then all sinners would hear and be afraid; but 
now that the wicked dies at ease and quiet, and 
is not stricken whilst he lives ; and another dies 
under severe sufferings, and buries his children whilst 
he is alive, as you say about me, it should be a 
lesson to you. How then can you say that I am 
smitten on account of my sins; seeing yourselves 
that those that are completely wicked spend their 


days in prosperity (xxxvi. 1 1 ) ; therefore, there is no 
equal measure to all. 

Job's words express this : if it is so, that because he 
had dealt cruelly with orphans and widows, to others 
. . . . , therefore he is smitten whilst he lives .... 
completely wicked men, and they that murder and 
commit adultery ; upon whom God does not visit their 
iniquity whilst they live .... as he did unto me ; 
so that they may know and recognize his ways, that 
he is the God of judgment ; as you say of me ; he 
should then have let them know that he rules all, and 
sees all their works. Bildad replies to this : 

Cap. XXV. — 2. Dominion and fear. It means: 
thou hast said that he ought to reprove the wicked 
during his lifetime and to let him know his* ways ; and 
to throw his fear upon them, that they should fear and 
dread him. Thus he also says, that he rules, and 
restrains, and throws his fear upon the host of on 
high. Thus he makes i>eace among them, that the 
prince (tutelary angel) of one nation does not contend 
with that of another nation, and all the host above are 
humble before him. Some explain : and fear with him^ 
although he makes peace in his high places ; which is 
not the case with a human king. For if the latter 
calls for peace, he is afraid. Perhaps thou wouldst 
say : it is because the host of heaven are few ; — there- 
fore he says : — 3. Is there any niunber of his armies ? 
and nevertheless, upon whom does not his light arise ? 
There is no one who can hide from him ; and it is not 


as thou hast said, that he conceals and hides his face 
from men, and does not judge them. For all are 
visited, not one is lacking (Is. xl. 26). If this be so, 4. 
How then can man be just before God, that he should 
not set his eye and heart upon him, to search and 
visit him ? And how can be clean that is bom of a 
woman, who is begotten in sin, so that he should not 
bring him into judgment, for every hidden thing 
(Eccl. xii. 14); as thou sayest, that there are wicked 
who are prosperous all their lives, and whom he does 
not bring into judgment. Some explain {v. 3) Is 
there any number of his armies, i.e. the hosts, above 
and below, and none of them all says : the sun has 
not shone upon me, and the moon has not shone upon 
me ; for they shine equally upon all, both upon 
servant and master. Thus is his judgment equal 
over all, because he knows their actions and 
their thoughts. Having said: upon wham does not 
his light arise ; which is, the sun, in the sight of 
all ; he adds : — 5. Behold, he removes the moon, 
Tr in the sense of the Targum (Aramaic) of id, he has 
removed ; for, of all the host of heaven, it (the moon, 
is the only one that) is covered and hidden, to 
diminish and to become full in its time, without being 
a moment too early or too late, and without ceasing to 
follow appointed law; as it is said (Ps. civ. 19): he 
appointed the moon for seasons. And the stars by 
night are not pure in his eyes ; that his eyes should 
not constantly be upon them, to bring forth their 
hosts by number ; cf. (xxxviii. 32) : Canst thou lead 


forth the planets in their season ? The word hrrs\^. is 
like (Is. xiii. lo) : shall not give their light ^rv\ the 
N IS paragogic. Some derive it from the root h>rm. 
6. How much more man, who is a slight creature, like 
a worm and maggot, is judged when he dies ; and 
dominion and fear is over him, to rule over him, and 
to judge and chastise him, and to reprove him con- 
stantly ; that his eyes are upon him to visit him with 
the visitation of his judgment, and not as thou sayest : 
And God imputeth it not for folly (xxiv. 12). 

Cap. XXVI. — i. Job replies to this : What answer 
is this ? All the more, if he (God) is so particular to 
pay everyone the appointed portion, should he judge 
the wicked during their lifetime, to humble them, and 
to throw his fear upon them. And if he makes peace 
in his high places, he should all the more make peace 
among men, that the great should not devour the 
small. And why are there wicked men to whom he 
is longsuffering, and why does he look upon the 
treacherous and is silent ? They had given no answer 
to this ; he therefore replies : 2. How hast thou 
given help with thy words to a man of no power, to 
strengthen his weak hands ? How hast thou aided the 
arm that has no strength, with might ? 3. How hast 
thou coimselled the man who has no wisdom, in regard 
to this? Profound wisdom, (to understand) why the 
wicked, who steal and rob, live in prosperity. What 
sound knowledge and wisdom hast thou plentiftilly 
declared? to make the reason known, why one 


wicked man dies in his full strength, without mishap 
and sickness, and his seed is established before him ; 
who all his days had been robbing, murdering, and 
committing adultery; whilst another, equally wicked, 
dies in bitterness of soul ; and likewise, one who is 
perfectly righteous? What hast thou answered to 
this ? 4. To whom hast thou marde known words 
like these .'^ For I know myself that dominion and 
fear is with God (xxv. 2), and that he brings him 
unto judgment in the end. But why does he not 
punish and pay him whilst he lives, so that he may 
take his chastisement to heart? And because 
Bildads words were brief, and his answer inappro- 
priate, he says to him : — And what breath came forth 
from thee? ^p is used here like Judg. xiii. 17 : what 
is thy name ? in the event with Menoah ; — comme 
grant haleine\ — came forth from thy body. Or, it 
was not the spirit of God that spoke in thee, in the 
breath that came forth from thee ; the spirit of the 
Almighty has not made thee understand how to answer. 
And from whom hast thou received these words? 
For thou hast not answered my principal argument, 
when thou sayedst : How much more man that is a 
worm and the son of man that is a worm (xxv. 6). I s 
it by this, that he crushes him like the moth (iv. 19), 
that he will know and recognize that he is the God 
of judgment ? 5. They that are deceased shall bring 
forth. Ibn Ezra explains it : God causes even the 
dead to bring forth beneath the waters, and the in- 
habitants of the earth. The simile is : like grains of 


seed. He shall know that in the grave, which is a 
place of concealment, he shall work his will, for 7. he 
stretches out the north. Cf. (Ps. cxxxix. 15): I was 
curiously wrought in the lowest parts of the earth. 
The dead, i,e. the wicked who caused their terror in 
the land of the living (Ezek. xxxii. 23-26. Cf. Rosh 
Hashanah, 17a), to kill, and to commit adultery; and 
they die in peace. They shall be created and brought 
forth again, and live after they died, even beneath the 
waters, and in the moisture of the earth they blossom, 
and live ; to recognize and know his judgment ; that 
he judged them with worms and maggots and rotten- 
ness. Thus they are again humbled before him ; so 
that thou canst say, that he lets the wicked himself 
know that there is a God that judgeth in the earth 
(Ps. Iviii. 12). If this were so, thy answer would be 
appropriate, saying : how much more man, that is a 
worm, and the son of man that is a worm. This 
would be a complete comparison regarding a man who 
is chastised like me whilst he lives. But it is not so. 
Once a man is dead he is not brought forth and 
created again to return to life, so as to know and 
recognize God's judgment, that God judged him in his 
grave, and that he be humbled. For — 6. Naked is 
the grave, the grave is uncovered, in which the dead 
are placed, to be judged by rottenness and worms, 
until their bodies are consumed, to return to the dust. 
And there is no covering from him in destruction, to 
hide there from him ; till they are consumed for ever 
and are destroyed ; cf. (Amos ix. 3) : and though they 


hid from my sight in the bottom of the sea. Con- 
sequently, they shall not return after their death to 
recognize his judgment so as to be humbled ; whilst 
in their life they had peace and truth. How shall he 
know and again .... Consequently, thy answer is 
vanity. But by this he imposes his fear, his dominion 
and fear, to make peace in his world, that men of the 
[strong] arm shall not be uplifted. 7. He stretches 
out the north over empty space, and hangeth the 
earth upon nothing in order to impose his fear upon 
us. Because it (the earth) is suspended in the air in 
the centre of the sphere. There is a difference of 
opinion about the word np'^^ia ; some say .... the 
word wchh^ ; that the earth is suspended in the air 
without support in the centre of the spheres; and 
some say, evenly balanced, from the root d'?!, (he 
restrained), (in that case) it is one word. 8. He 
bindeth up the waters in his thick clouds, which 
are pierced like a sieve ; in them they are bound 
up, till the time that his word comes. 9. He closeth 
in the face of his throne, cf (Ps. ciii. 19): he has 
established his throne in the heavens. He closes in 
the thick cloud before them — the heavens, that are 
his throne. Cf, on this (Jer. v. 22): Fear ye 
not me ? saith the Lord .... who have placed, etc. 
And although he closes in and fences off the face of 
his throne, He spreadeth his cloud over him. The 
root of the word y^-y^ is obtained by removing the 
last letter ; in the same way it is explained about the 
word nrxhn, the flinty rock (xxviii. 9) ; by removing 


the last letter, -xhn is obtained ; (so-called) because it 
is strong, c/. (xxxix. 4) : iAetr young ones shall be 
strong', and also nDnD, the compass of the altar (Ex. 
xxvii. 5) ; by dropping the n, Ti5 remains, because it 
encompasses the altar ; and dddhd, as a flake (Ex. 
xvi. 14) ; and many words like them. yhy» = over 
him his cloud, as (Ps. xviii. 12): He makes darkness 
his hiding place .... darkness of waters, thick clotids 
of the skies. 10. He haa described a circle upon 
the &ce of the waters, the circle of heaven, and 
the firmament which stretches very far to the wide 
extents of the universe, to the place where the light 
of the universe cannot spread any more. There all 
light is with darkness, for nothing is there but 
darkness. Consequently, all is closed before him on 
all sides, unto the pillars of heaven ; till the distance 
from which there is no place round it to look below. 
According to Ibn Ezra, the confine of light, because 
all that is above is light, and the opposite below. 

11. The pillars of heaven, below them, which are 
stretched over empty space, and upon nothing; 
tremble because of the sin of man, and are astonished 
at his rebuke; for they cannot hide from him, or 
cover themselves by the stretching of the firmament. 

12. And he stirreth up the sea with his power. 
Some say yty^ is an expression of breaking; and 
others, that it is an expression of rest, as (Ez. xxvi. 
16): and they shall tremble D'»ji?n'?; which word can 
also be explained in two ways; either they shall 
tremble while others rest ; or, they shall tremble at 


the misfortunes (breaches) that come over them. 
And by his understcuiding, by considering the work 
of the world, and setting his heart upon causing them 
to tremble ; — ^he smites through the arrogancy ; the 
haughtiness of the sea, whose arrogancy and haughti- 
ness he crushes, as one that is slain (Ps. Ixxxix. ii). 
1 3. And by his wind, which garnished the heavens ; 
namely, to purify the heaven by his wind, which he 
causes to pass, in order to purify the firmament above ; 
his hand pierced the fleeing serpent, in the sea, below, 
in the depths of the sea ; for there is no covering for 
him in the depths of the sea, in the waters of the 
sea. This is in my opinion the same as he smites 
through which was mentioned before ; n^Sn is an 
expression of killing ; by the stretching of the firma- 
ment, and by the closing in of his throne, to withdraw 
from him. It seems right to explain that : By his 
wind he garnishes the heaven, which is joined with : 
his hand pierces through the fleeing serpent, is not an 
interruption between : he smites through the arrogancy 
and his hand pierces the swift serpent, Cf (Is. li. 9) : 
that cutteth arrogancy, that pierces the monster I bn 
Ezra says that either the rr in the word rnp* is 
paragogic, and its meaning is : setting in order, as 
1DB), beauty, or ^i^db), his glittering (Jer. xliii. 10) ; or 
that the a in the word imna is paragogic, and that the 
dagesh in the D of mom is omitted ; rrn^ tfnj is the 
serpent in the sea ; some say, it is Draco, which is 
called serpent, because it is curved, and rri?, a bolt, 

because it bolts through from end to end. — The 



explanation of R. EHezer of Beaugency. 14. Lo, 
these are but the outskirts of his ways, which he has 
limited off, and assigned, to cause us to tremble, and 
to impose his fear upon us; with dominion and fear 
(xxv. 2), so that we do not sin in our pride and our 
might. We ought, therefore, to fear him, for there 
is no concealment from him. The heaven and the 
earth are open, and stretched out in air; and the sea 
is enclosed by sand. And although these are stretched 
out over empty space and upon nothing, — ^how little 
a portion is heard of this by the wicked, that they 
should fear him ; that one of them should say : the 
earth slipped under me ; or, the heavens fell upon me 
from the trembling of the pillars of heaven, and from 
his rebuke ; — so that they should fear him when he 
shakes his world, and their hearts be humbled. And 
even the thunder of his mighty deeds, when he 
thunders, and gives forth his voice to make us tremble, 
and to cause his fear to fall upon us, to crush our 
heart — as it is explained in the words of Elijah and 
in the Psalms — ; who of the wicked understcuids it, 
and gives his mind to it.*^ Cf, (2 Sam. xxii. 14) : The 
Lord thundereth from heaven. For all that, the fear 
and dread of him is not upon them, to be humbled by 
the trouble of their heart. — Now they are silent before 
him ; and because they are silent, he resumes his 
words, in order to confirm them. For thus far he 
had only briefly spoken, and in regard to Bildad's 
argument (xxv. 2, 6): Do7ninion and fear are with 
him^ he makes peace, etc. ; how much more man, who is 


a worm, upon whom he throws his fear, and whom 
he judges. As to his judging him in the grave; — he 
replied, that there he does not recognize his judgment 
so as to be punished ; for he will not live again. 
And regarding the fact that he shakes his world and 
causes it to tremble, and smites through arrogance and 
pierces the monster, and the thunder of his mighty 
deeds — ; he does not understand that this is on 
account of his deeds. 

Cap. XXVI I. — i. And Job again took up his par- 
able, after the style of the prophets. 2. As Gk>d liveth, 

an adjuration, he has removed And also in 

the Agada : R. Simeon explains that this verse teaches 
that J ob served God from love ; because no one 
swears by the life of the king unless he serves the king ; 
and from the words that follow it is evident that this 

is an oath As God liveth who hath taken 

away my judgment before his eyes ; and the 
Almighty, who has made my soul bitter. 3. For all 
the time that my soul is within me, and the spirit of 
(Jod is in my nostrils — 4. If my lips shall speak 
iniquity, that I knew myself that I had committed a 
sin for which I deserved to receive such chastisement, 
and to justify you, to flatter you, and say : that you 
justly said that I sinned. For — 5. till I die I will not 
put away mine integrity from me, and to be strong 
that I shall not sin. And by this shall my words be 
proved, that I am righteous ; that — 6. I held fiust my 
former righteousness, when this trouble came over 


me ; nor will I ever let it go. From this it shall be 
known that I am not hypocritical before my creator, 
to say : have mercy on me, in the severity of the 
chastisement ; my heart shall not be ashamed and 
confounded, to be humbled in suffering from the days 
of my troubles and chastisement. For I have not 
committed a sin that deserved this, so that 1 should 
be ashamed and confounded in my heart. PnXPr is an 
expression of nDin, shame. Some say that it is an 
expression of haste, as (xxix. 4) : as / ivas in the days 
0/ my youth \ and that it means: and my heart shall 
not hasten to admit what you say about this. 7. Let 
be as the wicked mine enemy, whom my creator has 
moved against me, to destroy me without cause (ii. 3). 
Or, as my enemy condemns me, so may he himself be 
supposed to be wicked ; and let him that rises up 
against me, who has done evil unto me without cause, 
be as the unrighteous, for I have not been wicked 
against my God. 8. For what is the hope of the 
hypocrite though he get him gain, though he takes 
money, and is rewarded through his hypocrisy } ji?5i% 
from the same root as (Exod. xviii. 21): hating ji?n 
unjust gain. Or, i?!a\ that he performs, that he 
attains his end and object as (Isjiiah x. 12): And it 
shall come to pass when the Lord pcrformeth, — When 
he Sijh casteth away. Or, it is an expression of xxhxb, 
tranquillity, according to (Ibn) Kimchi and it means : 
If God gives the hypocrite health and tranquillity, what 
is his hope, when 9. trouble comes upon him? But 
if it be asked : how can '^bt be from the same root as 


rvhm, without a sounded i ? But so it is Jer. xii. i : iSm, 
are at ease that deal very treacherously ; but there are 
two forms of the root, rhxm and rhxb [transitive and 
intransitive]. It may also mean : God Sbt, shall 
disappoint his soul, in his confidence and hope, for he 
expected that his righteousness would be seen again, 
as (2 Kings iv. 28) : do not rhtan deceive me, Ibn 
Ezra says that Sar is from the root ^ym ; it is 
most probably like (Ex. iii. 5) : '^m, put off thy shoes ; 
thus he shall take away the soul from the body. And 
he, what did he think to gain by hypocritically saying 
to him : I have sinned, when he has not sinned ? Will 
Gk>d hear his cry, when trouble comes upon him ? and 
is it for this that he hypocritically says : I have 
sinned ? 10. Will he delight himself in the Almighty, 
to ask for that which his heart desires ; he will not 
profit by this, for thus he will not find favour in his 
eyes. In the same sense he said, above (xiii. 15, 16) : 
ttevertheless 1 will maintain my ways before him. This 
also shall be my salvation^ for the hypocrite shall not 
com4^ before him ; who says : I have sinned, knowing 
that he has not sinned. He will only be saved, if he 
proves his pure ways before him, if he be righteous ; 
but not by being a hypocrite. 1 1. rrjiw, I will teach 
you concerning the hand of Gk>d. 1 2. Behold, all ye 
yourselves have seen it that — 1 3. This is the portion 
of a wicked man with God, as I said, that some- 
times the wicked is not punished whilst he lives, but 
his seed after is punished. For, 14. if his children are 
multiplied at the time of his death, it is for the sword 


that they are multiplied ; — and his ofbprmg shall not be 
satisfied with bread; but he shall die in his full strength, 
being wholly at ease and quiet (xxi. 23). 15. Those 
that remain of him, who choose (?), of his seed after 
him, shall be buried in death, as he said, above 
(xx. 26) : it shall consume that which is left in his tent. 
And his widows shall not weep, because trouble shall 
come upon them also, as ( i Sam. iv. 1 9) : And his 
daughter in law, Phinehas wife, was with child, near 
to be delivered', and as David said (Ps. Ixxviii. 64): 
Their priests fell by the sword; and their widows made 
no lamentation. And his money becomes, after his 
death, common property ; as he proceeds to explain : 
1 6. Though he heap up silver as the dust, and prepare 
raiment as the clay; 17. He may prepare it, whilst 
he lives ; but the just shall put it on after him ; and 
the silver which he heaped up in his life, the innocent 
shall divide after him, as (Eccl. ii. 26) : but to the 
sinner he giveth travail to gather and to heap up, that 
he may give to him that please th God\ whilst he 
thought that his children, and his household, and his 
wealth would be preserved after him. And he, whilst 
he lived, 18. buildeth his house as the moth, and his 
trust is as the spiders house (viii. 14) ; for his house and 
his money shall be lost suddenly. 19. The rich lieth 
down, but he shall not be gathered, from his bed by 
his wealth. Or, he shall not be gathered, although 
he shall not die. He openeth his eyes from his sleep, 
and he is not, for his wealth. This shall be his 
portion, to be punished in his children and his wealth. 


Some explain he lietk down = he dies ; and lie shall 
not be gathered for burial ; and (the two expressions) 

are not connected. 20 overtake him like 

waters, that increase constantly; thus shall terrors 
overtake him ; troubles upon troubles, till his remem- 
brance is lost. Me proceeds to explain how it becomes 
lost : A tempest stealeth him away in the night ; and 
from the place whither the tempest threw him — 21. 
The east wind carrieth him away, and goes, and 
sweepeth him out of his place. He goes forth from 
evil to evil ; from tempest to east wind, and he is 
destroyed from the world, this is the ** destruction" of 
which he speaks to them (xxviii. 22) — 22. And he shall 
hm*l at him, if he flees from his hand, the arrows 
of chastisement and death ; that is the death which 
he mentions below (xxviii. 22). Some say, he 
hurls, he who hurls, as (Gen. xlviii. 2) : [Somebody] 
told Jacob. And not spare, without compassion ; he, 
nevertheless, does not recognize and know whilst he 
lives, God's judgment. Therefore those that see it 
23. shall clap their hands at him, and be astonished, 
and hiss at him, because of the destruction of his 
house, to know what this is, and why this is ; why 
God has done so to this man, after he was not punished 
in his lifetime. 

Cap. xxviii. — i. All commentators agree that the 
verse : Sm*ely there is a mine for silver is connected 
with that which he said before (xxvii. 6) : My right- 
eousness I holdfast and will not let it go. He means : 
Why should I be wicked ; if for the sake of silver ; 


it has a mine ; and so on, about all those things which 
he enumerates ; — except wisdom. But if they were 
right, why should ....(?) be necessary, .... that 
wisdom is concealed ? The only explanation which I 
found to accord with the subject is that of R. Eliezer 
of Beaugency. He explains it thus : Silver has a 
miney and for all the things named here, man can 
search out, and find the sources whence they come. 
But that wisdom, about which I am wondering 
why it is, that a man should be punished afterwards 
in his household, not having found (misfortune) whilst 
he lived. Whence is it found, and whence does it 
come ? He having spent his years in prosperity, and 
his days in pleasantness, and his seed being established 
before him, and his offspring before his eyes, and not 
being in the trouble of men (Ps. Ixxiii. 5); — how can 
we say that that which happened to his house after 
him was in consequence of his sin ? He ought, in 
that case, to have been punished himself during his 
life ; how then can the thing be known, since there 
was only peace and truth in his days 'i But Destruc- 
tion and Death say^ we have heard a rumour thereof 
with our ears (v. 22). When his seed after him is 
destroyed by tempest, east wind, terrors, bad sufferings, 
shortening of days ; we learn from that destruction 
and death the reason for his judgment ; as we shall 
explain later. But the commentators do not discern 
the truth of the thing. Thus it is according to the 
context We shall now return to the explanation of 
the words in detail. — ^And a place for gold which they 


refine, and man can find a place whence to refine it, and 
to bring it forth. 2. And thus also the iron which is 
taken from the dust ; and thus also the copper, which 
the workman melts. 4. Thus also the great stream 
that does not pass away ; which breaks forth and 
becomes so strong from ii fiowing, out of a hole, a 
small cleft, from which the water flows little by little, 
till the waters increase and become a large stream ; as 
the waters in Ezekiels vision (Ez. xlvii.). Till they 
are forgotten of the foot ; they are diminished and 
gone away from man ; he cannot pass through them. 
This source man is able to find. Thus also can man 
find a source for bread ; so that he can say : — 5. This 
earth, out of it cometh bread, herbs, and trees. And 
instead of it, and its opposite, there is again a place 
of burning and saltiness, which is turned as it were by 
fire ; so as not to grow and produce bread. But — 6. a 
place where the stones thereof are sapphire, and the 
dust out of which gold comes forth, also belongs to 
that place ; this is its source. And this is what he 
said before (z/. 3), He has set an end to darkness. And 
in passing he uncovers the secrets of its dark places, 
and out of Ike furthest bound of that extreme darkness, 
he can searck out and find, and know its furthest 
bound. The stones of thick darkness and of the 
shadow of death. It means : even the thing that is 
locked up and hidden in the dark places of the earth 
below like tke stones of thick darkness ; it seems to me 
that, in reference to this, it is said in God s speech 
(xxxviii. 6) : Who laid the comer stone thereof \ but 


wisdom cannot be found on earth, metaphorically 
{v. 14): TAe deep saith^ it is not in me — For the 
earth itself, which produces bread, precious stones, 
and gold, says it is not in me (z/. 14) : and this wisdom 
does not come forth from me, as bread, and gold, and 
precious stones come forth. And even that -7. path 
which no bird of prey knoweth, id^j = birds, winged 
creatures ; neither hath the Moon's eye seen it, not 
even the eye of the falcon, that sees farthest of all 
birds, has seen it — 8. They have not trodden it, they 
went not that way ; or, they did not reach it, so as to 
see it — the sons, the owners, of pride and might, and 
strength. It means, that even the wild birds, and the 
beasts of the fields that are outside the inhabited lands, 
are not found there, so much is it hidden and concealed 
from the inhabited part of the world, like the garden 
of Eden. Nevertheless it is searched out and found 
in the world. And even if it is completely hidden from 
man, its waters and streams go forth into the world, 
and are known to us. This is what he says : — 9. 
He putteth forth his hand upon the flinty rock ; God 
puts forth his hand upon the flinty rock of that place, 
and of that path. He overturns its arrangements and 
its stones by their roots, to bring forth from underneath 
them the mighty rivers. For — 10. in the rocks 
of that place, he cutteth out channels; and every 
precious thing, and that which is hidden, gold, that is 
good, and bdellium, and onyx stone of that place, his 
eye seeth, and discovers to the world, by means of — 
1 1 . the rivers that issue thence ; as he proceeds to 


explain : That from Ol, the hidden and entangled 
place ; cf. (Ex. xiv. 3) : they are entangled by the land. 
It means: with the entanglement, Le. the rocks, he 
bindeth the streams, and closes, and surrounds the 
countries of this world ; as it is said : (Gen. ii. 10, 14) : 
and a river came forth from Eden, till : which goes to 
the east of Assyria — which compasses the whole land of 
Havilah, And thus all of them, in that they compass 
and bind the world. The thing that is hid bringeth 
he forth to light. That which was hidden from men, 
becomes visible when the waters dry up ; namely, that 
God made it (.'^) Or, the desirable and precious things 
that are therein are hidden from the eyes of man ; he 
brings them forth to light for them, till they know 
where they come from. But — 1 2. That exalted wisdom, 
to know why the wicked are at ease during their life, 
and lost after death, has no source, nor is it revealed ; 
so that man could recognize its way, and the place 
where it shall be found by him, so that he can reach 
it. For many wicked people, like the generation of 
the flood, and the men of Sodom, who endured in 
tranquillity for many days, existed for many genera- 
tions, one after another, in great prosperity. And 
many people that were robbed and murdered, died in 
their misfortunes, which were inflicted on them. They 
had no helper or avenger. But they (the former) 
spent their days in prosperity, and their years in 
pleasantness (xxxvi. 11); and when several genera- 
tions perished after them, who shall find out the way 
in which they were destroyed, and the place of the 


source whence their perdition arose? 13. Man 
knoweth not the price thereof, to estimate and buy it, 
for it is not found in the land of the living ; i,e. man 
cannot learn it from all those judgments with which 
God judges them. But it is found in the land of 
destruction and death, as it is said below. And even : 
14. The deep and the sea, which are deeper and more 
hidden than all other places, even they say, that it 
is not in them. For no man is able to roam, and 
search in the bottom of the sea to find it. Much 
precious wealth and desirable stones will be found 
there, but this cannot be found there. 15. Gold 
cannot be given, niio = pure gold, for it, so that one 
be able to find it. This applies also to all the following 
(instances). 16. It cannot be valued, rhxyn is an 
expression of valuation, cf. (Lam. iv. 2) : that may be 
weighed against gold, 17. And its exchange, i,e, nor 
its exchange ; for the word and not refers to both 
expressions. i8. And deferred is wisdom; iqhp = 
deferred hope it is to reach the source of this wisdom 
which is above rubies. And since this wisdom cannot 
be valued against all desirable things, so as to obtain 
it — 20. Whence then cometh this wisdom, so as to 
reach the place of its source, and its way? 21. And 
it is hid from the eyes of all living. These two verses 
refer back to the beginning of his words ; namely 
{vv, 12, 13): But where shall wisdom be found? It is 
not found in the land of the living. This is what he 
says : and it is hid from the eyes of all living. He 
wants to say in connection with this {v. 24) : For he 


looketh to the ends of the earth. And with {v. 7) : 
iAai path no bird of prey knowelh^ is connected : 22. 
Destruction and Death say. He only says : and it is 
kept close from the fowls of the air (z/. 2 1 ), because he 
wants to say in connection therewith {v. 24) : For he 
looketh to the ends of the earth. And connected with 
(z/. 7) : that path no bird of prey knoweth is : But 
Destruction and Death say ; when he destroys and kills 
them. And after their death we learn from these two 
judgments, the judgment of the wicked, that they died 
and were destroyed for their sins. This he proceeds to 
explain : 23. God understandeth the way thereof, the 
way of wisdom and the judgment of the wicked. And 
he knoweth the place thereof, and the source of that 
wisdom, whence the judgment of destruction and death 
came to them. 24. For he looketh to the ends of the 
earth, and seeth under the whole heaven ; and no way 
or place is hid from him ; and not as the eye of the 
falcon and the bird of prey. The sense of: He seeth 
under the whole heaven, is, to provide for the wants 
of the created beings. 25. To make a weight for the 
wind, every country according to its strength ; And he 
meteth out the waters by measure, to water the whole 
earth : for there is moist and there is dry ground 
which needeth water : and therefore rain doth not fall 
in Kgypt, for the river is there. And also we may 
explain and he meteth out the waters by measure, to 
direct his world and judge it, whether for mercy, or 
for correction (xxxvii. 13); as he said, above (xxvii. 
20, 21, 22) : A tempest stealeth him away in the nighty 


i.e, the wind ; the east wind carrieth him away^ and he 
departeth, and he hurls rain upon him, according to the 
judgment of the wicked ; — rain falls upon the wicked. 
This is the wind and rain by which he directs and judges 
his world, and which he gives forth from his store- 
houses by weight and measure, according to what is 
necessary. And then — 26. When he makes a decree 
for the rain, and makes a way for the lightning of the 
thunders, that not many should go forth together. 
They are called vm, because at the time of the 
thunder the lightning comes forth, which is visible 
to the eyes, and makes a path for his wrath and 
anger with the wicked only, to disturb and frighten 
them. For the others he works according to the 
decree of the rain, to preserve them alive ; like a king 
that comes to a city, and shows his troops the house 
of his enemies, with the alarm of war, to devour and 
to destroy, so that they should not touch others. 
Thus he also makes a way for the lightning, for the 
rain of punishment, with the thunder of his voice, 
against the house of the wicked, to destroy them. In 
this way he announces to the world the way of wisdom 
and understanding, and the place thereof which they 
sought ; as he explains : — 27. Then he did see its place 
and its way, i.e. the way of their judgment, and the 
place of their destruction, how it was ; and declared 
it to the world. Or, rnsp-;! = and he put it in a book 
— and searched it out thoroughly, namely, the way of 
their judgment. And then — 28. Unto the man he 
said, about this: and why these are destroyed more 


than the rest. For they wondered at this ; why did 
God do thus more to this man than to the others? 
This saying unto man is like (Ps. xix. 2) : The heavens 
declare the glory of God\ they have no speech nor 
language ; but since their works declare to the 
children of man, it is, as if they themselves declared. — 
Behold, the fear of the Lord is the way of the wisdom 
which ye sought for ; and thence such judgment goes 
forth to them, because they prevailed by their strong 
arm and caused their terror in the land of the living 
(Ezek. xxxii. 23 26). — ^And to depart from evil is the 
place of imderstajiding, about which you asked. For 
his generation perished from the world because he 
did not depart from evil. But, in any case, on earth 
it is not found, for them to recognize and to know, 
the profound wisdom, ue. this judgment ; for it (that 
wisdom) proceeds from the fear of God, and from 
departing from evil ; and for them to be reproved. 
....(?) Since they enjoyed in their life peace and 
truth, therefore they do not consider it whilst they 
live ; nor will other wicked men recognize his judg- 
ment in their death. And even, on seeing the 
judgment of the generation of these evildoers, they 
shall say : if (it were) on account of the fear of God 
and the departing from evil, they had been punished 
whilst they lived. This is the context. R. Joseph 
Kara's explanation of {v, 1 8) : And the drawing of 
wisdom more than rubies, on a distant journey, and 
the drawing along of paths, they are more able to carry 
wisdom than rubies — would be a correct explanation 


if it fitted in with the manner in which he explains 
the context. 

I am of opinion that (v. 22) Destrtution denotes: 
the fools that are already perished from the world, 
and the wise who are dead, — as (Ps. xlix. 11): For 
he seeth the wise men die, the fool and the brutish 
together perish — they know only what they say : 
(z/. 23) God understandeth the way thereof. Now 
that we reached the end of this section, I say that 
those four elements mentioned here; viz., fire, water, 
air (wind), and earth, occur in close connection, in 
several passages. In this reply {v, 24) : To the ends 
of the earth, i.e. earth ; under the whole heaven, i.e. 
fire; (v. 25) To make for the wind .... and he 
meteth out the waters. These are the four elements, 
because everything consists of them. At the com- 
mencement of the Book of Genesis (i. 1,2): The 
heaven and the earth — and the ivind of God hovering 
over the waters. In Isaiah (xl. 12, 13): Who has 
measured the waters in the holUnv of his hand, and 
meted out heaven with the span, and comprehended 
the dust of the earth in a measure — Who has meted 
out the wind of God? In the Proverbs (xxx. 4): 
Who hath ascended up into heaven, — ivho Itatk gathered 
the wind — , who hath bound the waters — , iv/io hath 
established all the ends of the earth ? At the beginning 
of Ecclesiastes (i. 6). The commentator who takes 
there in the phrase rxrsr\ i^in hid mid, — rmn 
turneth about continually — the word r\r\r[ to mean 
the side, is mistaken. For rmry, the wind is men- 


tioned there as one of the four elements enumerated 
there : the sun, the rivers, and the earth ; conse- 
quently mnn, the wind is one of them. The meaning 
is : the wiftd turneth about continually in its course ; 
the wind goes on its journeys and makes its circuit, 
in the same way as the sun. 

Job having shown us proofs that the generation of 
the wicked is punished for the iniquity of the father, 
further wants to prove, regarding his own ways, that 
he had always feared God, and departed from evil ; 
and that he had not to undergo his sufferings on 
account of lack of fear (of God), and integrity of 
way. Therefore he proceeds explaining : 

Cap. XXIX. — i, 2. He continued .... Oh, that 

I were again as in the months of old, and not as the 

idle months which are now my possession. As the 

days in which God preserved me, and hedged me in 

on all sides. 3. iSns = When shined, cf. (Is. xiii. 10) : 

shall not give their lijrht. Above my head ; the light 

came to mc from above to give light to my feet. By 

its light, of his lamp mentioned here, I walked in 

darkness ; at the time of darkness to the wicked, and 

the day of trouble, I had light and rejoicing. Oh, 

that this were again the case. 4. As I was in the 

days of my winter ; because the time of winter is 

called a fit time of irrigation and moisture, therefore 

he designates thus the days of his youth ; or, as in 

the Talmud {e.g. Abodah Zarah 75a) : ^0*117, the early 

and the late ; or, as (2 Sam. xxiii. 9) : as they defied 



the Philistines. When the secret of God, tIdjI friend- 
ship ; <r/[ (Ps. ii. 2) : take counsel, (Ps. Iv. 15) : we took 
sweet counsel Upon my tent, to guard it against all 
evil occurrence. In the same way he says : 5. When 
the Almighty was yet, etc. 6. When my steps were 
wa43hed with butter, non defective, without w, for 
rrwDn. Cf. (i Sam. xxxi. 10) : ]» n*^! Beth-Shan, else- 
where (Josh. xvii. 11) : ]m» n*^! Beth-Shean. It is a 
metaphor, to say that the land was flowing with milk 
and honey for him. And the rock flowed [for me 
rivers of oil] ; p^sj = flowed ; as (Deut. xxxii. 13), he 
made him suck honey out of the rock. Or, as (Ezek. 
xxiv. 3) : pour water into it, an expression of pouring. 
7. When I went forth to the gate, which is the place 
of judges and elders, nnj? = xr\py ^^^y \ Job being of 
the elders of the city ; cf. (Pro v. viii. 3) : Beside the 
gates, at the entrance of the city, where mp "^ob = "^d^ 
mpn, i.e. the city and the streets; as (Ruth iv. i) : 
Now Boaz went up to the gate, and set him down there. 
My father — the memory of the just is for a blessing — 
explained : When I went forth to the gate, at my 
mere going forth beside the gate. I prepared my seat ; 
when — 8. The young men saw me, they hid them- 
selves from me, and (led, and the old ones rose up. 
So that it was not necessary for me to say to them : 
give place to me that I may dwell (Is. xlix. 20). The 
expression of ** hiding " is suitable to young men, for 
they are swift on their feet, and the expression of 
** standing " is suitable to the aged, for this is the way 
of the world. 9. The princes refrained from talking. 


for they were afraid to speak in my presence. There- 
fore — lo. The voice of the nobles; were hid, i.e. their 
words in their mouth. And why all this? ii. For 
the ear heard my words, it declfured me happy, more 
so than any of them ; and the eye saw my righteous 
deeds, it gave witness unto me, that I was fit to 
judge. The expression of ** witnessing" is applicable 
to the eye, and that of ''declaring happy'' to the 
ear; cf. (Ps. Ixxii. 17) ; All nations shall call hint 
happy. Because — 1 2. I delivered the poor that cried ; 
when he cried that he was oppressed ; I did not 
respect the person in judgment, and was not afraid of 
anyone ; and the same with the &therless. 1 3. The 
blessing of him that was ready to perish, who had to 
wander from his inheritance, came upon me, that I 
should bring him forth from the hand of the robber ; 
as he explains below (z/. 17) : / brake the jaws of the 
unrighteous ; and the same with the widow, who has 
no one to assist her against those that rob her. It is 
the reverse of (Is. i. 23) : they do not judge the father- 
less, neither doth the cause of tlu widow come unto them. 
14. I put on righteousness, to do like a man who 
clothes himself in a garment that fits him according to 
his figure and to his measure ; so that everybody 
said : judgment and right fit Job when he sits in the 
gate. And as a robe and a turban, that fitted me, so 
was my justice. These two garments are mentioned, 
because they are visible over the other clothes. 15. 
I was eyes to the blind, to show them the good and 
right way. 1 6. I was father to the needy to support 


their life. And the cause which I knew not, who was 
the more wicked, I used to search out ; cf. (Deut. xiii. 
15) : thou shall inquire and make search, 17. Thus I 
used to break the jaws of the unrighteous, of that 
wicked man, and fix>m his teeth I used to pluck the 
prey which he had snatched, and returned it to its owner. 
In this sense the Sages use the expression : break his 
teeth in judgment. 1 8. And I said in my heart, with 
my nest I shall die, my seed shall be established, and 
my offspring shall be before me when I die. I shall 
multiply my days as the sand of the sea, in good old 
age ; but, according to the Masorah, which says : " it 
occurs twice, in two meanings," it may be explained 
that bin is a bird of that name which lives for a long 
time ; and he says : I thought to live like that bird. 
And I said in my heart, 19. My root is spread out to 
the waters, underneath me ; and the dew shall night 
upon my branch, on the top of my branch — •»Tsp = the 
branches of a tree, cf, (Ps. Ixxx. 12) : she sent out her 
branches unto the sea. So that, this — 20. my glory is 
fresh in me ; it is everlastingly being refreshed, 
because of the moisture within me, which is of the 
waters of my judgment and the dew of my righteous- 
ness. And my bow in my hand, i,e. my strength, cf. 
(Gen. xlix. 24) : And his bow abode in strength ; shall 
renew its strength, as it is planted by the streams of 
water ; they shall honour me for ever ; cf, (Is. xl. 31) : 
biit they that wait upon the Lord shall renetv their 
strength. He explains that glory : — 21. Unto me they 
gave ear and waited, and hoped unto my words. 


Whilst now they laugh at me, and my glory is changed 
to disgrace, and my bow is turned against myself ; as 
he says (xxx. ii): hf liath loosed my cord, i.e. the 
bowstring. Ibn Ezra explains ^''^nr> as (Prov. xxxi. 
8) : v\^n '•31 such as are ready to pass away ; I shot 
the arrow and missed not. This is the context. They 
kept silence, in parallelism to they waited. 22. After 
my words they spake not a.gain, to say, thy counsel 
is not good this time, — my speech dropped, and my 
words were accepted, the reverse of (Micah ii. 6): 
tluy shall not drop their word to these ; (Amos vii. 16) : 
drop not thy word against the house of Isaac, for they 
will not accept thy words. 23. And they waited for 
me, this is the explanation of that which he said before 
{v. 21) : Unto me men gave ear and waited. — ^is for 
the rain, at the time of dearth of rain ; and they 
opened their mouth wide as for the latter rain, i.e. the 
summer rain, which sinks into the ground at the time 
of the heat. He compares his word to the latter rain ; 
meaning, he only spoke at a time fit for speaking. 
24. If I laughed at them, they believed it not, to such 
an extent was the fear of me upon them. For my 
words were so much words of justice and wise judg- 
ment that they did not think that words of laughter 
would be in my mouth, as in that of other men. And 
the light of my coimtenance they cast not down, they 
do not consider my countenance in all that I said to 
them. Cf (Jerem. iii. 12):/ shall not cast my conn- 
tenance upon you. For the casting of countenance is 
synonymous with bearing the countenance: Or, the 


meaning is : in the ordinary course of the world, if a 
man is beautiful, and another more beautiful comes 
against him, he causes his figure to fall down ; or, if 
one is a wiser counsellor than himself, his countenance 
will fall, as in the case of Hushai the Archite, who 
said (2 Sam. xvii. 6) : AhitopheVs counsel is not good 
this time ; and they believed Hushai. 25. I chose 
out their way. I did not find in the commentaries 
.... For he means to say this : I did choose, and 
they did not depart either to the right or to the left ; 
but they followed after me ; and when I sat, I sat as a 
chief ; and when I dwelt, I was among them as a king 
in the army ; and when I was among mourners, I was 
like those who comfort the mourners ; for the one who 
is the most important and the oldest is the comforter, 
as Eliphaz among his friends. 

Cap. XXX. — i. But now they laugh. He com- 
mences his words : But now the young laugh ; and 
who are they } Those whose fieithers even I disdained, 
who were better than they. But I disdained them, 
because of their wickedness, to be my shepherds, to 
keep my flock with my dogs ; for I was afraid that 
they would eat the rams of my flock (Gen. xxxi. 38) 
(and take) the fleece and the milk. 2. Also the 
strength ; even the strength of their hands, to till my 
fields, wherefore unto me ? even for this I disdained 
them. For ripe age is perished in them ; the time of 
the crops, and harvest, and vintage, so as to enjoy 
thereof. 3. For with want and &mine they are 
driven lonely outside the habitation of man, as he 


proceeds to explain. Some explain : Also the strength, 
etc. ; when do they laugh at me? if they are rich, 
what is their wealth unto me? as he said (vi. 22): 
Did I say, give unto me ? The ripe age is perished, 
they shall perish before their time, and will not 
prolong life so as not to come to the grave in a full 
age (v. 26). D•»p^i^^r = they flee to the deserts, to a 
land of dry ground, of gloom of wasteness and desola- 
tion ; where the dry ground produces no food. aJpij = 
darkness, where there is no shelter. riMifl), bruine ; cf, 
(Ezek. xxxviii. 9): And thou shall ascend, thou shall 
come like a storm, thou shall be like a cloud to cover the 
land\ it is the sweeping rain which comes with a 
tempest. 4. They pluck saJt-wort, it is a bitter herb ; 
in the language of the Mishnah (.'^) : they brought salt- 
wort upon tables of gold {vide Kiddushin, 66a). By 
the bushes, instead of fruits of the tree in their season, 
such as the vine and the fig-tree, they shall eat that 
herb. And the root of the broom is their food, 
instead of the produce of the field. Ibn Ezra explains 
it : Saltwort and even the leaves of rrto, the tree ; cf. 
(Gen. xxiv. 63) : to walk between the trees in the field. 
Some say, Dpn^ means to warm them. For — 5. they 
are driven forth firom the midst, from the habitation 
of men, and no man takes them in to do his work, 
and they cry after them as after a thief, when they 
want to work with people in the house or in the field ; 
as if a thief had come, so great had been their wicked- 
ness when they lived among men. 6. pn?3. In the 
clefts of the valley, there they shall dwell ; in holes of 


the earth and of the rocks, when they cry after them ; 
cf. (Ps. Ixiii. 11): they shall be a portion for the foxes, 
that hide themselves in holes like them. Or, p"iif3 
denotes a place, where man is afraid to go. The 
Targum of d'^d^ is pi?^D, rocks. 7. Among the bushes, 
among the trees of the forests they cry without food, 
for they will long to come into an inhabited place. 
The n of ^^rxy^, stands instead of w. Under the nettles, 
^n9D';, they are gathered, one close to the other, so as 
to conceal themselves. ^^117 is a kind of thorn ; as 
(Prov. xxiv. 31) : the face thereof was covered with 
nettles. 8. As disgraceful men, as nameless men, they 
are outcasts flrom the land, as he said {v. 5) : they are 
driven forth from the midst of men ; on account of 
their wickedness. Therefore I myself disdained them, 
to have them for my servants ; as he said above. 9. 
And now I am become their song^ for they laugh at 
me ; / am a byword unto them, cf (Deut. xxviii. 37) : 
for a proverb and a byword, i o. They abhor me, they 
stand aloof from me, as I disdained them for their 
wickedness ; measure for measure. And spare not to 
spit in my face, as (Is. 1. 6) : / hid not my fcu:e Jrom 
shame and spitting. 1 1 . For he has loosed my cord, the 
string of my bow, which he mentioned above (xxix. 
20) : I thought it would renew in my hand. God 
loosed it before them, and I am not able to shoot ; for 
my bow is not in strength (Gen. xlix. 24), for the 
string is loose. And if you say that I have the 
strength to stretch my bow as formerly ; to this I 
say : And he weakened me, he weakened my strength 


(Ps. cii. 24). And the bridle, which I held upon their 
cheeks when they had fear before me, they cast away, 
and forsook, and they shook off the yoke. It is usual, 
when a man tears his bonds, he is called dcschevHriy 
like a horse that has no bridle, which fled from his 
master and kicks. 1 2. Upon my right hand the brood, 
the n in nms is paragogic as in nrP3, pleasant ; it is 
like mo, and in the Talmud (Succah, 51a): "^mo, the 
youths of the priestliood. It means, the generation that 
have only recently grown in honour. Or, it means : 
like flowers that bloom forth all round a tree, so they 
rise against me on all sides to laugh at me. He says 
upon my right hand .... or, upon my right hand, 
the place where my strength used to be. They sent 
forth my feet from my place, to go away from them, 
they sent .... and when they saw, that .... my 
enemies pursued mc with their scoffing. It may also 
mean .... And they cast up against me the roads 
of; they say, thus Job deserves that which we see 
now, and they judge me according to the destruction 
which they deserve. According to Ibn tzra, ^^b^i is 
of the same root as (Ezek. xxviii. 24) : pSo, a pricking 
brier. And if you say, my brethren and friends stood 
up against them, to chase them away from me ; I 
answer : — 1 3. They mar my path ; this is what he said 
before : they sent away my feet, to lead me away 
from the road. And who are they.** those that are 
my calamity and my breach, they ought to have helped 
me. Or, they help to my calamity, to add still 
more to my misfortune ; ajid there is no helper unto 


me of all my friends, against those vain men. It 
tends only to shame and disgrace. And because I 
have no helper — 14. As a wide breaking in, a break- 
ing in of water which is wide, they come against me ; 
namely, those vain men, to disgrace and persecute 
me. In the midst of the ruin, like a ruin, i.e. sweep- 
ing rain ; they roll themselves upon me. The verse 
presents a parallelism. Or, it means : In the midst of 
the ndn, that which he mentioned above {v. 3): the 
gloom wasteness, or as wide breaking in ; — do the 
misfortunes come over me, that are the paths of their 
destruction. 15. Terrors are turned upon me, this 
is also parallel to that which was said before. The 
terrors chase as the tempestuous wind, my nobility and 
my honour, (and they turn) to contempt and disgrace, 
cf. (Ps. li. 14) : and uphold me with a willing spirit. 
And as a cloud passed by, which the wind drives by ; 
thus my welfare passed away from me. 1 6. For this 
my soul is poured out within me ; that dajrs of 
aflliction and pain have taken hold of me. 17. In 
the night, when I should have rested, are my bones 
pierced — ^ij^? = are pierced — from oflF me, by the worms 
and maggots in me, and they that gnaw me, i.e. the 
worms and maggots, take no rest from piercing my 
flesh. Menahem explains ^^xrp^ — those that flee from 
me — as the days of his life, about which he says in 
the evening, would God it were vwming\ and in the 
miming, would God it were evening (Deut. xxviii. 67). 
R. Jacob, in his work, which he composed on Dunash, 
who says that -^xns are the sinews, in accordance 


with Ibn Ezra who says that sinews are called a^p^^ 
in Arabic, says that he explains it thus, because it 
was said : days of affliction have taken hold of me. 
Or, besides the days of affliction, also Vpi^, his 
|)ursuers, make him flee, and do not rest from pursu- 
ing him ; namely, Eliphaz and his companions, of 
whom he said (xix. 22, 28): IVAy do ye persecute me 
as God, — If ye say, How we will persecute him, i8. 
By great force my garment is stripped off me. Cf. 
(i Kings xxii. 30): Disguise thyself and go into the 
battle ; it is an expression of stripping of garments ; 
and he means : when I strip off my garment to put 
on another. And why (is it stripped off .'^). According 
to my coat, as large as my coat is, I am girded and 
enveloped in it, and it all so sticks on my body from 
the amount of moisture of my sores, as the girdle 
sticks to the loins of man ; therefore great strength 
is required to separate it from my flesh so it sticks to 
my body. I also heard (the following explanation) : 
With great strength my garment was stripped ofi, 
when I was healthy and stout ; but now it is like the 
opening of my coat, which is narrow ; namely, the 
place of the girdle, and no more ; from extreme thin- 
ness and leanness of the body. 19. It has shown me 
into the mire ; some explain it : these boils have shown 
and taught me to sit upon the earth. It may be 
an expression of (Ex. xv. ^): he has cast into the sea ; 
he has cast and thrown me into the mire, and whilst I 
live I am become like dust and ashes. 20. And in 
all these I cry unto thee, O God, to save me, but 


thou dost not answer me. I stood, and when I was 
silent, and did no more cry, cf. in the history of Ezra 
(Neh. viii. 5) : and all the people stood, which is an 
expression of silence. And thou didst look at me to 
hear my cry. And at the time that I held my peace, 
and I thought that thou wouldst save me, it was not 
so, — 21. But thou wast turned to be cruel; with thy 
strong hand thou didst persecute me ; as a man, 
whose enemy has fallen into his hand, and he does 
not want to kill him at once, but inflicts on him new 
punishments every day. And why withal doest thou 
keep me alive such a long time.** 22. Thou shalt lift 
me up, and cause me to ride unto the wind, and 
remove me quickly from the world ; ajid let the vigour 
melt away ; and let the vigour which is in me, to the 
prolongation of my life, melt from me. Thus it 
seems unto mc ; that the n of "^ajiion is (the n of the 
third person, and) not of the second person as the 
commentators say. 23. l'"or I know for certain that 
thou wilt bring me to death for there is a house 
appointed for all living, and I am not better than my 
fathers (i Kings xiv, 14) ; and God will not respect the 
life (2 Sam. xiv. 14) even of a perfectly righteous 
man. Ibn Ezra explains it : that hast lifted me up by 
the wind and caused me to ride, and I know of a 
truth, that thou causest me to melt, which is the 
opposite of ** thou causest me to ride.*' 24. Surely not 
in a sweeping away, and with an overrunning flood 
to make a full end (Nahum i. S) \ cf Is. xxviii. 17) : 
and the hail sweeps away ; shall he put forth his hand 


against them, to sweep them away %vith the hesom of 
destruction (Is. xiv. 23), like me; though in his 
destruction ; those upon whom he brings destruc- 
tion and plague, even they have Ma), ie. confidence, 
M» as (Is. xvii. 7) : rrror, a man shall look unto his 
Maker \ they trust to have hope and a future. ^^tt> 
may also be an expression of weakening, they shall 
not last long in their chastisement, but die and be at 
rest. The latter explanation is correct, td = distress ; 
the word only occurs in this book. Ibn Ezra explains 
••M as (Is. xvii \)\ a ruinous heap, meaning the grave, 
namely ; there is no one to put forth his hand to help 
him when in the grave, and to give aid at the time of 
distress. 25. Did I not weep for the man that was 
'1 trouble, when distress and darkness came unto him "i 
4S it not true, that thou art turned to be cruel {v. 21), 
although the trait of cruelty was not found in me .•* 
My soul grieved for the needy, when he cried unto 
me ; and I cry and thou dost not answer. This refers 
to the passage above. This is not right, that — 26. I 
looked for good, to come unto me for this ; measure 
for measure — and I waited for light, (to shine) for 
this ; but thou hast no mercy with me, and dost only 
chastise me. 27. For my bowels boil and are burned ; 
cf. (Lam. ii. 11): my bowels are burnt \ — with com- 
passion with the poor, or from suffering, and rest not, 
^©7 = refrain themselves; cf, (Josh. x. 13): and the 
sun stayed, and in all similar expressions. And now — 
days of aflliction are come upon me. And I go — 
28. T7p, blackened and wrinkled ; without sun ; for 


this blackness is not from the burning of the sun. And 
I stand up in the assembly, and cry with weeping and 
lamentation. 29. Like monsters and ostriches ; whose 
nature it is, as it is written in the book of Micah (i. 8) : 
/ will make a wailing like monsters, and a mourning 
like the ostriches. 30. My skin is black upon me, from 
the afore-mentioned blackness ; ajid my bones burned 
and dried up from suffering, mn ••do = more than 
drought which is great ; cf. Ezek. (xxiv. 10) : and let 
the bones be burned ; — and no one has compassion with 
me. It all refers to {v, 21) : thou art turned to be 
cruel 31. And my harp is turned to mourning. 

Cap. XXXI. — i. So much was I afraid of him that 
— I made a covenant with my eyes; for I though* 
why should I look upon a maid at the dance, to spy 
out after my eyes and my heart ; so that I sin not, 
even in my thought. 2. And what ; and now, what 
is the portion of God above for this ; and what is the 
heritage from the Almighty for this from on high? 
Where is his good reward, now that my harp is turned 
into mourning ? 3. Surely, the calamity that came to 
me, he should have brought to the unrighteous ; and 
the strange misfortune, when he made himself strange 
to turn to be cruel (xxx. 21); as (Obad. 12): on the 
day of his distress^ nDl^ = unwonted evil ; it ought 
to have come to the workers of iniquity. 4. But I, 
what have I done ? Doth not he see my wajrs, as he 
explains : — 5, If I have walked — tfnni = and hasted ; 
my foot to deceit, as (Prov. i. 16): their feet run to eviL 


6. Let him now, in this matter, weigh me in aji even 
balance; and he may know, and give his heart to 
consider the integrity of my ways. 7. If my step 
hath turned from my ways to do evil; as (Exod. 
xxxii. 8; Dent. ix. 12): they have turned front the 
way which I commanded them. And if mine heart 
walked after mine eyes, to rob, and to speak immoral 
talk. And if ajiything hath cleaved to my hands, 
which belonged to others ; — it would be just that — 8. 
I should sow, and ajiother eat; as (Micah vi. 15): 
thou shalt sow, but thou shalt not reap, and (Is. i. 7) : 
your land, strangers devour it in your presence ; this 
would have been my judgment ; but not to destroy 
me by chastisement, as my companions say, 9. And 
I have laid wait at my neighbour's door, (to watch) 
for his going out, so that I might enter and go to his 
wife or daughter ; cf. (xxiv. 15): the eye of the adulterer 
waits for the twilight ; see also Hosea (vii. 6) : their 
baker sleepelh all the night ; in the morning he bumeth 
like a flaming fire ; as I have explained ad locum. 
This should have been my judgment; that — 10. my 
wife should grind unto another, a likeness to denote 
sexual intercourse ; others explain it : she shall be his 
handmaid ; cf (Judges xvi. 21) : and he did grind in 
the prison house ; this is the work they shall put upon 
her by day ; and others bow down upon her, to make 
her work by night. This would be an even balance ; 
measure for measure ; but not that which happened to 
me. 1 1 . For that were a heinous crime ; yea, it were 
an iniquity to be punished by the judges ; it would be 


justice, and a right judgment, to be doubly punished 
through my wife ; for the heinous crime, and for the 
punishable iniquity. Why did I abstain from my 
neighbour s wife ? 1 2. Because it is a fire that con- 
Bumeth unto destruction him that commits such sin ; 
and which — namely, that fire — ^would root out all mine 
increase. This fire I said to myself, that it would 
destroy body and property, as it is explained in 
Proverbs (vi. 34) : /^or jealousy is the rage of a nian ; 
he will not spare in the day of vengeance. The same 
would have been the case — 13. if I did despise even 
the cause of my manservant or of my maidservcmt ; 
I said the same. For — 14. what should I do when 
God riseth up in judgment with me ; and when he 
visiteth upon me, what shall I answer him; so that 
I can justify myself.** 15. Surely, in the womb, for 
there is one father to all of us ; and he that made me 
in the womb made him ; and one creator f<ishioned 
him in the womb. Therefore — 16. If I had withheld 
ought of that which the poor desire ; and if I had 
caused the eyes of the widow to fail, when she was 
looking forward, that 1 should bestow a benefit on her. 
17. Or have eaten my morsel alone, so that the 
fiEitherless should not eat of it. For God — 18. brought 
me up from my youth, aa if he were my fiEither ; there- 
fore i did also good to others, who were like me ; 
surely naked came I out (etc.) (i. 21). And I led it 
fcoTDi TD^ mother's womb. The commentator says : / 
led it, i.e. that good quality. But as I find the word 
no used as a feminine (Prov, xvii. i): a dry morsel 


(rmn) and quietness therewith (m) ; it may be ex- 
plained as referring to "Tid my morsel, mentioned 
before (z/. 1 7) : and I led it from my mother's womb '^. 
I have not [thence] brought the morsel, to give it others 
to eat, who are like me, for surely^ naked came I out 
of my mothers womb (i. 21); God gave me all I 
needed ; it is therefore right that I do good to others, 
for it is from his hand that I give. In the same way : 
— 19. If I have seen him that was ready to perish 
and the outcast. 20. If his loins have not blessed me ; 
for when I clothed their nakedness, they said : blessed 
be Job who has clothed us. And he was warmed with 
the fleece of my sheep, all his body ; first he mentioned 
the loins, the place of the girdle, the belt ; the place of 
which a man is ashamed when he is naked, as (Gen. 
iii. 7): and he made them girdles. He mentions these 
examples of compassion ; as much as to say : Lord of 
the universe, why hast thou turned to be cruel to me 
(xxx. 21) ; did I not have mercy on the works of thy 
hands .'^ 21. If I have lifted up my hand upon the 
fatherless, to frighten him ; or, to break his arms, 
as my friend said of me (xxii. 9) : and the arms of 
the fiEitherless have been broken ; then it would have 
been my judgment. That — 22, my shoulder fall from 
the shoulder blade ; the breadth of the shoulder, 
called espaleron. And my arm from the bone, i.e. 
the upper bone, like mp, a reed. This would be 
nicjisure for measure, that thou shouldst weigh me 
in an even balance ; but that is not right, to destroy 

all that was mine, and my body also. 23. For a 



terror ; this refers to If I have lifted up^ and to 
iall the ifs in the context ; the whole being con- 
nected with : / cry unto thee, and thou dost not 
answer me (xxx. 20). The terror of Gkxl, which he 
brings over me. And because of his excellency, by 
which he is exalted in judgment, cf (Ps. xciv. 2) : lift 
up thyself thou judge of the earth. Or, front his 
burden, from the heaviness of his judgment, I cannot 
(stand). For if I was not able to find help for me in 
the gate of man, I shall not be able to stand in the 
gate of God, who does not respect the countenance. 
24. If I have made gold my hope, like many people, 
who say (xxi. 15) : What is the Almighty, that we 
should serve him ? (Deut. viii. 17) : My power and the 
might of my hand hath gotten me this wealth. 26. If I 
beheld the light of the day, when it shines ; Srr is an 
expression of the breaking forth of light. And the 
moon walking in brightness ; i.e, the moon, which is 
now full, and was hitherto wandering in the way of 
being clear, and covered, as (Zech. xiv. 6) : clear and 
dark. Only the full moon is called rrr^ ; this is also 
Ibn Ezra's opinion. 27. And my heart hath been 
secretly — np^i — enticed, and nobody knew me ; ajid my 
hand kissed, to say : they are deities, because they 
give light. Thus a Mahomedan priest told me, that 
when a Mahomedan acknowledges anything which 
he sees or hears, he kisses (his hand) and says : the 
thing is true. 28. This also were aji iniquity to be 
punished by the judges. He says also, because most 
of the things mentioned before can be distinguished 


by anybody, he says about this particular thing, which 
was in secret, that it is an iniquity to be punished by 
the judges ; for which a man is liable to be judged ; 
thou wouldst have judged and condemned me for it 
if I had done so. I have denied the god above : the 
light and the moon — which he mentioned — so as to 
serve them. 29. At the destruction ; tq occurs in 
this book twice (more) ; it is an expression of calamity. 
He says this, because the people rejoiced about him ; 
the fools and the nameless men (xxx. 8); — it would be 
measure for measure. 30. Yea, I suffered not my 
mouth to sin by asking with a curse the life of him 
that hates me, mentioned before (z/. 29), because I 
could get no help against him. Therefore he says : 
31. If the men of my tent said not, of him that hated 
me, Oh that we had of his flesh I we cannot be 
satisfied, if we share only a portion thereof; but only 
if we eat without anything being left ; therefore (he 
says) : of his flesh. This I think it means. The 
men of my tent hated him that hated me so much, and 
I did not ask his life even with an oath, to make him 
swear about that in which he had sinned against me ; 
how much less have I done evil to others. Some join 
this to the next verse : — 32. The stranger did not lodge 
in the street ; Job's servants said : Oh that we had of 
his — ]oh's— flesh ! we cannot be satisfied \ for he puts 
so much trouble upon us, that the stranger does not 
lodge in the street \ and we cannot sleep through it. 
33. If after the manner of men, of other men, I 
covered my transgressions ; — by hiding my iniquity in 


my bosom, to sin in secret. 34. Because I feared, 
even when I was afraid of the grea,t multitude, then 
the contempt of feunilies terrified me. He may also 
have meant this : Now I fear the great multitude, as 
a man who had secretly stolen and murdered, and is 
afraid to show himself before the world, and even i/ie 
contempt of the families oi fools and nameless men 
(xxx. 8) terrify and frighten me. And I keep silence, 
I reftttin from going out even from the door of my 
house, for shame ; for they say, that all this has 
befallen me because of my transgressions. 35. Oh 
that I had one to hear me I Lo, here is my mark, *»^n 
cf (Ezek. ix. 4) : and set a mark, i.e, some little writ- 
ing, as a sign. He means : Lo, upon the mark of my 
little writing which I wrote about my merits ; and upon 
the book — a large writing — which one — my adversary 
and opposite party — has written about me in accusation 
of me ; — let the Almighty answer, whether there is 
truth in my writing, which is little, or in his book 
which is a large writing. 36. He says : Upon my 
shoulder would I carry him to honour him, about 
whom he said : Oh that I had one to hear me. I 
would bind him, as (Pro v. vi. 21) ; tie them about thy 
neck ; it is an expression of a bow (loose knot). 37. 
I would declare unto him the number of my steps, 
referring to what he said before (xxxi. 4, 5): he 
numbers all my steps, if I have walked, etc. {with men 
of vanity, and my foot hath hasted to deceit), as a 
prince would I go near unto him before God, to 
declare my words. 38. If even I had sinned secretly 


SO as even to suppress the wage of the hired man, my 
land would cry out. This refers, according to the 
Drash, to the religious duties connected with land, 
and according to the plain meaning, to the tillers of 
the ground. And the fturows thereof weep together 
against me, on account of the wage of the labourers 
that plough and harrow it. 39. If its strength, as 
(Gen. iv. 12) : When thou tillest the ground, it shall 
not henceforth yield her strength. The meaning is : 
he never enjoyed anything of it (the land) till he had 
paid the money of the wage. And also, if I have 
caused the owners thereof who sold it to me to breathe 
out their soul, i.e. to grieve, cf. (xi. 20) : the breathing 
out of the soul\ for he who puts off his neighbour to 
whom he is in debt by letting him go backwards and 
forwards, causes him grief ; — although there is no secret 
sin in this ; all the more I should not have robbed him 
of it Even thus it would have been right to weigh 
me with an even balance : That — 40. thorns should grow 
instead of the wheat sown therein ; but not to destroy 
all ; noisome weeds, rr^M^, seeds like black cummin ; 
it is a term for anything that is the opposite of what 
he who sows desires ; ^ (Is. v. 2) : and he looked that 
it should bring forth grapes, and it brought forth D'»»im1, 
wild grapes. 

The words of Job are ended, with his friends ; for 
he spoke to God, as it is said at the end. Cf. 
(Ps. Ixxii. 20) : The prayers of David the son of Jesse 
are ended ; Le. in regard to his son Solomon, as it is 
mentioned at the beginning of the psalm : For 


Solomon ; for there are many more prayers after that 

Cap. XXXII. — i. They cea43ed .... because he 
was righteous in his own eyes. 1 1 means : H is 
friends, having seen that he was righteous in his own 
eyes, and all their answers consisting only in condemn- 
ing him as a great sinner, saying to him : verily, thy 
wickedness is great, and he saying that he had not 
sinned even in slight matters, were silent to all his 
words ; because he said thus. Therefore, they were 
silent to him, for they did not know his actions ; only 
they said thus ; since his lot is that of a wicked, and 
that they would always condemn him, therefore it 
behoved them to cease from arguing and putting him 
to shame. But Elihu did not come to condemn him, 
but to answer his words, that he justified himself 
rather than God. For even if he were so perfectly 
righteous as he said, he ought not to have said, that 
God should weigh htm with an even balance (z/. 6), and 
that he had turned to be cruel to him (xxx. 21); and 
that he should come in judgment with him. For it is 
not God's way to judge with man ; for God remembers 
and sees many of the deeds of man, which man, even 
if he be righteous, does not beware of. He brings 
them in the remembrance of man, and reveals them 
to him for reproof, and whom the Lord loveth he 
reproveth (Prov. iii. 1 2). Therefore, he does not answer 
him at all, for what was he to answer him to his argu- 
ment, that he was punished in this way. He only 


reproved him for his words. 2. The Buzite, Buz is 
near to Uz, (Gen. xxii. 21) : Uz his firstborn and Buz 
his brother ; and the countries were called after their 
name. 3. Because they had found no answer, although 
he had justified himself. But they ought to have 
answered him, for justifying himself in the way he 
did. And they condemned, all their replies consisted 
in condemning him, therefore he defeated them. 4. 
Had waited for Job with words, he did not answer 
him at once after he (Job) had answered Bildad ; and 
he allowed him to take up his parable twice. For he 
thought : they will reply, for they are older in days 
than I am. But when he saw that he continued 
speaking till they were silenced, and ceased answering 
him. Then — 5. his wrath was kindled, as said here. 
The Targum of rx^r\ is jno, from which the Rabbinical 
term pno, calm, attendre. 

6. And Elihu .... answered .... I have hesitated 
until now ; — I was afraid. Thence the appellation 
(Deut xxxii. 24) : Those that crawl in the dust^ be- 
cause people are afraid of them ; cf. (Deut. ii. 10) : 
The Emim — The terrifying ones — formerly — 7. Days 
would speak, and multitude of years : as it was said 
(xv. 10) : With us are both the greyheaded and the 
very aged men. 8. But there is a spirit, the above- 
mentioned wisdom, in man, though he be a child ; and 
the breath of the Almighty gives understanding, and 
it does not depend on old age. For Elihu was not 
mentioned when his three friends came ; as it is said 


(ii. 11) : they came, every one from his own place ; but 
he, being of no importance in their eyes, was not 
mentioned. 9. It is not the many, because they were 
three ; nor the aged ; >^S, not refers to both expres- 
sions. 10. Therefore, because they ceased answering 
thee. Or, therefore, because there is a spirit in man. 
1 3. Lest you say, refers to (v, 10): / will slunv my 
opinion. Lest you say, We have found wisdom to 
answer him ; and we answered him rightly, for it is 
certain that all this happened to him for his wicked- 
ness ; but what can we do to him, since he is righteous 
in his own eyes? In this — Gk>d can vanquish him, 
who knows his deeds and his thoughts ; and not a 
man like me can reprove him for this. And how 
could he (a man like me) show him to be wrong? 
Since, on his own side, 14. He has not directed words 
against me, as he did to you. And with your speeches, 
with which you condemned him, will I not answer 
him. 1 5. They are amazed, they answer no more. 1 6. 
And shall I wait, because they speak not, they stand, 
they are silent, as, in the case of Ezra (Nehem. viii. 5) : 
All the people stood \ cf (Job. xxxvii. 14): Standstill, 
and consider the wondrous works of God. Ibn Ezra 
explains {v. 15) ^pnyn, they do not speak till people 
take the words from them. Or, it is like ^pru; 
(xxi 7); the words are taken away from them. 17. 
nj^H. The grammarians differ about the word hd^h. 
Ibn Hayug says that it means: causing to answer 
(the Hiphil), as (Exod. iii. 17) : rh^^, I will bring you 
up out of the affliction of Egypt, which is an expression 


of "causing to go up" (the Hiphil). Ibn Ganach 
says that it means, I will answer (Kal), as (xvi. 6) : 
and though I forbear, what dcparteth from me rhix\^\ 
like rhm^x The latter is correct. i8. The spirit 
within me constraineth me, to answer him. '♦?ip|r?n 
is an expression of trouble and r^x^^^^ distress. 19. 
As wine which is not opened, and wants to break the 
cask to let its vapour out; as new bottles, that are 
filled with new wine, which burst from the force of the 
fermentation of the wine ; thus my belly is burst, from 
plenty, so that I dare to answer him .... nini« are 
skin bottles. Cf (Lev. xix. 31) : Turn ye not to them 
that have familiar spirits, niiH, for they chiefly prac- 
tised with skin bottles. Ibn Ezra explains — 30. I will 
speak, that I may find relief, from the afore-mentioned 
constraint. 21. Let me not, I pray you, respect (any 
man's person) of Job's three friends, that answered. 
Neither will I give him a title, this or that one who 
may be said to have given Job a proper answer. 22. 
For I know not one of you, to whom to give a title, and 
whom to name as an exception ; and to say, that he 
properly rc[)rovcd and comforted him. Cf (Is. xlv. 
4) : / have surnamed thee though thou hast not known 
me ; God called Cyrus by name, as it is said there 
{p. I ) : Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden ; he 
was not yet born then. Lightly might I have sur- 
named you, by my silence hitherto, to honour you. 
My Maker, either, would have burned me, ^dnI^. 
being an expression of burning; or, would have 
broken me^ '^dhbt being an expression of breaking, 


as (2 Sam. v. 21) : dhbti, David and his men broke 

Cap. XXXIII. — i. And hearken to all my words, 
before thou answerest me. 2. My tongue has spoken 
hi my palate, the speech of the tongue is all along 
called yr\, palate. 4. The spirit of Ood has made me. 
It means : that which God shall put into my mouth, 
I shall be careful to speak. 6. Behold, I am like 
thy mouth, as thou hast asked^ (ix. 33) : there is no 
umpire between us^ {ib. 34) : /et him take his rod 
away from me^ (xiii. 21): withdraw thine hand far 
from me, etc. For I shall be for thee imto Gk)d, in 
behalf of God, to be an umpire between thee and 
him ; and thou needest not fear me. For I am 
formed of the clay like thee. 7. ^xsy^\ And my 
pressure, as (Pro v. xvi. 26) : For his mouth urgeth 
him thereto. Some say '•ddh ( = for my mouth) is a 
compound of two words, as tjdh, cruel ; d'^wdSh, the 
poor. 8. Surely thou hast spoken, and canst not 
deny it. 9. I am clean, without transgression. Not 
any of the chastisement and accidents that have 
befallen me are for my transgressions, for I did not 
deserve to be punished. Thus thou hast said : (ix. 
22) : ^ destroy eth the perfect and the wicked, and {ib. 
21) : / am perfect, I regard not myself \ and further 
(x. 7) : thou knowest that I am not wicked. And thou 
hast said: — 10. Behold, occasions; i.e. pretexts, to 
condemn me. ni«^Dn, as (Numb. xxx. 6) : if her father 
•TDH, disallow her from some pretext. — Thus he said 


(ix. 30): If I wash myself with snow water .... yet 
wilt thou pluuf^e me in the ditch. 1 1. He putteth in 
the stocks, as (xiii. 27) : thou pntiest my feet in the 
stocks. 1 2. Behold, m this ; by this argument thou 
shalt not be acquitted in judgment, for God is greater 
than man ; even than the perfectly righteous man. 
For he cannot reach even to a thousandth part of the 
benefits that God bestows on him ; and thou sayest 
that he has withheld what thou deservest. 1 3. Why 
dost thou strive against him ? For all those words 
which he might have replied to thy contention, he will 
not answer ; for his way is not that of man, to argue 
with thee ; or to say every time why hast thou done 
so ; or, why dost thou say so. 1 4. For in one = once, 
Gk)d speaketh, to reprove man, to contend with him 
about his sins, to open his ear to reproof. But the 
second time, when man takes no notice of the opening 
of his car; he regardeth it not, namely, the reproof, 
to argue with him, but he chastises him with suffer- 
ings ; as he says: — 15. In a dream .... This 
explains the above : God speaketh once in a dream,, in 
a vision of the night. 1 6. Then he openeth the ear 
of men ; and in this way he lets him know his sins, 
and reproves him ; and not as thou sayedst, that he does 
not let man know the beginning of his transgressions. 
— cnD*iDn*i, and their chastisement he sealeth up ; 
and sealeth up by chastisements as if he put a seal 
upon him, and a testimony, by means of chastisement, 
that he has sinned. And how does he open his ear ? 
1 7. That man may put away his deed, the iniquity of 


his hand ; rra\ and the pride and the haughtiness of 
man, he hideth from him in judgment ; he does not 
judge him for all his deeds, to go into every one of 
them according to the (strict) measure of judgment 
Ibn Ezra says: that he hideth is the reverse of Ae 
sees, for pride consists chiefly in outer appearance. 
1 8. Because he keepeth back his soul from the pit, for 
if he were to judge him according to all his actions, he 
would not remain alive ; thus he says afterwards 
(xxxiv. 14): // Ae sei his heart upon him, he gathers 
unto himself his spirit and his breath. It may also be 
explained thus : (z/. 1 7) : and the pride from man, 
which man hides from everybody, he tells, as he says 
{v. 15) in a dream, a vision. Thus far he explains («/. 
14): For God speaketh once. Now he proceeds to 
explain the remaining half of the verse (14): and 
twice he regardeth it not — , if he takes no notice 
and repents through it, then — 19. He is chastened 
with pain like thee ; and the multitude of his bones 
with severe pain, jn'»H (strongly). Or, it means : 
and the multitude of his bones shall be strong. 20. 
So that his life abhorreth bread, his soul abhor re th 
all food (Ps. cvii. 18). The living soul is called his 
life. Dainty meat, which he used to desire before he 
fell ill. 21. His flesh is consmned away that it 
cannot be seen. His flesh is consumed away (and 
becomes leaner) to the sight than it was before. And 
his bones are become bare, for his body was not 
created so deficient of flesh and bones. Thus the 
verse is inverted. The disease continues to increase 


upon him, until — 22. His soul draweth near unto the 
pit, and his life to angels of evil (Ps. Ixxviii. 49) and 
sufTerings that kill him. 23. And even if he were to 
take notice of it, and take it to heart — If there were 
before him — i^y = before him — an angel, an inter- 
preter, even one among the thousand that testify 
to his guilt, to show about man his uprightness ; 
the S of d-thS = ^^, about — 24. Then, he will be gracious 
unto him, and say to the angel, the interpreter, 
Deliver him — inno is like inwiD — and bring him 
forth from the hand of those that kill him, to bring 
him down to the pit; for I have found a ransom 
for him in his words ; namely, his uprightness, 
mentioned above, for against the thousand that 
testified to his guiltiness, there is one interpreter 
of his uprightness ; and it is not as thou sayest : 
He destroys the innocent and the wicked (ix. 22). 25. 
»DWi, Some say that this word must be divided to 
explain it, the root being nwi, moist ; the d standing 
instead of the n ; cf (viii. 16): he is green before the 
sun ; [it is the same formation] as oroSn, which I 
explained in its place. The meaning is : His flesh 
shall be moist and green ; — more than it was at the 
days of childhood; and it — the ilcsh — shall return 
to the days of his youth; cf (2 Kings v. 14): [///> 
fl€sti\ cavie again like unto the flesh of a little child 
and he was clean ; and God will bring this about by 
an angel interpreting the righteousness. Ibn Ezra 
says : that we can learn from this passage that there 
are angels that kill, and seek man s life ; and that 


there is one angel appointed for watching over him. 
He (Elihu) further says : If he there is an interpreter 
for his righteousness and — 26. He prayeth unto Gk>d, 
like Hezekiah, and he is immediately &vourable unto 
him to be appeased towards him ; he will not take 
vengeance, nor will he bear hatred, as thou sayedst 
And if he seeth his ftice being sad. n^^inn, as 
(Nehem. ii. 2) : Why is thy countenance sad {pr^Jon), 
seeing thou art not sick ? It is an expression of 
sadness ; so as to return to God, and to make many 
prayers unto him ; — then —he restoreth unto man 
according to his righteousness. 27. He looketh upon 
men, ibt = he looks upon them, to know who sinned, 
as (Jerem. v. 26) : they watch, as fowlers lie in wait. 
Or, inr is an expression of uprightness, and means : 
he shall do that which is good and right to the men 
whom he oppressed and robbed. And saith, I have 
sinned, and perverted that which was right ; and 
I ought not to have done so, for thou hast bestowed 
upon me that which is good. Yet— 28. He hath 
redeemed my soul from passing into the pit. 29. 
Lo, all these things doth God work, twice, yea thrice, 
with a man. 30. In order to bring back his soul 
from the pit ; and not as thou hast said (xxx. 20, 21): 
/ cry unto thee and thou dost not answer me. Thou 
hast turned to be cruel unto me, (x. 16) : And if I 
be righteous, yet I shall not lift up my head. For he 
shall be favourable unto him, if he prays unto him. 
— I am of opinion, that twice, thrice, must be taken 
literally ; this is proved by (Amos ii. 6) : For three 


transgressions of Israel and for four I shall not turn 
hint away empty, without punishment : but he forgives 
and pardons the three sins. This is further proved by 
this, that in the passage in Amos, For three trans- 
gressions occurs six (?) times ; but the three are not 
mentioned, only the fourth which he does not pardon ; 
in regard to this it is said in Isaiah (Ivii. i8): / have 
seen his ways, and will heal him ; when he repents, 
after the three ; but he does not heal after more ; as 
it is said (2 Chron. xxxvi. i6): They ntocked the 
messengers of God . . . till there was no remedy ; ue. 
they sinned of their own will, and transgressed greatly, 
till he was compelled to withhold from them repentance, 
which is healing, as (Is. vi. lo) : and he turn again, 
and be healed. We find the same about the sons of 
Eli (i Sam. ii. 25) : They hearkened not unto the voice 
of their father, because the Lord would slay them. For 
when God sees that they persistently refuse, he fences 
them round, so that they do not return ; and so in 
Isaiah (vi. 9, 10) : Hear ye continually, and under- 
stand not, and see ye continually, etc. Make the heart 
of this people fat. I proved this clearly in my com- 
mentary on the chapter (Is. Ixv.) : / am inquired of 
by them that asked not. To bring back his soul from 
the pit, as he did to Hezekiah. 32. For I desire to 
justiQr thee, the reverse of thy friends who condemn 
thee. The words of Elihu purport to justify God s 
judgment ; — that he lets (man) know his transgres- 
sions, and opens his ear to reproof, so that he may 
turn away from iniquity ; and that he hearkens unto 


him if he prays. But his friends had not answered 
him upon any of these points ; only (saying) that he 
was wicked, and that God therefore chastised him, 
without letting him know and opening his ear; and 
that was the way with the wicked, that the spoiler 
comes upon them (Jer. vi. 26) suddenly. 

Cap. XXXIV.— 1-3. And Elihu answered .... 
For the ear trieth words, and the paJate. It means : 
The ear naturally tries right words, as the palate 
tasteth meat. (And the palate, = as the palate) ; the 
1 of Tm is like other vavSy in passages which I put 
together: cf. (i Sam. xii. 15): The hand of the Lord 
shall be against you and against your fathers^ mean- 
ing : as against your fathers; (Pro. xxvi. 10): He 
that hireth the fool and he that hireth them that pass 
by, meaning as he that hireth them that pass by. 
Here he enters upon Job's argument in the speech : 
No doubt but ye are the people (ch. xii.). Judgment = 
argument. 5. For Job hath said, I am righteous, but 
Gk)d hath taken away my right, and hath condemned 
me. 6. Notwithstanding my right and purity, I lie, 
(/; (Is. Iviiii. 11): whose waters fail not, faillera. Ibn 
Ezra explains it : Because I seek his judgment, they 
say that I lie. Mine arrow is incurable, mine arrow 
= my wound, without transgression, although there is 
no violence in mine hands (xvi. 1 7). »*idm = sick. The 
sickness is expressed metaphorically by an arrow, be- 
cause the sickness came through the arro^ ; cf 
(Micah i. 9) : For her wounds are incurable ; cf 


(Exod. XV. 9) : / shall empty my sword \ the . . . . 
is expressed by the sword ; although it is the scabbard 
of the sword ; because the sword is the principal thing. 
Or, we can explain ^""xn = "^itno, God has removed my 
wound, accordin}^ to the rule of the letters (that are 
omitted) ; cf, Ilcr wounds are incurable, 7. What 
man is like Job, who is known as a worthy man, and 
yet scorns, and does not regard his words, as a man 
who drinks water for his thirst? 8. And goeth in 
company with the workers of iniquity, to say (xxii. 
17): What can the Almighty do to them? (xxi. 16): 
What is the Almighty that we should serve him. ? and 
walketh in this matter with wicked men ; who say 
thus : — 9. It proflteth man nothing, man has no en- 
joyment, no profit at all from it, that he is in favour 
with God ; for he shines upon the counsel of the wicked, 
(x. 3) but he falls therein although he be perfect and 
upright. 10. Therefore, ye men of heart, who have 
imderstandinjj : Jis he commenced {v, 2) : Hear my 
tvords, yc wise men. Far be it, rhhn, that word would 
be h\n profanity, — ^from wickedness, to condemn a 
righteous man ; and from committing iniquity in 
judgment, for he is (Deut. xxxii. 4) : A God 0/ faith- 
fulness, and xvilhout iniquity, \ 1 . For the work of a 
man shall he render unto him, be it good or evil, he 
shall judge him according to his ways. 12. Yea, of a 
surety, I shall declare the truth to thee, it is not God 
who will condemn the righteous. For if he wanted to 
destroy everything, — 13. Who would have visited 

upon him, the destruction of man and his annihilation 



in the world, if he were to annihilate and destroy it ; of 
whom he would be afraid, so as not to destroy it? 
Or who hath disposed the whole world, besides 
him ; is he not the one to benefit all, and to keep 
alive even the wicked? Surely — 14. If he set his 
heart upon the sin of man, to notice minutely his 
deeds, and his evil ways, no one would live even for a 
moment. 15. All flesh shall perish, because there is 
no man that does not sin ; as he said : if he be 
righteous, he shall not remove his judgments. 16. 
Only understand, nj'*? has the accent on the pen- 
ultimate; as (Ps. V. 2): Consider my meditation \ for 
it is not a noun, as in all other places ; but it means : 
if he is willing to understand, hear this, what I now 
say to thee. 1 7. Shall even, ^wn, the n has a Pathach to 
distinguish it from ^wn, the anger and wrath, where it 
has a Kametz. It means: Shall even a human king, 
or a judge that hateth the right of man and his merit ; 
shall he bind up and restrain his anger, to be good 
unto him, to become intimate with him ; and will they 
assemble to love him, as they do God, whom all the 
world loves, and calls upon, in the time of trouble : 
Arise and save us (Jer. ii. 27). If he were an enemy, 
how would they call upon him to save them ; he would 
withhold their reward. And if that king, who is 
righteous, and the Lord of all righteousness ; if thou 
canst condemn him in judgment ; as he says : 18. Is it 
to say to a vile king ; is it fit to say to a vile king ; 
surely, by rights it is not fit to say so ; to the nobles, 
ye are wicked? How much less a king. 19. That 


respecteth not the person of princes, nor regardeth 
the rich more than the poor, in his judgment ; for 
they all are the work of his hands. For thus he is 
righteous, as he said wicked {?), He proceeds to 
explain how he does not respect the person of princes. 
For 20. in a moment they die and perish, and he does 
not spare them after their death, but he hastens their 
destruction. For he has compassion with the poor 
that are oppressed by them ; for they are also the 
work of his hands. For even at midnight, when they 
are at ease and tranquil eacA in glory in his own house 
(Is. xiv. 18), and hidden and concealed from the eyes 
of the world ; the people are shaken, and their spirit 
is roused, and they are filled with indignation against 
their king and their princes, as (Daniel v. 30) : In that 
night Belshazzar .... ivas slain. And the mighty 
are taken away, not by the hand ; not by strength, 
but by the strength of God, and his spirit, and both he 
that helpeth shall stumble, and he that is holpen shall 
fall (Is. xxxi. 3). 21. For his eyes — He gives the 
reason why he does not respect the person of any man 
to prolong his life. — For his eyes are upon the ways 
of a man. Although he be a human king, he scrutin- 
izes all his ways, on account of his greatness. 22. 
There is no darkness, nor shadow of death, wherein 
to hide, when they work iniquity ; cf. (Prov. xv. 3) : 
The eyes of the Lord keep watch upon the evil and the 
good\ therefore they die in a moment. 23. For not 
man, i,e, a human king, he considereth fluther, to 
be slow to anger, when his day arrives, on account of 


his glory, to go in judgment with Gk>d ; to argue with 
him, after he had opened his ear to reproof; for his 
way is not like that of a human being, who does not 
know the ways of man ; who, if he suspects him about 
anything, must appoint a day to investigate whether 
it is true, because he is in doubt. Not so God, for he 
searches the hearts, and knows all actions ; and having 
once opened the ear to reproof, he does not respect 
the person of princes. Most commentators follow the 
interpretation of our great master. For Job having 
said (xxiii. 6) : nay^ he would only give heed unto me, 
which he explains to mean : he does not put upon me 
any pretext, but only my sin ; therefore Elihu says to 
him, that it is not his way to put upon man allegations, 
more than that which is in accord with his transgres- 
sions. Further, an expression of increase, as (Gen. 
xlvi. 29) : and he wept on his neck further (a good 
while). 24. He breaketh in pieces mighty men, past 
finding out ; there is no finding out the breach of the 
mighty and the great men. Or, it means ; ivithoul 
inquisition of the breach ; without searching and 
investigating the judgment and reproof. 25. There- 
fore he taketh knowledge ; Therefore, because he set 
these in their stead, does he set his heart also upon 
them, as he taketh knowledge of their works ; and 
therefore, he tumeth the night upon them, so that 
they are crushed ; even those that were set in their 
stead. 26. He striketh the wicked in their place, 
nnn as (Exod. x. 23) : no one rose vnnno, from his 
place. In the place where they sit doth God take 


venjfeaiice on them ; so that all the world might see 
the vengeance, in the place where they and their deeds 
are known ; cf. (Numb. v. 21) : a curse and an oath in 
the midst of thy people. It may also be explained 
thus : Instead of the former wicked^ their masters who 
stood in their stead, man claps his hands at them. In 
the place, where those that pass by the way behold 
them ; as (Deut. xxix. 23) : Wherefore has the Lord 
done thus? In order that those who pass by might 
see their punishment. Therefore he lets the world, 
who clap (their hands) at them, know, in the place of 
beholders, in the sight of the sun. This you can 
verify ; as with all the kings of Israel that rebelled 
against their masters, aiid as with Nebuchadnezzar — 
who rebelled against Israel (.'^). For although they 
were roused by God to avenge his vengeance, yet did 
he visit their iniquity upon them ; since they were not 
more meritorious than the former. 27. Because, refers 
to : the place of beholders. Because they turned a49ide 
from following him, and were not by themselves 
justified before him ; and any of his ways, which he 
showed to the former, and his vengeance and judg- 
ment through them, they regarded not, to understand 
that they fell into their hands by their sins, so that 
they themselves should be reproved. They regarded 
none of this, and turned aside from following him. 
For God 28. to bring upon him the cry of the poor, 
and to trouble and provoke him therewith : and he 
shall hear for ever the cry of the afflicted. And 
because of the vengeance which he executed on 


the former, the cry did not cease from before 
him ; and the poor did not become at rest, by 
these, so that they should stand up and do justice. 
29. But he shall give them quietness, since these did 
not give them quietness, who then will condemn the 
poor any further ; for he destroys the wicked one 
after another. And when he hideth his face, in the 
time of their trouble who of them will then behold him, 
so that he will respect his person, and give him the 
opportunity to come before him in judgment to plead ? 
But on recognizing their deeds he will destroy them. 
And whether it be a nation, a multitude of people 
that stands up instead of another nation ; or a man 
who reigns instead of another, it is all the same ; 
he shall respect no person. 30. That the hypocrite 
reign not, that no hypocrite reign any more, who 
respects the person of his princes when they oppress 
the poor, because of the snares of the people, by 
which they are oppressed and robbed. 31. For unto 
the mighty ; it means : unto him who is a mighty king 
— this is the meaning of the second S« — has God ever 
said unto him, I have respected thy person ; I shall do 
no iiyury, I shall not destroy for the sake of thy 
honour? Shouldst thou say: 32. Besides that which 
I see and recognize of thy guilty deeds, which thou 
canst not deny ; teach thou me, that I have not been 
just in my judgment about thee, and — if I have done 
iniquity in judgment, I shall do so no more. Whose 
person does he respect in judgment, so as not to 
injure him, or who shall teach him in judgment!^ — / 


have respected {iK 31) refers X.o {v. 19): He respectelh 
not the person of princes ; and : If I have done 
iniquity refers to {v. 10) : Far be it from God that he 
should do wickedness^ and from the Almighty that he 
should commit iniquity. As for thee also — 33. Shall he 
pay of that which was with thee ; shall he pay unto 
thee that which he has unjustly taken from thee .** 
shouldst thou teach him that has not judged properly? 
that thou now rejectest his judgment s;iying (z/. 5) : 
/ am righteous^ and God has taken away my right. 
For indeed thou must choose judgment and pleading 
with me in this matter, therefore speak what thou 
knowest. For thou must choose .... speak refers 
to the beginning of his speech {v. 4) : Let us choose 
for us. Therefore he turns now his words against 
him, saying : Is it from that which was with thee, 
at the conclusion of his speech. For rrDoSor iowd, cf 
(Exod. xxii. 11): If it be stolen from him, he shall pay. 
This I understood from the commentary of R. Eliezer. 
Other commentators explain thus {v. 31): For hath 
any said unto God, man speaking unto God, and the 
whole context according the explanation of our 
great master. 34. Men of understanding referring to 
(?/. 10) : Therefore hearken unto me, ye men of under- 
standing-, and every wise man, referring to (z/. 3): 
Hear ye wise men. He means, it is right for men of 
understanding to teach me, and for a man who is wise 
to hear, i.e. to understand me. 36. ••nN, Some say 
that '»nM is from the root mw, but this is as impossible 
as to form '^Dn from the root nnn, or -"Dp from mp, or 


•»!Ji from rm ; it would be '»d"^d:i, ^T^p, "^Din. It is 
rather [^my /a^Aer], as it is usual for people to say, as 
(2 Kings V. 13) : My father, the prophet hath spoken 
a great thing unto thee\ when addressing one of his 
friends, or, his father in heaven. Because of the 
answers which he, Job, gives to wicked men like these. 
The words which he speaks as an answer are found 
among wicked men ; this is what he said before {v. 8) : 
And he goeth in company with the ivorkers of iniquity, 
as I explained. Kimehi explains it : his answers 
should not be among ivicked men who say, that the 
Creator does not execute justice and judgment ; but 
when he is tried, they will justify the judgment. 37. 
Unto his sin, for he is not without sin, but he adds 
transgression of lips, which is an evil snare. Among 
us he makes sufficient, — psp*: is an expression of 
multiplying words, as (i Kings xx. 10). if the dust of 
Samaria shall suffice. And he multiplies his words : a 
parallelism. Some say : he clappeth his hands, as 
(Num. xxiv. 20): and he clapped his hands \ and it 
expresses a lifting up of the voice. 

In this speech he commenced answering him on two 
points : that he said {v, 5) : / am righteous^ and God 
hath taken away my right, and that he said : (v. 9) : // 
profiteth a man nothing, that he be in favour with 
God, I'hus far he only explained his reply to his 
justifying himself rather than God ; in the following, 
he replies to : it profiteth a man nothing. 


Cap. XXXV. — i, 2. And Elihu answered. Thinkest 
thou this to be right, to plead ; — sayest thou in thy 
heart, my righteousness and merit are in justice more 
than Ood's ? saying : 3. VThat advantage will it be, 
and what profit will it be to thee, that thou servest 
and lovest him .'^— And what profit shall I have, by my 
service of him, more than by my sin ; than if I had 
sinned against him ? For he had spoken thus several 
times : — (ix. 2) : //ow can a man be just ? ; (ix. 30) : 
If I ivash myself^ etc. ; (ix. 22): He destroyeth the 
perfect and the wicked \ (xxxi. 2) : For what is the 
portion of God above ^ and the heritage of the Almighty 
from on high, for all the good deeds which I have 
performed.*^ 4. I will answer thee, and thy com- 
panions, who held their peace unto thee, when thou 
didst s<iy : what is the portion of God above. -What 
portion and heritage dost thou seek from him for 
being righteous? and that thou hast not profited by 
being righteous. 5. Look imto the heavens and see 
the place of his throne, how much higher it is than 
thou ; that thou canst neither benefit him by thy 
goodness, nor harm him by thy wickedness. This 
is expressed by jpp, than thou, 6. For if thou hadst 
sinned, what evil couldst thou have wrought thereby, 
ihat he should be favourably inclined to thee for 
having refrained from sinning ; [that thou hast told 
him "i no] (?). 7. If thou be righteous, as thou sayest ; 
what doest thou give him with thy hand, that thou 
wouldst say, God has gained this thing from my being 
righteous, and performing his judgments ? Or, even if 


thou hadst given him ought of that which is thine, 
what was he obh'ged to receive from thy hand, since 
everything is his ? And since 8. thy wickedness 
cannot harm, nor thy righteousness benefit him ; but a 
man as thou art, i.e. man of (the strong) arm, [which 
is Hfted up {?), who is so perverted as to rob] and to 
do harm, and who is froward towards him — to such 
will thy wickedness do injury. Therefore, it is from 
a poor man, whom thy goodness may benefit, and to 
whom thy wickedness may do harm, that thou shouldst 
have sought a reward, and to him shouldst thou have 
brought thy good deeds into remembrance. Having 
said : Unto a man like thee, he adds : Or, — 9. By the 
greatness 0/ his might, and for that he is strong in 
power (Is. xl. 26) ; by the greatness of his wealth and 
might, he causes others to cry out, by robbing them 
and committing violence against them. And thou 
(xxix. 17) hast broken the jaws of the unrighteous^ 
when they cried unto thee. And unto men, that cry 
for help by reason of the arm of the mighty, and the 
great, and the princes, and those whose persons are 
respected, he does no justice. And that man himself 
does not turn his heart to seek, and inquire after, 
God who made him and established him (Deut. xxxii. 6) : 
to say :. ID. Where is Gtod, my Maker, who has made 
me great and gotten me this wealth (Deut. viii. 17); 
and he does not give to him songs in the night ; cf. 
(Ps. cxix. 62) : At midnight I will rise to give thanks 
unto thee, — nor say, why is it that I rob and crush the 
poor, has not God made me, and made me great, for 


flaked did I come out of the womb of my mother (i. 21), 
and I have only him. For — 11. he teacheth us from 
the beasts of the earth, to recognize his loving kind- 
ness and goodness ; — from the wild beasts of the earth, 
and the fowls of heaven. F'or he sustains and supports 
them, and keeps them all alive. It is only God, for these 
all wait upon him, that he may give them their m^eat 
(Ps. civ. 27; cxlv. 15). He could also have learned 
from them that great wisdom, that it is God who gives 
him everything. But neither does he understand this 
from his own heart, to seek God, his Maker ; nor 
from the beasts of the earth and the foivls of heaven 
does he learn, so as to give him songs [in the night^ ; 
cf (Ps. xlii. 9) : The Lord will command his loving 
kindness [in the daytime^, and in the night his song 
shall be Toilh me\ (Ps. Ixxvii. 7) : f call to remembrance 
my song in the night ; for in the night man lies awake 
and thinks on his bed of that which happened to him 
by day ; cf, (Ps. iv. 5) : Cojnmune with your own heart 
upon your bed\ (Ps. xxxvi. 5): He deviseth iniquity 
upon his bed. The word niTp) might also be explained 
as (Is. XXV. 5) : tdi, the cutting off of the terrible 
ones, an expression of the cutting off of nations ; 
cf (xxxiv. 20) : At midnight the people are shaken ; 
(Exod. xii. 29) : and it came to pass at midnight and 
(!od slew all firstborn ; (Dan. v. 30) : In that night 
lielshazzar was slain. And he teaches us more than 
the beasts, for therefore he created us in his image 
as (Ps. xxxii. 9) : Be ye not as the horse, or as the 
mule, ivhich have no understanding. 12. There they 


cry, this refers to {v. 8) : Anal thy righteousness (may 
profit) a son of man ; it means : and to a son of a man 
to whom thou hast done righteousness and justice 
against those who oppressed him ; but they have not 
placed God before them, to say : Where is God my 
Maker ; whilst others have not done justice unto him 
in the place where the oppressed ones cry and no 
one answers; cf. (Eccl. iv. i) : And they had no 
comforter^ and on the side of their oppressors there was 
power. Because of the pride of evil men that 
oppressed them and thou didst deliver them, unto 
them should thy righteousness appeal, to seek from 
them a portion and an inheritance on account of thy 
goodness, but in what hast thou profited God thereby ? 
And according to Ibn Ezra, — Because of the pride of 
other evil men, that oppress former oppressors. 13. 
Surely Gkxl cannot hear idle things, nor can he see them, 
for ( Habak. i. 13): For he is of purer eyes than to behold 
evil, and he cannot look on perverseness. In this matter 
thou hast only not given him satisfaction, and nothing 
more ; but as for that matter, thou shouldst not have 
sought a portion and a heritage (xxxi. 2) as if thou 
hadst given what was thine, and as if he had taken 
aught from thee. It refers to the beginning of his 
speech {v, 7) : If thou be righteous, what gives t thou 
him? — He regardeth it not, the idle talk. 14. How 
much more when thou sayest thou beholdest him 
not ; an argument a fortiori ; when thou sayest that 
thou dost not see God, it is idle, thou canst not bear 
it ; that for this thou shalt once have to receive judg- 


ment from before him, for then he will all the more 
see vanity. — and thou shalt wait for him, and shalt 
fear him. — Some explain it thus : All the more^ if thou 
sayest : that thou seest not God, — as he said (xxiii. 
3) : Oh that I knew where I might find hint^ so that he 
would requite a man for his righteousness ; and that 
he cannot sec perverseness, but thou sayest that he 
shines on, and listens to, the counsel of the wicked ; 
and thou sayest (xxx, 20) : I stand up and thou lookest 
at vie ; — how much more does he see thy wickedness, 
and thou criest for help, and he does not answer thee. 
— pr, to have a cause before him, like the form pn, 
(Prov. xxiii. i): Consider diligently, arrange before 
him thy judgments and thy righteousness, and wait 
for him — an expression of hope — to receive thy reward ; 
but as for having a cause, before him, on account 
of thy righteous deeds ; thou hast no cause, for 
thou hast not benefited him by this. 15. And 
now, consider in thy heart, that where — pM = where 
— he has visited in his anger in vain, so that he knew 
not. nor recognized man greatly, when he increases 
and exults; for xtfcn cf. (Malachi iii. 20) and ye shall 
groiv up as calves of the stall It is he who says : my 
hand is high, and who prevails by his arm to rob, and 
does not place God before him. — Then thou shalt 
recognize and know that he is a righteous judge. — It 
may be thus explained : And now, because the visita- 
tion of his anger is not according to the iniquity of 
man. And he does not know the increase, but he 
acts as if he did not know the increase of the wicked- 


ness of man. 1 6. And Job opens his mouth in vanity, 
he multiplieth, and increases words in vain ; for he is 
only to be condemned for his many words. — Ibn Ezra 
explains it : And now, because not, because Job has no 
knowledge, he visits in his anger \ and he does not 
know, that the rest, which is his reward, is great ; 
according to his opinion »d:i is defective ; without the 
3, as mori. — Having answered him, on each point 
in his (Job's) words separately, he then turns to Job's 
three friends conjointly, in the way of reproof and 
consolation, so as to comfort him, and to show him 
God's ways : — How he is merciful and gracious to his 
creatures in all his ways, and not cruel as Job had 

Cap. XXXVI. — i. And Elihu added ; according to 
R. Mosheh Hadarshan, this is called an addition, 
because he had arranged three speeches against him, 
corresponding to Job s three friends. 2. Wait a little 
for me, and I will show thee, in? is the Targum for 
wait for me a little and I will tell thee. The Targum 
of Jonathan of (Is. xlii. 4) : The isles ^rv\ shall zvait 
for his law, is pinD\ Cf. (Judg. xx. 43): iinD. Wail 
for Benjamin, pursue him ; wait ye a little, and, 
afterwards, pursue him. For yet, although I have 
replied to all thy words. Cf (Malachi i. 4) : For the 
wicked waits for the righteous. For he yet waits for 
God, referring to what he said before (xxxiii. 6) : 
Behold I am according to thy wish in Gods stead \ 
and he wants to show God's ways and his kindnesses. 


Ibn Ezra says that inj is from i^^j, a crown, as 
(i Sam. xxiii. 26): D^b^, they — crowned — encom- 
passed David] (Hab. i. 4): the wicked doth compass 
about the righteous ; (Ps. cxlii. 8) : The righteous 
shall set the crown on me ; and it means here : show 
me some honour. 3. I will raise my knowledge, that 
which I think — afkr ; how God directs the world, 
and not according to their works. And I will ascribe 
righteousness to my Maker, saying, that righteousness 
and justice are his. For jhm c/. (i Sam. xviii. 8): 
"IDHD, they have ascribed unto David ten thousands y and 
to me they have ascribed thousands, 4. For truly my 
words are not false, for they are known to the world ; 
and his heart is in vain perfect in knowledge with thee 
in the world ; for the words shall be tried, that they 
are thus. Some explain it : in that thou hast called 
God perfect in knowledge; in that I am with 
thee ; in thstt matter only. He is mighty to take 
vengeance, nevertheless — 5. Behold Gk>d is mighty. 
Or, it means : He tvho is perfect in knowledge^ i.e. 
God, is with thee\ as he says afterwards (xxxvii. 16): 
The ivoiidrous works of him who is perfect in know- 
ledge. And he despises not the work of his hands, 
as thou hast said (x. 3), so as to Bnd occasions against 
him, to destroy him. And as the power consists in 
this that he is mighty in strength of heart, to rule 
over his own spirit — 6. He preserveth not the life of 
the wicked, cf (Exod. xxiii. 7) : for I will not justify 
the wicked y because (Ps. v. 7) : He abhorreth the 
bloodthirsty and deceitful man\ or, as (Prov. x. 27) : 


but the years of the wicked shall be shortened. And 
when the wicked comes to destroy the poor, he will 
condemn him ; and it is not as thou hast said (x. 3) : 
that he shines upon the counsel of the wicked. And 
the right of the poor; and not as thou hast said 
(xxxiv. 6) : ^Notwithstanding my rights I lie, 7. He 
withdraweth not his eyes from the righteous, when 
he shows his merit in judgment, so that he should 
not return unto him according to his righteousness ; 
and not as thou hast said : (x, 4) : Hast thou eyes of 
flesh ? And also kings that are righteous, he places 
upon the throne. And they are exalted over them ; 
for, in his judgment, he humbles this one and raises 
another ; and he does not respect the person of kings 
against the righteous ; how much less will he withhold 
thy merit, as thou sayest ? 8. And if they be bound. 
It means : And if thou seest righteous men, that are 
bound in fetters, and taken in cords of affliction and 
sufferings like thee ; it is not because he withdraws 
his eyes from them ; but there is sin in their hands. 
Through this they will examine their works ; for 
thus he lets the world know. 10. And openeth, 
and thus he opens their ears to reproof; and in this 
way he tells them that they return from iniquity ; and 
they search out their own ways, and repent. It is not 
for the sake of destroying, (Prov. iii. 12) : For whom 
the Lord love th he reprove th. lie does not do so to 
the wicked ; but 1 1 . makes them spend their days in 
prosperity, whilst they endure, and destroys them 
afterwards. If they hearken and serve him ; if these 


understand that their sufferings are not (?) for the sake 
of reproving them, and they reform their service and 
their deeds, they shall spend their days in prosperity^ 
according to their righteousness. 12. But if they 
hearken not, they shall perish by the sword, rh^ — 
sword. Or, he shall send them by passing them away. 
And they shall die without knowledge, because they 
did not set their heart to know and recognize. 13. 
But the hjrpocritical of heart, but those whose service 
was only by way of hypocrisy, as (Jer. xii. 2) : thou 
art near in their mouth, and far from their reins, for 
they are not within as they show themselves out- 
wardly, so as to serve him from love, but only as 
hypocrites, so that he may be good unto them. They 
lay up anger, to rage against God, saying : Why hast 
thou done thus unto me, have I not served thee ever 
since my youth } And, thereby, they reveal their 
heart when trouble comes unto them. Therefore they 
cry not for help unto him when he bindeth them. For 
they say : What profit and help is it unto us that we 
cry } Have we not served him all our days without 
profit? Therefore — 14. Their soul dieth 127123, in 
restlessness, as (N eh. v. 13) : / shook, out my lap, cf 
(xxxviii. 13): And the wicked be shaken out of it. 
Some explain it : in the company of young men and 
sinners — among the sanctified ones, that are ready to 
be killed, as (Jer. xii. 3) : and sanctify them for the 
day of slaughter. Some explain it : by the death of 
the adulterers, as (Deul. xxiii. 18) : There shall be no 

orrp. Having spoken about these hypocrites, as it 



was said : {v. 6) : He preserveth not the life of the 
wicked, he again explains : but giveth the poor their 
right. Namely — 1 5. He delivereth the afflicted by his 
affliction, him who is chastened by the sufferings of 
his illness, because he searches out and examines his 
own ways, and he is good to him again. And he 
openeth their ear by adversity ; not for the sake of 
destroying, as he says: 16. And anger hath enticed 
thee ; he means : Also this very anger and grief has led 
thee away to speak words like these ; because thou 
hast come through the mouth into narrowness, into a 
narrow and confined pit, which thou hast never tried, 
but hitherto thou hadst a broad place ; nor wast thou 
straitened. The table was in quietness and ease, and 
thou hadst only tried that which was good. There- 
fore is this trouble very hard for thee. Or, having 
said : He delivereth the afflicted, etc., he proceeds : 
And the anger from the mouth of the adversary, i.e. 
Satan, has led thee away, as (2 Chr. xviii. 31): and 
God moved them from him. And yet shalt thou be in 
a broad place, and not straitened in the place of 
adversity in which thou art now. And that which is 
set on thy table, nn?T = and that which thou settest 
on thy table, shall be ftill of fatness, if thou hearkenest 
and consider thy chastisement, to accept it with love. 
1 7. And the judgment of the wicked ; if thou hast 
borne like one of the wicked, — the judgment that 
thou hast borne and the justice which he executeth 
on thee, shall support thee in life; (Prov. iii. 12): 
For whom the Lord loveth, he reproveth. — R. Eliezer 


explains it : \n\ thou art full with the conten- 
tions of the wicked, to contend with God. For this 
there is a judgment upon those wicked, who sustain 
and take hold of a judgment, a cause, and a 
reproof against him (God), at the time of distress. 
For thy righteousness should distinguish at the time of 
distress, to hope for him, but not to contend against 
him. 1 8. For lest wrath leads thee away — thy 
wrath — into suflaciency, into multiplying words, which 
thou multipliest against him. And then he explains : 
the greatness of the ransom, and the money, shall 
not turn thee aside again, from wrath to life. And 
what is this confidence, that thou multipliest words 
before him? Ibn Kzra explains it: For wrath, 
thou must fear in thy wrath, lest it lend thee 
away P9p2i, m strokes (punishments), and [lest] the 
ransom^ if it be great, lead thee away. 19. Will thy 
riches suffice, — "?iyitt) = thy wealth, the possessor of 
wealth is called ^im. It means : For wealth will be 
of no avail, nor all the forces of thy strength. Dost 
thou not see, that — 20. The night does not desire — 
the n is the sign of the feminine — till he brings down 
the forces of thy strength. R. li^liezer explains 
it: {^. 19) Will this thy wealth and thy confidence 
suffice not to be in distress ; will it take thee out of 
the uioulh of distress {v, 16) by the contentions of 
thy words ? And all the forces of the strength which 
is thine, will they suffice that thou come forth out of 
the mouth of distress? Neither by multiplying words, 
nor by thy strong hand shalt thou come forth there- 


from ; but only by supplications. I n that case ^y)w 
is as (Is. xvii. 7) : n^nr, Ae shall look unto his Maker \ 
and as the following {v, 20) : qN»n Smi, thou shalt not 
desire, being an expression of ** looking forward to," 
ysr\m should also be an expression of ** looking forward 
to." Dunash explains it as yvrr\, shall he arrange ; 
and n)?i» as an expression of prayer ; and it means : 
if thou forsakest the words of thy contentions, and 
thou wouldst pray, thou shalt be no more in distress, 
and shalt yet have all the forces of thy strength. And 
then thou wouldst desire and look forward to the 
trouble of the night, when the nations shall go up out 
of their place, as (xxxiv. 20) : At midnight the people 
are shaken. Some explain it : Thou, now in thy 
distress, shalt not desire and look forward to the 
shower of the night and its moisture, to go up with 
the rest of the world in their place, who have enlarge- 
ment from their trouble, to go up and to flourish ; on 
account of the words of thy contentions. For the 
distress of man is like the heat of the day, like a 
burning day ; and the enlargement to the drops of 
the night and the shower. Only — 21. TaJke heed, do 
not turn any more to iniquity, to contend against 
him in thy wrath, for this, to take heed of this, thou 
shalt choose rather than being in the affliction of 
punishment, and God shall grant thee thy desires, as 
thou thyself choosest to come out of the mouth of 
distress, Ibn Ezra explains it: that it is better for 
thee that thou choosest the days of this affliction, so 
that thou turn not to iniquity. For — 22. Ood doeth 


loftUy. In my opinion it means : For this, that thou 
keepest thy mouth from speaking iniquity, thou hast 
to choose rather than affliction, of which thou com- 
plainest loudly. For God shall protect thee with his 
power, to take thee out of distress ; and not thou, 
with the forces of thy strength ; for who is a teacher 
like unto him? [to teach] man the way to remedy 
life ; and all that he does unto thee is reproof and 
teaching, as (Ps. xciv. 12): lUcsscd be the many whmn 
thou cliastenest O Lord, and teachest out of thy law. 
And when thou acceptest his reproof, he shall protect 
thee by his power. It may also be explained : Behold, 
Gk>d exalts man by his power to raise him to the 
degree of princes and honoured men, and who is like 
him to hurl, to cast down the exalted and honoured 
upon the face of the earth in contempt ; then rrnie 
would be as (Ex. xv. i, 21) : rroi, he hath thrown into 
the sea, and the verse presents a parallelism. n»p mio, 
archer (i Sam. xxxi. 3) is the same as "nDli (Ps. Ixxviii. 
9). 23. Who hath ei\]oined him his way? When 
he chastises man, to say : thou doest not justly reprove 
and judge ; or who can say to him thou hast wrought 
unrighteousness in thy judgment ? 24. Whereof men 
have sung unto him, and great men praised him, for 
kindnesses and wondrous deeds. For — 25. All men 
have looked thereon, and recognized his way of 
kindness and mercy. Man beholdeth from a remote 
time, from the days of old, the ways of his mercy ; 
they therefore sing unto him, and praise his name. 
26. Behold, God is great. Having said : (z/. 24) that 


thou magnify his work, he proceeds to say that he is 
great and we know not his might, nor do we consider 
that he does not deal with us according to his might, 
but according to his mercy and his kindness; and 
because he said {v. 25) man beholdeth it afar off, he 
adds : that this afar off refers only to the days of 
man, which are short ; for he cannot (really) behold 
afar off, the numbers of his years being unsearchable. 
Thus it seems to me ; but others take 1900 vj^J, his 
years are a number ; the number of the years of his 
mighty and wondrous deeds is not such a great time, 
for day by day does he show us his kindly deeds, 
which are unsearchable, we have not the understand- 
ing to search them. 27. For he maketh smaU the 
drops of water, so that they be fine drops, and be not 
heavy upon the seeds, and sweep them away, vy^ 
[amenuisera^, which distil, and pour in rain, in the 
place of th(.* vapour that rose first, before God caused 
rain to come upon the earth (Gen. ii. 5-6). It means : 
As (the vapour) rises gently from the earth, and not 
in a stream, thus the rain comes down gently, through 
the smallness of the drops. 30. Behold, he spreculeth 
his light upon the cloud ; and covereth the bottom of 
the sea therewith. 31. For by them, by the clouds 
.... he judgeth the peoples ; he chastises them with 
famine by absence of rain ; and by them he giveth 
meat to him that is numerous in children, and needs 
food. 32. Because of violence of hands he covereth 
the light ; rain is withheld. And conmiands about 
it, that it come through him that entreats in prayer. 


33. He telleth about it, the friend of his generation, 
and the great and wise among them ; telleth about it, 
before God, the troubles and needs of the generation. 
Or, its friend telleth about him ; he teaches them to 
examine their deeds and to return to him. The price ; 
this is the price at which rain shall be obtained. Yea, 
he rises upwards through this; as (Hos. vii. i6): 
They return, but not to him that is on high ; (2 Sam. 
xxiii. i) : who was raised on high. Our Sages explain 
it : the purchase of anger and wrath by him who is 
overbearing ; but the vocalization, namely riDpo having 
a Pathach (katan = •.•) does not prove that it is in 
stilt, construct, to t|N ; for if this were so, it would have 
the kametz (katan = ..) ; nor would it have a disjunctive 
accent, namely Rebia. 

Cap. XXXVII. — i. nn^'i And leaps, as (Lev. xi. 
21): To leap ivithal, i.e, my heart is in astonish- 
ment. 2. Hearken ye unto the noise of his voice ; 
the thunders, when he thunders in the firmament ; at 
the sound which goeth out of his mouth. 3. Under 
the whole heaven it is seen, ^rnnJ^., as (xx. 9) : // shall 
not behold him ; the lights are meant which the 
lightnings give forth, ses lusres, 4. After it, after that 
light, the voice of the thunder roareth and thunders 
with the voice of his majesty, that is, the thunders 
and lightnings that bring the rain. And God stayeth 
them not, i.e. these things, when the voice of him who 
prays is heard before him. DJ^ir; = he cuts them 
off, estalyer\ in the language of the Mishna we find 
(Sotah 16a) : In three places does the Halacha nipiJ?, 


supplant the text. 6. For he saith to the snow, by 
means of these voices, fall thou on the earth, and 
showers of ram together with them ; and the showers 
of rain, meaning that they shall come from the four 
winds. 7. By the hand of every man he sealeth ; 
when a man sins before him, the man himself seals his 
own handwriting, on the day of his death, on which the 
transgressions committed by him are written. That 
every man may know his work, to tell him what he is 
judged for. 8. Then the beasts come in ambush, God 
has many more messengers by whom he executes 
his vengeance, 4 sending of wild beasts. 9. And 
storm and cold ; D''i]p, there is a store called 
Mazzartm, 10. By the breath, by his wind ; and 
the breadth of the waters in a flood, pouring, as a 
punishment, "n? «i«, the ruler appointed over the 
clouds. He spreadelh abroad the cloud of God's rain. 
II. The cloud of his light, the raincloud. 12. And 
he, that is thus appointed, is turned roimd about by 
the guidance of God, for their work, namely of the 
rains. He is greatly turned round about, regarding 
the work that is put upon them, to do either good or 
evil. As we learned (Rosh Hashana 17b): If Israel 
were perfectly righteous on the New Year's Day, and 
much rain were decreed for them, and they should 
then become sinful ; it would be impossible to diminish 
[the supply of rain], for the decree would already have 
gone forth ; but God would let it come down out of its 
season, and upon a land that did not require it ; — And 
** sometimes to do good " ; how is this } etc. — whatso- 


ever he commandeth them, the rains, to do on earth. 
1 3. Whether it be for correction, for the punishment 
of men ; by letting them descend on mountains and 
hills, that are not places for sowing ; or for his land, 
to let them descend as originally decreed ; neither for 
punishment, nor within the boundary of justice ; {i.e. 
nor for more benefit than strict justice requires) ; but 
midway between (these two extreme courses). Or for 
mercy, when the generation become all more righteous 
than they were on the New Year's Day ; then those 
rains, that were decreed to descend in a medium 
manner, shall be turned round about by his guidance, 
to descend in their due seasons, and on land that 
needs them, so that not a drop go in waste. He shall 
let it come, the rain, in one of these ways. 15. How 
God layeth upon them, the law of the everlasting 
covenant ; how they depend on his decree. 16. '•IpSpp, 
the micovering of the cloud, an expression of [a space] 
open on both sides ; it means : over the length and 
breadth of the clouds. Dost thou know .... the 
wondrous works of him that is perfect in knowledge ? 
How it is 17. that thy garments are wann? By his 
quieting the earth by the south wind, that does not 
kill the people with cold, because the east wind gives 
warmth ; as it is said (Jonah iv. 8) : a sultry east wind\ 
TT'imn, that silences all other winds. 1 8. Strong as a 
mirror, the sky is strong as a molten mirror, in which 
women look, p^^o, ires sur, exceedingly strong. 19. 
Teach us what we shall say unto him to God, when 
we contend with him ; we are not able to order (our 


speech unto him) by reason of darkness, which is 
(Ps. xviii. ' 2) : his hiding place and his surrounding, 
20. Shall it be told him that I would si>eak; is he 
like human beings, that it is necessary to tell him that 
which comes forth from our mouth ? — If a man speak, 
anything with his mouth, that it is whispered and re- 
vealed to him on the spot. Cf, (2 Sam. xvii. 16): 
^y^ JD, lest it be whispered to the King. Our 
Sages explain it : Can all his praise be told hivi^ 
that I should speak that we should speak of him and 
his mighty deeds ^ if a man speak to tell them all, 
surely, he shall be swallowed up in his place. 21. And 
now they see not the Ught, the teaching, even when 
the sky is full of the bright clouds, so as to cause rain 
to descend. The wind pcusseth, and cleanseth them, 
and no rain descends. 22. Out of the north cometh 
golden splendour, the north wind blows, and passes 
the rain away, and the sun shines, cf. (Zech. iv. 1 2) : 
that empty the gold out of them. Before Gtod, Sy = 
before him. Touching 23. the Almighty, we have not 
seen him mighty in power, to awaken his judgments 
against men according to the greatness of his power, 
but in mercy. Me set men's atonement in a small 
thing, according as they can afford : the handful [of 
flour] of a meal-offering, half a shekel, turtledoves, 
pigeons, oxen, sheep. He did not trouble them to 
demand a Reem or a roebuck. And judgment, 
chastisement ; and he will not afiUct men in an 
extreme manner, and so he does not afflict them for 
his own justification more than is right in regard to 


what it is impossible (for them), but every man as 
he is able (Deut. xvi. 17). 24. Men therefore are 
afraid of him, to plead with him, for he regardeth 
not any that are wise of heart, that want to deal 
wisely with him ; their wisdom is nothing in his eyes. 
Our Sages explain it to refer to Job ; Elihu said to 
him : Thou hast not obtained the privilege of having 
sons wise of heart remaining to thee, because thou 
hast imposed extreme fear upon thy generation. 

Cap. XXXVIII. — i. Then the Lord answered Job 
out of the whirlwind and said, m^on jo = mi^D mo. 
Count thy hairs, and I shall give as many answers. 
Fro7n the whirlwind, with which thou hast reproached 
me, saying (ix. 17) : He who breakeih 7ne with a whirl- 
wind, I shall answer thee ; as thou shalt hear at the end 
of the reply {y. 25) : Who has separated a place for the 
hair, a hole for each hair. 2. That darkeneth counsel, 
counsel that is dark and foolish. 3. Gird up now thy 
loins like a man ; an allusion for him to rouse himself 
from his sickness and suffering. rriroD = its measures. 
5, 6. Or who laid the cornerstone thereof, in the 
middle of the sea, when the world was water, and from 
which place the world's foundation was laid. 7. 
Where wast thou — when the morning stars sang 
together for the first time } 8. With doors, the sand, 
the border of the sea. When it brake forth, hrria 
= when it was drawn forth going out of the deep as 
(Ps. xxii. lo) : that didst draw me forth from the 
womb. 9. When I made the cloud round about the 


ocean, which encompasses the world ; and which 
clouds surround as a garment -in^nn = its swaddling- 
band, cf, (Ezek. xvi. 4) : nor wasl thou swaddled, 10. 
And I broke, I made breaks to it all round, to keep it 
back within them, which are a boundary to it. which 
it shall not pass ; cf. (Josh. vii. 5) : and they chased 
them before the gate unto the quarries, i.e. ditches that 
surround the town. 12. Since thy days, from the 
day that thou wast born. And again — Hast thou 
since thy days commanded 13. to take hold of the 
comers of the earth ? As a man, who takes hold of 
the corners of a garment, and shakes it, so shall I once 
take hold of the earth by its corners, and shake the 
wicked (out of it) ; cf. (Is. xxxi. 3): When the Lord 
shall incline his hand, both he that helpeth shall stumble, 
etc. ; as a man, who holds anything in his hand, drops 
it by inclining his hand. 14. Thou changest thy 
formations, as clay under the seal ; the cast of man's 
countenance when he dies ; to live again at the resur- 
rection of the dead, and they shall stand forth in their 
garments. 1 5. Then shall their light be withholden 
from the wicked, when they die ; and there shall the 
high aim be broken. 16. The entanglements, the 
locks, of the sea ; cf. (Ex. xiv. 3) : they are entangled. 
17. The gates of death. 21. Thou knowest all this, 
for then wast thou bom, when 1 created them. 23. 
Which I have withheld, reserved, against the time of 
trouble, against the five kings in Gibeon. — against the 
day of battle, and war with Gog and Magog. 24. The 
light is parted, the irradiation of the sun, which 


eliverges this way and that way, like the horns of a 
i-am. The East, the sun in the east. 25. Who hath 
separated a place for the hair, ^^w, the Arabic for 
Flair is ^dis^w ; to every hair of the head I have given 
rrSrn, a separate hole, to draw sap from ; if two would 
draw from the same hole, the eyesight would fail. 
These have not been changed by me, how then should 
I change ivn, Job, for i-'^im, enemy ? This is m^^on jo 
(^v. i). Another explanation is: The drops of rain 
to stream ; I have separated for every [single] drop a 
hole in the clouds ; for if they were to come down 
from one hole, they would soften the earth, and turn 
it into mire. And a way for the lightning of the 
tihunder, who has separated them ? every thunderclap 
lias its own path, and if two were to proceed along one 
path, men would not be able to bear the sound. 27. 
The waste, land that is dark from famine. 28. The 
fountains of dew, ••Sa« = '»Sa, the « being paragogic ; as 
(xiii. 17): '•n^inM^ anrl my declaration in your ears, 
with the additional n at the bejjinning of the word, for 
the formation of the noun ; thus ( Ezek. xxi. 20) : 
nni«, the sound of the sword \ nniN = mi'^D, the barking 
of the sword, the cry of the sword. Another explana- 
tion is ; hy^-^^yAy the basins of the dew, like basins, 
divisions, in which the dew is contained. The f? inter- 
changes with the 3, as, in the book of Ezra (Nehem. 
xiii. 7) : ro»D for rxyah, a chamber. 29. Hoarfrost. ^^5^^^. 
30. The waters are hidden as a stone, by the frost 
which congeals every drop that is upon them. And 
the face of the deep is caught, and held together, by it. 


31. the chains of the Pleiades, so that all its (the 
constellation s) cold should not go forth, and destroy 
the world by its coldness. Or the bands of the Orion, 
estelles, canst thou loose, to leave out its heat, to take 
away the cold of the Pleiades ? 32. The planets, all 
the other planets, (constellations), bt^?, a great star of 
the Pleiades, to which many stars are attached ; two 
of these were taken away to open the windows of the 
Deluge, and placed in the constellation of Aries. God 
will restore them in the future time, and it shall be 
comforted. Tanchuma. 33. His dominion, the 
dominion of the planets, to bring heat, and cold, and 
summer, and winter upon the earth. 34. Oanst thou 
litt up thy voice to the clouds, to lay your command 
thereon } Or will the abundance of water cover thee 
from heaven at thy behest.'* 35. And say unto thee, 
in the place where they were sent, Here we are, we 
have fulfilled thy mission } For they need not return 
to their [former] place . to bring back word, that 
they fulfilled their mission, for the divine presence 
is everywhere. 36. In the inward parts, i,e. the reins. 
••IDwf?, to the cock, in the language of the Sages ; 
some say it means ike heart, which \\y\xti, considers and 
meditates on the coming events. 37. Who can tell, 
and warn them of, their charge } The bottles of 
heaven, made like bottles in which the rains are 
collected, as (1 Sam. i. 24) : and a bottle o/wine. 38. 
When the dust ran together, at the time when I 
poured the dust, into a mass, for the foundation of the 
world, and the clods clave fttst together, round about on 


all sides, till it was filled over the length and breadth. 
40. When they couch, when they stand crouching to 
lie in wait. 41. They wander for lack of food; for 
their own fathers hate them, and God prepares gnats 
for them, that are brought forth from their dung and 
enter their mouths. 

Cap. XXX IX. — i. i?^p-^f?y:, Sletnbock. It hates 
its young, and, when preparing to give birth, goes to 
the top of a high rock, so that its young should 
fall to the earth and die. But God prepares an eagle 
that receives it on its wings. When the hinds do 
calve, f?f?in, an expression of frn, the pangs of a woman 
in childbirth. The hind's womb is narrow, and the 
young cannot come forth ; and, at the time of birth, 
1 prepare a dragon, that beats her womb so that it 
opens ; should it be a moment too early or too late, 
she would die immediately. 1 know to distinguish 
these moments, and should the distinction between 
ir« Job, and tin enemy, escape me.'^ 3. They 
divide, their womb opens, and the young come forth, 
and their pangs of childbirth, they send away from 
them when they bear, at the moments which I destine 
for them. 4. ^o^rr, they are strong ; and return not 
to them, when they are a little grown, they increase 
in strength in the open field on seeds and herbs, and 
require not the bringing up by men or by their 
mothers. 5. Free, for no man can domesticate the 
wild ass and teach him the work of cattle ; "riiy = the 
wild ass ; hath loosed his bonds ; for it has not the 
yoke of man. 6. rpnij = the wilderness ; the scJty, the 


salt land. 7. ni«*i»n = the shoutings ; cf. (Zech. iv. 7) : 
Shoutings of grace. 8. The range of the mountains is 
his pasture, he spies out (in) and searches for him- 
self a place for pasture. 9. d^ = d«i, Reem. Serve 
thee, to serve thee. 10. With his band of the 
ftirrow; the band of the rope that binds the oxen 
along the furrows of the plough. Or will he harrow, 
-rjtir! = prepare the field. 11. Wilt thou trust him 
to gather in thy produce, because his strength is great, 
and he can bear great burdens ; — Wilt thou leave to 
him thy labour, to bring it into the house? 13. The 
wing of the Renanim rejoiceth, D^ppn is the name of 
a large bird, called in the language of the Mishna, 
-^^DV 11 (Bechorot 57^)); or the winged — every bird is 
called rn;i« (winged) because it Hies in the air — it 
means : or the bird that is named Stork, vrpx?n, and 
the bird that is named n^iD (Notza).** See what its 
ways are ! 1 4. She leaveth her eggs on the earth, and 
goes and warms herself in the dust at a distance. 1 5. 
And forgetteth that the foot shall crush it ; the ^%% ; 
Trp(\T\ = shall break it. — 16. rr^pn. she dealeth hardly 
with her young ones, from her heart as if they were not 
hers ; her labour is in vain, and she is not afraid to 
lose them. 18. What time she strays away on high ; 
when she flies on high. She laugheth at the horse : 
she is not [afraid] if he tread on the eggs and breaks 
them. M^on, all forms of the word nsion apply to a 
man whose heart prompts him to stray away from his 
modes of life, his bringing up, his country, to roam in 
other countries, and to try other modes of life, esvoy&ra ; 


cf, (Deut. xxi. i8): a stubborn mioi, and rebellious 

son ; and in the language of the Talmud it is •»«io«, as 

(Kethubot 63b) : Rab ZebicTs daughter-in-law rebelled 

and went azvay (cf. Rashi on ChuHn 58b and on Baba 

Metzia 77a). 19. Shaking; no^n, an expression of 

Dm, thunder and fright, cf. (Ezek. xxvii. 35) : they 

are troubled in their countenance. 20. As a locust, 

to skip and leap as a locust, and shake all around him. 

His snorting, when he blows loudly from his nostrils, 

is terrible. 21. They spy in the valley, as (Deut. i. 22) : 

they s/iall spy out the land /or us ; for it is the custom 

of horsemen to lie in wait in the valley and in the 

dales, and the horse rejoices and goes out to meet the 

weapons. 22. And is not dismayed, and does not 

fear. 23. The quiver rattleth, full of arrows that knock 

against each other, and the sound thereof is heard. 

The blade of the spear, the sharp part of sword 

and spear ; all the iron is called in^ (flame) : cf. 

(Judg. iii. 22) : the haft went in after the blade, 24. 

He hollows out the groimd, m^j-;, he makes nio^ii, 

holes, with his feet. And believeth not, from his 

great joy, desirous as he is of battle, that it is the 

war trumpet. 25. As oft as the trumpet, as (Levit 

XXV. 28) : n, enough to bring it back to him ; much 

(sounding of the) trumpet. He saith. Aha, n^rj is 

the expression uttered by those who rejoice ; as r\r\^ 

is an expression of grief. 26. Does the hawk soar ? 

1^:, does the hawk spread out his wing.** It is an 

angel resembling a hawk, who, by the spreading of his 

wings stays the severity of the south wind, that it may 



not destroy the world. 30. They gulp down blood, 
only according to the measure as one is able to swallow 
of blood, or water ; but it appears as if one swallows 
much ; (li^Sir), in imitation of the sound *A1 'Al ; 
thus, in the language of the Sages, when speaking 
about giving the woman that has gone astray to drink 
(Sotah 20a), they make her swallow, pnwD (*Ar 'Ar) 
and drink against her will ; ^ (Is. xv. 5) : they raise a 
cry of destruction \ the prophet using the onomatopoetic 
word n^^'», in imitation of the sound produced by 
the throat. Where the slain are there is she, to eat. 
Our sages explain all this passage as an allegory 
applying to Aaron in the Pesiktha to Achre Moth 
(Pesiktha Rabbathi, par. 47): (z/. 27) Does the eagle 
mount up at thy command ; i.e, the divine presence, 
of which it is said (Deut. xxxii. 11): As the eagle 
spreads out its nest\ He removes his court that they 
do not injure Aaron when he enters the sanctuary on 
the Day of Atonement. — (z^. 28) He dwelleth on the 
rock and hath his lodging there ; Aaron was secure 
when he placed (his censer with the incense) on the 
foundation stone (Eben Shethiah). — {v. 29) Prom 
thence he spieth out food, he prayed for that which 
was needed during the year. And after all that 
honour, he witnessed the death of his two eaglets 
Nadab and Abihu, who died that my name might be 
sanctified through them, and that my fear might tall 
upon all that remained. 


Cap. XL. — i, 2. And the Lord answered Job and 
said. — Shall he that cavilleth contend with the 
Almighty ; i'idi = -nnor, shall man make himself 
master to contend with the Almighty ? — He that 
argueth with Qod let him answer it ; Let him that 
comes to argue answer his words. 5. Once have I 
spoken (ix. 22): he destroys the innocent and the wicked \ 
It means, I have spoken little and will proceed no 
further. Others explain it : Once have I spoken ; 
namely, he destroys the innocent and the wicked^ and 
twice ; namely, (xiii. 20) : Do not do [two things'] unto 
me\ I will proceed no ftirther. 6. Then the Lord 
answered Job — and said — 8. Wilt thou disannul my 
judgment? Wilt thou argue with thy words to 
disannul my judgment, and show that it is perverse? 
ID. Deck thyself now, rrry, an expression of adorn- 
ing and ornament. 12. And crush, as (Num. xi. 8): 
they pounded in a mortar. 15. Behemoth, which is 
prepared for the time to come. 16. His strength is 
in his loins, its testicles are injured and hidden, but 
not entirely removed. — In the muscles of his belly, 
^'^na)?, as (Cant. vii. 3) Tn», thy naveiy (F.) lombriL 
17. rsrr, like 7Dn\ he hardens; and thus in the 
language of our sages (Chulin, 47b) : srom, hard as 
wood\ v7nD, the testicles. — Are knit together, as 
twisted cords, cf, (Lam. i. 14), they are knit together ; 
or as niD, the webbing of a bed, in the language of 
the Sages ; it is an expression of twisted cord ; entre- 
lacer, 18. •»prD«, strength, as (Gen. xliii. 31) : pD«n'»i, he 
restrained himself, [Targum] pDnn«*i, he strengthened 


himself — vp-jj, his bones; like bars of iron; h^istfl, 
like a load of iron. 19. The beginning of the ways 
of Qod, he was created at the beginning to be the 
chief of all animals. — He that made him, only God 
himself can kill him. 20. The mountains bring him 
forth food, and it is written in the book of Psalms 
(1. 10): Behemoth upon a thousand hills, a thousand 
hills bring forth food for him, he feeds on all of them 
every day, and they are grown again the next day. 
21. txh^"^, the shadow of the trees, {v. 22) The 
shadows cover him with shadow, namely, that shadow 
of the covert of the reed, and the fen, he is surrounded 
and hedged round by many trees. 23. Behold, he 
deprives (others) of a river, and he hardens not. His 
belly is not hardened by his drinking, as {v. 17): he 
hardens his tail — He is confident, when he draws, he 
is confident to draw the whole Jordan into his mouth, 
if he were to drink there ; rrr as (Ps. xxii. 10) : drawn 
vie forth from the womb, 24. With his eyes he shall 
take him, when he looks at him he trembles from the 
fear of him. — Snares, o'^B^pio are fishermen's tools with 
which they catch fish. 25. Oanst thou draw out 
Leviathan? etc. — and if thou wouldst draw him with a 
fishhook. 26. Canst thou put a reed into his nose? 
27. Will he make many supplications imto thee; It 
means : thou art unable to approach him with imple- 
ments of fishing. — {v. 23) Behold he oppresses the 
river, he takes it by violence and drinks it, but his 
belly does not become swollen and hard from much 
drinking, for his belly is large, and he is confident 


that he can drink it in one draught. Yet God put 
his eyes upon him, and he is bound before him. — 
{v. 24) Snares, implements of fishers, with which they 
pierce the nose of large fishes when they are caught 
in the net, or by the rope to which the fishhook is 
attached. — {v. 25) Oanst thou press down his tongue, 
to remove the iron hook (reed) by which the jaw of 
the fish is pierced to bring it forth ? — (v. 26) Oanst 
thou pierce, npn = npDn. 29. Wilt thou play with him 
as with a bird, which is bound on the neck of the 
boys to play with? 30. ^np^. Shall the consulters 
with a familiar spirit dig against him? C/. (Deut. 
xviii. 11): and the consulters with a familiar spirit ; 
that the fishermen dig ; digging is not to be taken 
literally, but metaphorically; cf, (Prov. xxvi. 27) 
Whoso diggeth a pit shall fall therein ; as if they 
sought the Leviathan to catch and divide it among 
the merchants. 31. Wilt thou ftdfll thy desire to 
make a tent of his skin ? Or wilt thou make of his 
head, i.e, the Leviathan s, a shade of fishes, thus the 
shade made of his skin is called : xs^y^ ^^^t (redupli- 
cated) as pnpn\ dtdtm, i^pnp. — Do so no more, vp\r\ 
(with a Pathach) as (Ruth ii. 14), inin\ because of 
the pause accent (Soph Pasuk). 

Cap. XLI. — i. If a man look at him, he shall be 
cast to the ground. 2. No man is so fierce that he 
can stir him from his place — Who then is he that can 
stand before me, who made him so when I created 
him ? 3. Who has been before me, to be beneficent, 
that I should repay? I have given him the full 


reward. All is mine, and I am able to pay him the 
reward 4. I will not keep silence, so as not to repay 
his reward to his children. 5. And who can approach 
to uncover the scales that are his gaiment ; his double 
bridle, his two lips, an upper and a lower one. 6. 
The doors of his face, his lips when they are closed. 
7. There is greatness and pride in the strength of 
his shields ; i.e. the scales, that close over, and are 
attached to one another. For — 8. One is near to 
another, and close together, each attaching one to the 
other. 10. When he sneezes, a flame issues from his 
mouth and shines, as the sun shines and is red in the 
morning. 11. Torches of flre, '^yrc^ = d'^TpS torches. 
12. jiDj^, a great pot, which sends forth steam from 
seething. 14. All terror and fear turns, before him, 
into exultation and laughter. 15. The flakes of bis 
flesh, they are pieces of his flesh that are hard — they 
are joined together, ^p:)^, (n with Tsere), as (xxix. 
10) : Their tongue cleaved {r}pyi) to the roof of their 
mouth, on account of the pause accents, Athnachta 
and Soph Pasuk. 16. Firm, pnr is formed like m'' (?), 
and, like psio, means strong. The nether (millstone) ; 
the one that is firmly fixed in the ground, and does not 
easily break. But in (Judg. ix. 53) : And a certain 
woman cast iDn nSo up07t Abimelecks head, the upper 
millstone is meant, the one that turns round. 1 7. For 
the breakers ; O'^n^t^p, the breakers of the sea ; the 
waves of the sea, they fail before him, and become as 
if they had not been. 18. The sword which is his shall 
pursue him, he cannot avail before him. Nor the spear, 


the dart, nor the coat of mail ; implements of war : 
m» like p^», the coat of mail ; [Or,] ^do, as (i Kings 
vi. 7) : was built of stone made ready at the quarry. 
20. The son of the bow, the archer. 2 1 . The clubs, 
nnin is the name of a weapon. 22. The sharp rays 
of the sun, a ray of light, [nnn] = »d», the sun — cf. 
(ix. 7) : Who comvtandeth the sun, and it riseth not ; 
(Judg. xiv. 18) : Before the sun ivent down ; Xff^n ^yc^ty, 
cf, (Ps. xxii. i) : inwrr n^^'M, the hind of the morning, 
the horn (ray) of light, which branches off this and 
that way. Gk>ld upon the mire, his belly shines like 
gold, and he is stretched upon the mire. tdt as 
(Cant. iii. 10) : The bottom thereof is of gold \ pin as 
(Prov. viii. 19) : My fruit is better than gold, yea, than 
fine gold. 23. Like a small pot he maketh the deep 
to boil ; nSlson, which is deep, and the sea like com- 
pounded spices. 24. To hoariness, to weakness and 
feebleness. 25. There is not on earth any that could 
rule over him, that is made for this, not to be dis- 
mayed, not to fear. — The sons of pride, the proud. 

Cap. XLII. — 2. Then Job answered the Lord. — 
Thou canst do everything, and no design is restrained 
from thee ; all that thou purposest to do, thou doest. 
i^^*;, as (Gen. xi. 6) : and no%v nothing will be re- 
strained from them, which they have imagined to do. 
3. That hideth counsel and wisdom, that man shall not 
know. For, because I knew not wisdom and under- 
standing, have I uttered and spoken that which I 
spoke. I abhor my life. 6. And I repent, as to my 


death, for I have obtained the privilege to hear thy 
report which I heard of old (?). 7. As my servant Job. 
For you commenced ; and he put you to silence, you 
ought to have comforted him, as Elihu did ; for a man 
must not be taken to account [for what he says] when 
he is in trouble (Baba Bathra i6b). 10. Twice aa 
much, the verse does not intend this to be taken 

NOTES. 180 

Ch. xxxiv. V. 6. nrniM jnn. Read m^Dian nrniM jnD, 
The passage is also otherwise corrupt. 
V. 1 4. 2?3D '^DM ii^rr mS. Read wi '^dm 11 '^rr mS. 
e;. 30. t» pnru? '^ddo. Read 02^ '•©po '^ddo (the catch- 
words from the verse). 
V. 36. ifrN© pM ''©DMX Probably ifrwD pM ''©aKX 
Ch. XXXV. V. 1 4- iron hmii Min». Read id"i Nin» p» Sd. 
Ch. xxxvi. V. 2. Diain Sdh. Read oiain inD, both 
here and in the Leipz. MS. The passage is also 
otherwise corrupt, some phrases being (as else- 
where) transposed. 
v^ 6. ii^rr mS. The \h of i^mi '^rr mS refers also 

' to this phrase, and we have a double negation. 
V. 20. x\yp^ p»^ vnm. See Ibn Ezra. 
ib. 1371© i^M© pn. Read id"i pn^i. 
t>. 31. D^^DiD tiddS. Read D'^^DiD TiDD^. See Rashi. 
Ch. xxxvii. V. 6. nirm i^iimo, alluding to the four 
expressions : niiiDO D»a i^dd D»a. 
z/. 20. iSoS 2^^!^ JD 'oD TO vSm nSa^i. Rashi on 2 Sam. 

xvii. 16 says : r\:sihyx\ inon iS •^DM^ 2^Si\ 
t/. 21. TTin 11M iMi mS nn^i. Read i^m imi mS rrru^i 
.mw See Rashi. 
Ch. xxxviii. v, 1. iS» m^^on p. Read iS» mi^D too. 
C/] e;. 25. 
t/. 29. C/. Rashi on Exod. xvi. 1 4, and on Ps. cxlvii. 16. 
Ch. xxxix. V, 18, ''M10M T^oSn p»^ii. Ketuboth 63b 

where the reading is somewhat different. 
Ch. xli. V. 18. 'iDDTin mS i»m mn. Read iS lom mn 


V. 21. pt D» '•^D. Read pt h^ d». 


129 NOTES. 

Ch. xxviii. v. 28. Vdi Dn'»n'»n lann See xxvi. 5. 

tb. (18). Vdi wnp ^jor S\ The printed text (Frankel's 
Monatschrift, 1857, p. 352) reads: noDn it»» id 
1037 T^io» DiNH ]o inv npim tit rn iiSnS Sid^ 

Ch. xxix. z'. 1 1. Mwon S37 niT37 p«&^. Read S^a niiJ? p»S 

Ch. XXX. V. 4. V'di D-'mSo iSi^n nawo p»f?ii. See Rashi, 
who says: irD»» nniwD .... D'^mSo namo pmSii 
i"di D'^niSo iSi^n. — niSo, as a herb, occurs in the 
Mishna, Ohaloth viii. 5 ; the quotation DTnSo iSj^r? 
1d'^ is taken from Talmud Kiddushin, 66a. The 
copyist omitted the words: .irDmrnnniND . . . xs'vrho 

lb. jS'^MH niTD DipDi. On Gen. xxiv. 63, rx\ah 
vrrsn, Ibn Ezra says : rwxh ^ uvrxan pi n^SS, and 
on Gen. ii. 5 he says that rr» denotes a fruit tree. 

V. 14. dhS h^ niM^nn. Read on© ''Si^ niwSnn. 

V. 17. vp^ii^ Drrm \%rcxs dx The passage must be 
corrected according to Rashi, who gives both this 
explanation and that of Dunash. 
Ch. xxxi. V. 35. hm 'iin'D win now dm. Read ^in now dm 

Ch. xxxiii. V, 18. f?Dn noDo. Read Sdo noDo. 
e/. 24. nniiD -^"pwd rjSNo '•D. Read rxysn n^'WD i^Sno '•d. 
z/. 25. 'o'ipon '^D» ©n^Sn pi, probably pi r|DiD '»m 

.V'di BToSn C/; on xxvi. 9, s.v. tttno. 
z'. 30. -^WD n»^» Si^ D^Di^D n»» 11^. It occurs eight 
Ch. xxxiv. V. 3. pii iM»D yn^ 'd HDm. Read thi ^ nam 

.pl1 1MM 

NOTES. 128 

Ch. xxi. V. 16. Dniox Read onioD. 
z/. 2 1 . DrD vh noi. Read ora ^h noi. 
V, 22. 11m DiTO-^ . . . . ^M Si^n. Passage corrupt. 
Summary, men ma iD h)9 TDn», Read ID h}9 iDin» 
.mon mo 
Ch, xxii. V, 22. 'o^M DM». Read 'dim '•dm©. 
Ch. xxiii. V. 2. 'iM p» 'mil Read 'im p» 'im [itinSJM Sn. 

z/. 1 1. HNiM S» noiain mnt^. See Rashi. 
Ch. xxiv. V, I. ntDo:i. Read rrtDoS. 

V. 15. ''S HMiD ini^N u^'p^ mS. Read iS nwia, it is the 

commentary on imiN. 
V. 17. nnpSMX Read ninSn. 
/(^. D0S10 iD-^N© (?), perhaps dtdo \Ti^m. 
Summary. D''»Sdo. Read o^'OnDo. 
Ch. xxv. V. 2. Chanjre from singular to plural frequent. 
Ch. xxvi. V. 4. ^ni ipri? h^ "^D. Read i"di ^i? o. 
z/. 13. i?Mbi. See printed text. 
Summary, imwd tdo id^'n. Read iMtDo tdd irw, as 
in margin. In the following line the margin has 
BTino for Tmo. 
Ch. xxvii. V, 2. ^Di jii^omS nm rniMn pi. See Rashi. 
In the Mishnah, Sola^ v. 5, R. Joshuah ben 
Hyrcanus derives it from v. 6, tdm vh ^^'X^^ ni? 
."^DOD TiDin The apophthegm iSorr ''^nn itid dim pM 
Vdi does not occur there. But in Talmud Jeru- 
shalmi, Sola, ibid,, we read : Sm "^n rrrirr V»i "^^n 

iSo S» l^nn TTID DIM pM», "^©DD lOH n»1 '•MtDD TDH 

inrpN 3^^>^. See the commentators ad loc. Here 

we have m»d for ttid, and nnMs for imw. 

Ch. xxviii. t/. i. no Si? i^dio©. Read no S37 idio». 


127 NOTES. 

Ch. xvi. V. 1 8. D^DiD 'doi -"nNSD© no -^xhx Soferim 

iv. 9, where, however, the opposite is said. 
Ch. xvii. z/. 2. Passage corrupt. Perhaps the author 

takes on'norD'i to mean when they embitter, as he 

concludes ^n rsycr% 137. 
V. 3. Before rD'ibS "^niM 11137 supply catchword and 

'dd. It is an illustration from Ps. cxix. 122. 
V. 6. Some words are missing before 'x^ '^Drstm 

xxT^ychs hmch. 
Ch. xviii. V. 1 5. d^» wSn (?), perhaps »i». 
V. 21. nt Sd '»iMi pN. Read mSm m Sd ''Imi pw. 
id. D-^D© 111371 .... ion jm. The whole passage 

is corrupt and unintelligible. 
Ch. xix. V. 13. The passage is corrupt and transposed. 
V. 27. See supra to xvi. 13. 
V. 29. There is an omission before p» o. The 

author evidently first explains pi© from tt©, and 

then gives the opinion of those who derive it from 

pi. See Leipz. MS. 
Ch. XX. V. 16. VD nmn. Read vd imn. 
td. TTtn TDD. Read mn tm. 
ti. nvn '»!nD p. Read nvn '•s^d j^d. 
V. 20. Ton Nin». Read ion Nin». 
t/. 24. nopD. Read nrnpo. 
Ch. xxi. Introduction, ©on'' tm. Read ©on'* iM. 
V. 3. pMnnDM {?). Perhaps jn noM. 
V. 5. I'^mpr^o, ^^ oj nol to listen (?) Perhaps niD37f?o, 

^(7 oj «{?/ /^ answer. 
V. 8. Dni'»» SdSdS, referring to Ruth iv. 15. 
V. 10. p^topDM, Sabbath 147a, and elsewhere. 

NOTES. 126 

Ch. xiv. V. 16. h rrnn© ^nw. Read h '^r\r\ nhm ^hm. 
V. 19. pMH '•noD. Our author takes rrrPDD like 
rroD, Levit, xxxv. 5, following Rashi ad loc. 
Ch. XV. V. 4. nani. See Rashi. 

z/. 7. iSin DIM p»MirT. See Rashi here, and on 

Exod. xii. 15. 
t/. 8. Some texts have the dagesh, 
V. 1 2. DTSD D'^WDNH iHpi loD. See Rashi here, and 
on Josh. ix. 14 : i»mi p«&f? djtdi ynxb omni i^p 

£^. niin^i. Read with Leipz. MS. iiin^i. 

ib. V'di ii»^ iiSi. Passage corrupt. Correct reading 

in Leipz. MS. ^^xh \hx[i. 
V. 24. nSi^oi SiN»n. Our author derives h^o from 

hy2). In the circle, 
ib. TO 'd iitoS, as xxi. 20. But the correct reading 

is, according to the marginal note in Leipz. MS., 

»M niTD 'dd iitoS (xli. I i). 
V. 28. TTi^nnS (?), perhaps -niannS. 
Summary : '»i?»D pN '•dm Sim (?), probably pM "^dm ^m 

Ch. xvi. V. 4. DDi?»Di DDHMiDn nyriDtP. Read oriMbn nrr'ia© 

V. 10. Transpose \J'^^ after h^ y^shnh. 

z;. II. V'di y-^ on Passage corrupt 

id, the reins which give counsel^ according to 

T. Berachot 6 1 a, pno nS nnsi^r nr^D. 
z/. 15. {92nD. Read tdi^o to^nD. 
/(^. D^oDn pt&Sii. F. jw/ro: to ii. 8. 
V. 16. rrwD ''Di iionD, ChiUlin 56a. 

126 NOTES. 

Ch. xi. V. 1 7. The whole passage is corrupt, and can 
only be understood by the aid of the Leipzig MS., 
in which the passage is, however, corrupt in a 
different way. 

V. 18. mDni t^ikx Read mDni 3^ V371 as Leipz. 
Ch. xii. V. 5. p» n»i?. He explains nms by jo», refer- 
ring to Jerem. v. 28. ^nms ido». 

t6. nn3N S037I io'»D'»M '•D, referring to Ps. Ixxiii. 5. 

V. 6. iD'»Mii'' DiS»i» qiDi (?). Perhaps, a^hwnm qiDi 

zii. pm. See A rue A, s.v. 

ib. iDDH mi S'^ain td, namely here ; xxx. 24 ; and 
xxxi. 29. 

e;. 15. D^a». Read D'»iaD». 

t/. 17. DDiai DTJD. Read ddiid Din. 

V, 20. d^ddmdS 'iS iS rTT\ o. Read d-^domdo 'iS iS n'^n "^D. 
It is the S that induced R. Eliezer to explain tdd 
as tourne. See Leipz. MS. 

i*^. D'»3dmdS 'od '''rri. Read d'^dmS 'dd '^rrx 

lb. '-^D Mip i^DV S\ R. Joseph Kara (i 100-1160). 
His commentary on Job is printed in Frankel's 
Monatschrift, 1856, 1857, 1858. The passage 
quoted here reads there (1856, p. 351): nn IDW 

z/. 23. 1M1 mS 'xh nriNi (.^) 
Ch. xiii. V, 4. D'»i3Li7n, the idols, cf. Leipz. MS. and 
Rashi on Levit. xix. 14. 

NOTES. 124 

stretching of a curtain would have no connection 
with that which precedes. — I assume that this 
illustration points to Ps. civ. 2 and 3 : d**©© rrbia 
yr\yho xrcn vrxpt^n rr^no, and that the term ;mpn 
corresponds to mporr, equivalent to mp, in which 
sense our commentator uses it ad xxix, 7. 
Ch. ix. V. 17. ''DD'^mnn, deriving '»3DiBr from i^wd, in re- 
ference to Ps. cxxxix. II. 
V. 18. mSm o. He says that "^D means here but and 

nox. for. 
V, 23. rrSnn. MS. hSdh. 

V. 28. ''D113LJ71. Read Tiiis^^'i. It is the catchword. 
Ch. X. V, 3. Talmud Kiddushim, 30b, Niddah 31a, 
.IDMI viMi rD"pn, DTMi nr ponn© n«&f?» 
/'(^. Either Dp'pnS, y^r their portion, or Dp^n^p, to 
apportion to them. The former accords with the 
following ipf?n. 
V. 20. He explains that rc^xb with the preposition jo 
(here '•doo) means ** letting alone," but- with Sh 
(as Is. xxii. 7, where the second n in mi?»n = SM), 
it means ** setting to," " exerting for." 
Ch. xi. V, 3. ^S'^NH D^n : either read ^^mD D^ni, or 

t/. 6. T'toDBDOD (?), perhaps 'n '•toomoD. 

£/. 12. nS np^. 1 do not think that the author quotes 
here Hos. iv. u, where the words mean **take 
away the heart.'' He uses the term in a sense 
similar to the English phrase **to take heart." 
This appears still more probable from the follow- 
ing DIM y\xh iior© ^^. 

139 NOTES. 

must bq taken as a question, governed by the 
interrog?^tive -^^n of v. 2 2, 
Ch. vii. V. 7. I conjecture the reading to have been : 
iDnn 1DD1 ^TD» ii»'» mSi I'pin nn tit ioh» Vp 

As David said : **-/4 wind passes away and comes 
not again, which, in that book {sc. the Psalms) 
means, and comes not again to see good, — To see 
good — (the words of our verse repeated as catch- 
word for the explanation which follows), namely, 
the good that I had before," etc. 

z/. II, Vdi idd mS ^xatin ^xh\. The author refers to 
Baba Bathra 1 6a, rh^ mS Sino? nr ]D iS-'i pi? rh^ 
. DTion iT^nni ii-'m idd» ]mdd nii iom, 

z/. 21. D^DID ppn. An alteration of the text for the 
purpose of avoiding the irreverence of Job's real 
words : and thou shalt be a burden unto me. See 
Ch. ix. V. 4. Sdh pi. Read Sdh jnDI, but here (in the 
case of God) is all. 

V. 8. ^'y\ '^^yn 111:1. At first sight, the translation 
seems to be : In most passages of Scripture y when 
mentioning the stretching out of heaven, it is said 
" he alone " etc., vr^\f%\ to be taken as ** Scripture," 
in which sense our author uses the term ad xx. 13. 
Yet, I do not believe this to be correct. First, 
the stretching out of heaven occurs in Scripture 
eleven times, and, of these, the expression he 
alone is used only in two instances, viz. here, and 
Is. xlii. 24. Secondly, the illustration from the 

NOTES. 122 

Ch. iii. V. 4. mDi wn-'HiD, 31a. Neither the word om nor 
jiDi occurs in the passage in Niddah, but equivalent 
terms arc used. The whole passage reads : y^n 

.n»M -hin Mimi msvi lonno riNsS iDot i^-^in© ]vdi p^^j^n 
/^. T^iD» ni?»i. Read iSia© ni?»D. 
V. 8. inN DvS nni^» TDtn», perhaps inw dvS. 
£/. 9. MS. D^'iDiDH rhhr\ nD»n h^. Read nD»n 'pir 

D'^iDlDrr, on account of the darkening of the stars, 

which, otherwise, light up the night. 
V. 24. awl© ^rrr\. Read, with Leipzig MS., ^rm vh 

Ch. iv. V, 12. mp. Read mo. The Leipz. MS. has 

tb. ''DIM hSd'' y'nw '-"Di. Read ''dim hSd'' vh y'nM '^di. 

z/. 15. r|DV m Diin p\ The Targum of Rab Joseph 
is several times mentioned in the Talmud, but 
this particular instance seems not to occur any- 
where. Cf Zunz, Gottesdienstliche Vortrdgey 
p. 63, note e, 

V. 1 6. i-T'DD '^n'''^n DVi. Read iioo Ti^n dm. 

V. 18. vin^ o. Some words must be missing here. 
Cf Leipz. MS. 

V, 19. Reading corrupt. Ps. xlix. 11 seems to be 
quoted here for the purpose of illustrating Job 
XV. 18, 19. V. infra, z/. 21. 
Ch. V. V. 3. 'iM. Read ^m. Another explanation is 

Ch. vi. V. 23. Either ddS 'Tiidm mS must be read, or it 


[The emendations suggested in the following notes account for any 
deviation of my translation from the text of the MS. Some of 
them have been embodied in the printed text. I add also 
some remarks which have occurred to me whilst translating the 
Commentary. — S. A. H.] 

Ch. i. V. I. D1MO Twrn, {and he brought back from 
Syria). Read : ctind -^Dmm, (and the second 
from Syria). The sense is : We find one Uz 
among the sons of Seir the Horite .... and a 
second {sc. Uz) from Syria. The one refers to 
Genesis xxxvi. 28, and the second to Genesis 
xxii. 21. 

V. 5. MS. ^y^xh '•D. Read iDioS'^n. It is a quotation 
from Midrash Tanchuma, which was (erroneously) 
identified with Midrash Yclamdenu. The passage 
quoted here occurs both in the ordinary Tanchuma 
and in Ruber's edition ad Gen. xv. i. Cf. Ruber's 
notes and references. 

ib. xnxb po. Read pBrno. 

V, 9. yiM'' noD {Jtoiv ivill it happen). Read rr^i non 
( Through what [action of his] will it be knoitm ?). 

V. 1 6. ^SmS ^xti\r\. Read x^\h ©mi. 
Ch. ii. V. ID. idS. Read 1:1^. He comments on oa. 

ib, iii^tD 'oD. Read x^s^xti noD. 
Ch. iii. V. I. SSpf? mSx Read y?pf? mSm. 




p. 83. 1 

. 25. For iniaa 


I '•niaa 

p. 84, 1 

. 5- n ttfiVD 


^13 V& 

L 8. „ Ty:Dtrh 



. 9- It ^''^ri^ 



. 12. ^ i*?apn 


•J^jap" as Leipzig 


.19. „ orn 



P- 85, 1 

. 2. Dele abn 

. 6. For iDK 

read nsK 

. 17- n n*?Ra 



p. 86, 1 

. 2. , p^tt-^aprKT 



. 18. n "saaDn 



p. 87, 1 

. 8. „ "s'^-'im 



p. 90, 1 

. 6. „ \TI 


'\^ [i. c. n*i\m] 

I. 10. „ D3 



I. 18. „ IK 



p. 91, 1 

I. 20. Dele ib"'K 


I. 22. For in "TpW 



1. 23. „ pna 



p. 92, 

I- 2. « p 


jna or p 

p. 93, I 

. 8. „ '•3ba 





. i3. „ n-'sio irra r" 


rv'sia irs'^a r" 

1. 20. „ DH 



P- 94, 1 

. 2. „ v^yyi 


vryr k^ws (Ms. 


I. 16. „ ^^m 



I. 25. „ 'Di rrn^ 


'61 e)ttn m.T1 (as 

Leipzig Ms.) 

p. 96, 1 

lotes 1. 4. For p b 





p. 73, 

I. 14. 

For yn 

read pm 


1. 15. 

fi PT 

» P-H 

p. 75, 

L I. 

„ 'hv^^ Kwr 

„ ^^pa IKWr 

I. 10. 

fi 13-»3 

» T3 

1. 12. 

n nh na pini 

the Ms. has apparently nb roiim 

1. 25. 

„ nbbin 

read n^^in 

p. 76, ] 

. I. 

n Knn 

II n^an as Ibn Ezra 

l. 2. 

„ inro nbaa as Ibn Ezra 

„ hv nob 

I. 5. 

n Kcn 

« x&ns as Ms. 

I. 9. 

n ^BKI 

» '^BKI 

I. 19. 

fi ^12D 

n ino? 

I. 26. 

n n\nw 

„ '•n\nw 



1. I. For 16 

» 10 

P- 77, 1 

• 4- 
. 19. 

. 25. 

Insert • before 
Dele *^ '3'ai 
Dele v^na 


p. 78, 1 

. 26. 

For D^nins 

read niTns? 

P- 79, 1 

. 3. 

n D'Qvn 

„ D'»a'TW 

. 4. 


. i3. 

» onn 

» Dinn 

p. 80, 

p. 81, 

p. 82, 
p. 83, 

3. Dele 'o'toni 

10. For pnnK read jmnnK 

1 3. After pnaK add niDI. The Ms. has 'Uil dotted for omission 
18. Transfer 18 to 'yva\ 1. 17 
21. Transfer c to follow o^nn 
notes 1. I. For X read 11 
3. Dele 'a 
10. For rmh read nnb 




15. a 

Kan "hp 


nr bai ? 


p- 51, 

1. 2. 

For nnnai 



p. 5« 

1. 10. 

n I3 




1. 2. For XVII. 9 


XVI. 9 


1. 3. „ VII. 7 


XII. 7 

p. 54, 

1. 16. 

Dele ^'^ 

1. 20. 

For fpbb 



p. 56, 

I. 3. 

„ inDbri) 




1. 3. For Ps. XIV. 6 


Isa. XIV. 6 

p. 57, 

1. 9. 

For nxa 



1. 25. 

n Oan 



p. 58, 

1. II. 

n ^W 



1. 16. 

n '0 



p. 59, 

1. 6. 

n n,Tnv 



p. 60, 

1. 7. 
1. 14. 

Omit DIKttD 

p. 61, 

1. 20. 

Transfer 6 to follow ; 


p. 62, 


1. 3. For 45 read 49 

P- 64, 

1. 6. 

For 'Hh 

read nh 

1. 15. 

n nn^tt 



1. 20. 

n ^^Prr\ 


yhpTT) as Ms. 

1. 26. 

n iniK3 m (as Ms.) 


iniHDia T 

p. 65, 

1. 8. 

n .T-inn 



1. 19. 

n mm 



1. 26. 

n 'W 



p. 66, 

1. 6. 

n nSan 



p. 67, 

1. 10. 

n rnrni 



p. 68, 

1. 7. 

» nnto 



1. 19. 

,. pn 



p. 69, 

1. II. 

" :]^ 



P- 71, 

1. 21. 

n 'Thvh 


'rbk **! 

P- 72, 

1. 17. 
1. 22. 

Add ** before nb DX1 



1. 23. 

For n nOK 






p. 33, 1 

. 8. For ♦iS 

read '6 

. 14. n onn 

» onn 

p. 34, 1 

I. 7. » 'ob 

n '03 

. 12. » hv 

„ np as Leipzig Ms. 

.15. n HDibn 

„ nsiSn as Leipzig Ms. 

. 19. Dele 'fi 

p. 35, 1 

. 16. For nrrnhv 

read ^r\^^hv 

p. 36, 1 

. 3. „ '^hv 
. 6. Dele aTSK 

. b» 

. 8. For i^^3 

read v»3 

p. 37, ] 

.11. „ 0133 

» 0133 

. 12. „ •'bb'inwK 

„ ibbinttm 

p. 38, 1 

. 3. „ iron 

» "iran 

. 4- If nnm'TW 

„ ni3intt? as Leipzig Ms. 

6. „ HQ 

n nfi*V3 as Leipzig Ms. 

i. 18. „ nriKi 

n nnn ? 

p. 39, 1 

. 17. n 'Hh 

» 'Kb 

p. 40, 1 

. 26. „ pob 

n IPOb 

p. 41, 1 

. 1 3. Dele DV 

p. 43, 1 

. I. Dele '31 

[. 19. For DSa 

read 'ODD 

p. 45, 1 

• 4. n an^K 

n a'wn 

p. 47> 1 

. 4. » ^3 

n p 

. 5. n ^K 

n 'bK 

i. 14. n n «?^ 

n latr 

p. 48, 1 

. 2. „ nr!?G-w 

.. 7. Dele ^D 

„ ^ar*?b^w 

. 19. After 1T3^ add 

reference 10 Job XV. 18 

p. 49, 1 

. 10. For DrrnrSa 

read on ^nvbs 

. 14. n P^ri 

n pm 

. 17. r» tsnsb 

n t3n3b 

p. 50, 1 

. 8. „ p^hH 

n 'pl'^K 

.. 21. « Donn 

- oann 



p. 8, 

P- 9» 
p. lO, 

p. 12, 
p. i3, 

P- 15, 

p. 16, 
p. 19, 

p. 20y 

p. 22, 

p. 2i, 
P- 24» 

P- 25, 
p. 28, 

p. 29, 
p. 3l, 
p. 32, 

9. For riKin ^awb 
. 10. 

• riKin ^3wb read nian DOb as Leipzig Ms. 

20. „ Dele naiGi 

read D^nBDH 

25. For o^rnfion 

23. Dele '3 

2. For nam 
12. „ nmna 
25. , Dva n ^natam 

4. „ vnnpaa 

8. „ oaittn 

. 16. 

. 18. 

3. ?jop 

6. For D^apa 

17. n DOm 

24. „ ^nth 
10. „ anpaa 

18. „ p Ms. ^D 
note /. „ Ezek. XIV. 12 


read nam 

„ Dra la ^naratm 
r, vnntraa 

n taan 
read oaaa 

read Ezek. XIV. i3 

- n n n-HK 

>. „ bp hfD the Ms. has bpiftD 

2. „ Dinm 

read *]k 

„ Dinn'» 

„ ran 

ig. Omit n'P 

26. For ♦Sk 
note y. For Sam. XXX. 1 
. 4. For npn 

. 26. „ na^i 

read Sk 
„ 1 Sam. XXX. 12 

» nann 

. i3. 

„ rib the Leipzig Ms. has nitnb 



i8. XXXVII. i8 on pano. nnte^^ttn» Iresjeloir} Professor Brandin sug- 
gests nw vrvnt^ tres sur, but it appears to be connected with 

19. XXXVIII. 29 on -11DD. vhv^hl (?Kb\rr'^'T3 gresle^ or wrh^ g^iese, as 

Professor Brandin suggests). 

20. XXX VIII. 3 1 on b*D3 matmo. tt?bnb»rK. Professor Drandin would 

read whh\Q}DH esielles (? wbbn»WK estrelles or astrelles). 

21. XXXIX. 18 on jonon. wr^irK esvoj^era, 

22. XL. 16 on n^tt?. b^*Q5lb lonbril {le nomhrit), 

23. XL. 17 on ^nw^ Tacbn»DK entrela^er. 

It is due to Professor Brandin to add that he has not had the 
advantage of consulting the original Ms. 




1. 4. 

For ihhw hhv 

rcail iSSw 

I. 21. 







. I. 







1. 4. 




npa bttr 



1. 9. 


VI bp 




. 20. 





I. 25. 







i. 19. 






i. 21. 


vm^an Hh^ 


TiinrDn Hb^ 


. 24. 







. 19. 


TiK mn 


'THTlh T 


. 24. 






. 25. 




pnn (Ms. pn^n) 


. 26. 







. 5. 







1. II. II on n\3b. KT^^DOip (irnj^bttDip) complaindre, 

2. VII. 15 on psno. ^pK??r'^9ttr8 esieignement. Professor Brandin would 

read ttX&3C^fiV^K esfi^emeni. 

3. XII. 20 on rnio. >om» tome, 

4. XV. i3 on inn. »:Kb» p» /on talant. 

5. XVI. 15 on TibblPI. ^Kpin^K. Professor Brandin suggests ijoukd 

p. p. oijouker ((rom jouffj. The Leipzig Ms. has ^pn JK^K. 

6. XIX. 10 on iSki. 'bna nfe'K e'/i/i trcsaM (or trcssailli), 

7. XXI. 3 on ^jiKtt?. ^^bltemon deporte moy (? ^"•TOoniDn). The Leipzig 

Ms. has ppTlcn deporte!^. 

8. XXI. 24 on vr»P- rr»D /e/m5. 

9. XXVI. 4 on 'b nawv Kr^lf anj KOlp /rome g^/jw/ j/ewe. 

10. XXX. 3 on HKW. JO^K'na bruine as in Leipzig Ms. Professor 

Brandin suggests HrKlTl de ruinc. 

11. XXX. II on Tho ^DBa [D^IV pKtDiapw^CT deschevrete:^. The Leipzig 

Ms. has pnc^ipw^T descheyeire^ (see Coigravc, s. v. desche- 

12. XXXI. 22 on naar. inb^^r^K espaleron. 

1 3. XXXII. 4 on ron. KTIJBK atendrc. The Leipzig Ms. has nj^ 

14. XXXI V. 6 on aiDK. HrSfSfe? The Leipzig Ms. has ^ibHL /^Uderai 

(r=: faillerai). 

15. XXXVI. 27 marginal note on p^\ nT^5bK amenuiser, 

16. XXXVII. 3 on niH. ttHttnblWW *« /litres (= 5C5 lustres). 

17. XXXVll. 4 on Dappv n^3lbctt?K estaloner. Professor Brandin would 

read n^^iorK estalyer. 


•a am inTDi .tD^ian hv racvD Kim pnna nnia ijm ♦ anp^^pp^m ♦^b^K1 
nnpntoa D\m npiop K^nw nbiaitbn n-nna f»p n^oa a3 *i6ot p-mo ynt did 

♦ vbp bno K.Ttt? pKa tr^K pn 25 ♦nivm nwbnb ♦ nwb 24 ♦o^owa 
^'^ nn ai^ fyi xlii. i : mna ••Spa pnr ^3a • nnt^ vhw nn^ nbw ^^b nppn 
nnjn loa nwn awnnw .na ba oea narna bnnn k*?i T\VDxh bain ba n » 
^a Dnxn pt nbtt? noani n:cr p^bra 3 ♦ c niwb lor iwk ba ana ixa^ vh 

♦ ••^na axaK g ♦^nnanw na ^nnani ^man nrai naan ^npT vho ^ob 
nnw avK napa 7 ♦ aipa ^^nralp ♦ ^nr1awb waw nn'^a bp ^nanai 
hv oan3 irK Kim • imbK nipw laa lanjb aab nvii aariK p^nwm anbrinn 

: Knpan p^p^t Kbi naipab 10 • npx 

<» Cant. III. 10. * Prov. VIII. 19. c Gen. XI. 6. 



D-^n hw »)K oro papijtr on^an ^Sd D^\ypiaa 24 • nob -riDK kvi nm irp 

• i3iyb pptrn 25 ♦ la rrsvDp nannv banm rma»3 D^wona anwD o^bna 
apjn USD . apn 26 iK^annS n br ^nb n apistt? hro poaK w^nnb 

♦ pnan vhy ntn^ ♦ ra' ^° ♦ P*^^^ o^iw nnixa ptt^ipw "nsata n pntrnn 29 
mi3i 'bDi Sro ppD kSk woo novr nh •o^mn p-ioinw a-ian nan tod 
DK 3i ♦ o^nn pa nipSn^i naibb jn^iS bp onnn 'oa . * bio^ la nntr 
p D^n SxSat jnnb b>tr irnno nwn dki mpo naio mwb ^n1Kn kben 
Toa > )Din f?K •rppp D101K p'^^'* f p^n Satbat nipo ••wpn bxb |mp 
onx px 2 ,pKb ^Sw ia dik Sano'* ok xli. i ♦pioo tj^o "300 cnmni 
^aonpn ^0 3 *|a '•^ninaa ^mw ^asb arn^ "oi • lopoo lan-np^v man 
obrb '3K bian Kin •'br ban • oSro naw ib ^nna pSrHi ♦ naio n^ wb 
]^p}pp nhh anpb f?av ^01 5 nar vaab obwbo pvirx kSi 4 ♦ natt? ib 
tnoob nnni nbrob nnn nibioa ]7w vnor ♦ison boa ♦wiab pv 
pi v3'jo pnna tr^ mwi Sma ♦ ni-nio onra rnow vsb ^nbn 6 [FoL 22 a] 
nnm b>a jn nioiam wy nnxa nnn 8 ^nv iia 11 npmi '-njo ]tw j^pv:p 
THOtr 10a nnmn roo kxv anb ♦ r'ornora w iia 11 npano mm 
•nbpon bna to po3K " ♦on'ob loa wh nn^a n .npaa onKOi trown 
am •nrajbiDOis .pmwbi narnb vjob nmn nam bai m inmnn 
ejiDi KnnDnK'Jco .^^npan oanb ojwb 10a ♦ pan ♦nwp nipa nia^nn 

• pnna p-wa njnapn K\n . n^nnn ♦ p7n pano loa • nn^ loa piar 16 ♦pioo 
ny\'hvr\ K\n . ^ ^bo^aK trnn hp aan nbo nnx nrx ^*?wm natr^b nnia na^m 
f vn Kba on ••vn vacbo on-on D\Tba o^ nawo > Dna\po 17 ♦nbab^Jnon 
nonbon-'ba > nn\ri ppo n^an •vaobo p^pn^ nh ♦laonnn nvK ann 18 

♦ nrp Spa nrp }a 20 ♦/naaa ppo no^bw pK 'oa .£od ♦ pnw loa nnp 
Kb pinb noiKn •rorn ♦mmpp ♦ ipnn nnn »» •p-ipw^bannin 21 
ib^K bacBO mnn pp •«-inw nb^^K loa ^'^nn ♦Anonnn na^ pnoa .gmr 

a Dcut. XVIII. II. b Prov. XXVI. 27. c Ruth IL 14. ^^ Job XXIX. 10. 
^ Judg. IX. 53. / I K. VI. 7. ^ Job IX. 7. A Judg. XIV. 18. « Ps. XXII. I. 

1 1 1 COMMENTARY ON JOB. XXXIX. 27— XL. a3. 

ti3\y^ yho 38 ♦ onifian ova trnpn bK iKaa pinb ipT vhv ^hv joSjmd 

♦ ban '■iftn aana 39 ♦rr^nipn pK bv n:niDiPD ♦pnK .th mM •pibM 

avK |p»i XL. I t -TKwn bp ina^K nbcstr ana 'bv rtnpnnb inatr KvraKi 
onx -nno^ -TO^^n^ n«; op an*?.*! ♦ nip^ ny ay ann a : no>n ^'^ nK 
KV1 wm an ^nnan nriK 5 ♦ v-dt nar^ naiinnb> Kan : nsap^ mbn maia 
^nnan niPK K%n nnk pnmBip tn 'nip sj^dik nb ^rrioK »w 'oi'?a ♦ « r6aa 
nh ''•nar wn bn ^nnax nrn o^ntt^i .tu; njpK nh ♦anSaa k\i ptm on 
naawa iDnb T-nana H'ain ♦ ^ttB\yo nan s ♦ nttK^iavKnK^'^fyn o jsyjow 
lan \\vh • TTTTi " ♦ ten&am nr 'wb K3 mr 10 ♦ bpi^^a mrw niHvibi 
\fh\ annaai a-'aipa a^xa V3noa ma 16 ♦Tnrb jaia ♦rnona i5 jcnanaa 
♦rwpnaTfim'ba ♦ ppn^ 17 •^'•laaib ♦^'nnntr'aa .nnva ♦naabipn) 
. 13-np^ • D'xa vinp ♦ pra rwp * Kntw 'tw ^a Kmcn a^aan 'wba \s\ 
% TxbnejK bnj 'wb lom a^aan 'K?ba nao jtb ik ♦/lainr* laa . a^bna 
'^naaa ♦raxp ♦ vana ♦iNDH'^n^Ki ♦^paxrin prb pivi^ ♦ yan 18 [FoI. 21b] 

♦ mana bab wki Kiaa "•iPK-oa ♦^Kjrrvrmn 19 •bna bw ^ttraa ♦ bna 
'na B^b^n naaai > ib iKgy^ ann bia^ ^a ao ♦Ta^anip^ laacpa 'pn ♦ wipn 
abia riK ru^n av baai . bia** ib a^Kipia om h^k . * eib>K nnna n'lana 
TXi^ nna bat inw ibbat a^bnac ♦ inaia^ ♦ nia'?^K "^ac a^'^nac 21 , amatic -viabi 
laaa rwpno • tan^ nb nna pipy \r\ ^ . nann mab-^Ka na»ai aa^ • nxai 
ib^K vra bn pn\ n ba ^ wab niaa rv^y ''a naa^ ♦ laaT lan^ vaa ♦ irr^nip bp 

♦ maitt) nanai la ite^ana lanp^ va^pa 24 ♦«i»aa ^na laa *wj nnw rrn 
ittma '\ai \rrh iiran 25 ^ a^an ana u'hwo pn^at niaaw ""ba • a^^pia 
bain vh 'aiba ♦ a^aiann i^bn nanm 27 oaxa paax a^rm 26 nana laaipan 
naat laaa pni vrnwi ibna nna pwy^ |n 23 tynmata 'baa vbK a*panb 
•pn ia jn^ • nnn 'atrana innr'ip kvi niaai bna jaanw in^nw ana nwpi 

a Job IX. 22. * Job XIIL 20. c Num. XI. 8. d Cant. VII. 3. * Chullin 47 b. 
/Lam. I. 14. ^ Gen.XLIII. 31. AP8.L. 10. < Ps. XXII. 10. i End of Roshi. 


rroK -nnp »)v ba ♦man dk • loav na ^np nawa i wbai bna tiir d v p 
nriDO na nm . nans v^dv ^^v^ m^on 'arw tjir ik 'iba n^Ka nmctt? or hv 
hr\ ^a narm i5 ♦ pinnab ncr bp naDnnoi nabni pnb .Tata aryn 14 

• nbw orK ib^Ka na'-ba rirja n^wpn ♦ n^rpn 16 :.Tppan •nnrab ♦rrnim 
•n^rab nnnora K^nan pinaa nrn n^a is ♦anaKntt? riKn'* row nrr pnb 
riKnanpwb ba t Knan ♦oppa^o^xan bp ^nT dk [ttht] nrn did*? pnyn 
nioabi rvuHKa ih tetewb lan^ai v^nia^ai inTca riKxb lab niiw onK Kin 
.^K^iaK mabn 'rbai •anmai t^d ja pi • wnrx 'pba^ minn niTa i*? 
lajn laa nnw. • on jwb najn «9 • * Kptji nnan n^i ain .Tnba 
nwe Kmr nm •va'^ao tt^'^inai nanxa ptpai j^na ."onxa «> ♦co^ja 
•pntr *dy^Hn dh vh ncni 'aa ♦ paya ntn^^ 31 :Kin na-K *?ipa m^naa 
[Foi.2ia] tp^sjTjnpb Km naw diwtj o^bnjai papa a^anin D^man 
raipji iTa 1) n wprpai a^xn nxba narK nnn a3 » kt^ k^i • nnM6j >» 
axn Ka^ 'aa ♦ anb nip bnan ba n^sm ann br n^sip • n^an anb ♦ D*?Tp 
nnatr ai-ia •j^B»rj6i tvbna rnaia nvij^ ♦pKj(tara4 ttfanbrrviK 
•n ptt?*? 'aa ♦ naitr na »3 ♦nanSa bip '^tvp bip ^a ♦nanbab mKnatt? 
txm B-napn '^laiKtt? 'wb 'an kvi ♦ nnn nax^ naw nanna •/ib anm 
mn ^Kba1 ♦ ejDa psn bnr pa nan^ 36 , ij^x nana nnK painw • a'^nar 
tabirn a'^'Vin K^r 'vaja nwnaa n^am nn ^ip Tapai •ps n'lanb nan 
laina na-n ipbiaa nnnj a^ai an ipbia ma ^aa k^k irK ♦anjrbr 30 
bra •nniK ppvai nnw pirnpa naia gTKpma a^aan nohn pi brbp 

• K^an lan Tnn -ab nan p-u nnnp ptt?b aiitv' *var nppac pi ^nnna 
nnKT Knp'Daa jmna ni p'3P ba lan irmani ^ h^nh Kin dip a^Sbn npHa 
pSaa mn •yup tp'* nwaa ia 'atr nra«?n ♦ nya ^aa^ i^a by bk 27 ♦«nia 

o Dcut. XXI. 18. ^ Kethuboth 63 b. c Ezek. XXVII. 35. << Dcut. I. 22. 
« Judg. III. 22. / Lev. XXV. 28. g Sota 20 a. ^ Isa. XV. s. ' Pesikta 
Rabbathi Par. 47. Deut. XXXII. ii. 


myp no^a mnya 31 nnna iinKn^ naSn^ la pvin ^3Pi Drpjft bpw ncna 
pptt? b^D3 niayia ik ♦nj'^xa obwn a^-im in'ip ba Kxn nbw •no'o 
nKw Sd ♦ nnm 32 ♦ nb-^a bv nnrx atn*? lain K-^nb nncn • wbnbarK 
D^aaa ^jtt? ibcai n D^pnp D^aaa nanm na^aatr *?n3 ddtd ♦ r^ • n^bion 
J Dnjnni nb oinnnb 'pn n^npi • nb» Sroa ipapji bnbn nainn mnob i5ao 
D'^'inn 34 ♦ t^nini p^pi Dim nip pxn br K^anb rvhntx^ nTiattr . npro 33 
noin 35 J D^bwn p noan yt hv p^a npp\y ik ^mxa vbp nixb ^b^p apb 
Ib^pob niTnb p'^nst pKW nmn ^hw irw ijon ♦dip inbnwjtt? Dipoa nb 
biann ni ^i5Pb nvba ib^K n^niaa 36 .oipa baa nrawrw ^n1^pbv a^nb 
DTpon n\n]n tmt 37 , nnbian awnoi naw lonw abn m 'H'^^ . o^oan fwb 
DTD "lor npxa 38 p^ ^33 'oa . ona D-^oua o^aipnw <»nni3a a*^w ^baj 
K^onj 'a np pnxS vnia^ao ipan*' p^aam ♦ obip iio^b patiab ntp ^npx^ 
DTaKw ♦ ban ^SaS ipn^ 4« ♦ ainxb D^wca onbip ♦i™240 nannnanK 
••br XXXIX. I ♦ D.TB Tinb pojaji onKiaco o^majn p«nn^ onb jaTa 'pni dksw 
na nb^b njmatt?a maa rbo wxnb nbin mbii nK nwwi •piajar'K •p*?d 
itrb ♦ nib^K bbim ♦vcjaa ibapbi -wj jbib 'prv\ jnibn pnb mbn ht^ 
"h jtJTb ^3K nnT^ nwai nnxb *?ia^ nbn pKi nx nbnn nb'^xn mbv b^n 
|mK pai ♦ nnb Tb inn pn "vikdi bnpo dki nnoji nbma rw^abi pp*n 

♦ nnhw nm rpanb nanbcn 3 : •»b »)bnn3 annS aii( pi tj^bnb ^:k o^pn 
*3>w "'vrh jmba bn^bpb nanbyn jnbip mbin ^bani .nnbnn K^acibi 
D^jnia naa lan^ nacp i*?n3^b ♦ ib*? lap nbi ip^n^ ib'^n^ 4 : onb jnaib 
bnab bia^ dik pnw ^pn 5 » obK biTabi dik bn^ab papist jj^i d^kwii 
bip vbp pKW ♦ vni-TDib nne ['bl nan nibn niny , nibna ninap nthh^ in© 

♦ *in nuntrn iba 'nvbxn nixiyn 7 ♦ nn'^b pH nnbb nanb nany e , qik 

♦ DRn ♦ on 9 ♦ TM^"^ Dipb lb rcnbi nn ibxpa mn • inynb pnn nin^ 8 
. ^bbnb n'n:\wn nn pnpr ban niapa • iniap obna 10 inaipb . *inay 
an imatt? b^wa ^nK^an ^itDicb > ia naann n •nnvn jpn^ > nnttn .ttnnnbn 

a Ms. wn3»3. * Zcch. IV. 7. 


pK m^ 6 • .Tnn-0 nnaa 5 ; riio^ rbino a nnvnir ran • i^xbri naaa 
niT^n np^K ♦oSirn nnv) dipoi ♦D^a ob^rn n\'TW D\n rxona ♦ nnrp 
inawom • titjq 6 *?n3 bin • p^nbia s » npa "555 nb^nno • Trrpa 7 
Kinip • Dij^piK »)"pn ♦ ^nn^ao py ^oiya 9 ff jpaa ^m^ laa . mnnn jo Kxr 

♦ cnbmn Kb bnnn 'pd oa^-on ♦ inbinn 'nabs o^saio pjn Dbipn Pi^p\n 

♦ onar Kb itTK pinb ^h. em oaina lasrb a'ao D-iaw ib ••nnrp nia\ryi 10 
T'O'an n 'Trb a'^aotr mbrn oni •<'Dnawn ip nrvn "jpb Dcnn'i 'oa 
niBjaa Trnwr DiKa piKn niaaaa nnKb i3 n^ix yty^ix^ iijn mbi3v ora 

♦ D^rwnn mk irabi .Tmcaaa piKn nnKb *:h n\-iy ^^ mpjai n^bpn 
npbi nan n^a TniKn DiKa * "iji nnr brai n^ 'na^ ^'n ik Kin pi 
nioa triKn nnix raaa > anin noma ♦ ^nra^a ^annn 14 ♦ bau Kim n^ 
an aniaa aniK p*yma ik psan i5 ♦ amanaba larnn vn** a^nan n^mnai 
nyr' ai . ma ^npy 17 ♦/an a^aiaa 'aa a^ naaa ^aaj 16 ♦ nam nan jnni 
nran br nat npb ^nr 3xn ^na^n ntrK 23 , a^riKnara s nbin tk ^a hki ba 
wca nan bip nia^n niK pbm 34 .aiaai aia nanbai anp avb pra:a aoban 
•-anra nbpn giatrb aba ''a 25 » nnran war anp • b-K -npa [[KnbD jKab 
n:aa prb Kaia • nbpn ib ^mba iPKnaip nrwi npr ba . Kaa^w Knrtrb pnip 
pai . "b labnns Kb am ra-r niKa nnrnaa nnK Kaaa mpjv a^nr ib"wr 
^nab^a pjcirb ar: na^a ♦ gawb 'hi . rr^vcn ja imi ♦ "^b »)bnn3 anKi avK 
pKn TK nwaraa nnK Ka^aa n^aa 'a ninn'* ib-Kw a^ara Kaia na^a bab 
a*abin a^w aKi b^as? ib ip^ bipi bip aba 'a . nbip vmh inni ♦ a^a n^w 
na^ttn K^nw pnK ruw 27 [Foi. 20 b] bipn nK nibaia nman pK nnK b^ara 
nTm p)bK A aa^DTKa ^nunKi 'aa nn-n^ pjbKm ♦ "-ba ♦ ba ^baK as , ajna 
'nKTbannnprx •annma^a .«annnnaK ♦ nan av nrnb na^niPKna 
vmtp naaa paa »)bnnn nab ana fina banir a^aba niaaK paa ♦ ba ^aaK 'aa 
Tbaagy nnpn n'' bp iKann"* a^an pKa 3o Kbip ''^ba naaag .na^^b'aa *nawa 

a Ms. -nvrw. * Ps. XXII. lo. c Ezek. XVI. 4. ^ Josh. VII. 5. 
e Isju XXXI. 3. / Ex. XIV. 3. g Ms. d^i3. * Job XIII. 17. « Ezek. 
XXI. 20. * Nch. XIII. 7. 


♦ ibbn nnon jb mnh "leab inxapa^ ♦mynb ona nto*» nnn nbtt? onb 
ay ''ybca »6 • 1*10x03 p'^ibn yn^r} obir nna pin prrbp rrbn nm i5 
D^an nwbpa ynnn ♦D'^ap by ^pnni pinb 'oib-i wbica 'wb ay ^b-^a 
obva nnin rw^nw n^ann nina p-w la^pttna p^an inja naa 17 t p^n 
mnnn ba npnipaw cn'^ttrin pnp mn 'str nnaana n^n-Tta nnv mpa 
pana ♦ la mnn p'tt^snw patia ^jna p^rpvi ♦ ^ nna pytn 18 ♦ rrsBa 
TW ira^*ia 'prh ih nana na irynn 19 ♦ nnva pin Kvn n^ia^^«no 
nann ^a ib npio\n 20 ♦ </ vma^aai nno niPK T^yn^aaa rhn nnpS Sai3 kS 

♦ VTH nan pk iroa a*KXvn pnan rbx nap^r ^'-at«? kvi nman nraa ^aV 
'^B '^niaii .c^hth rbia^ |a 'aa ♦Ta rhn ih nh^'^ pbia^ ^a rea 'aw 

• pbia pnopb \y'K nan pk vnmaaai ia nan: "^a ■oiK'»a ib mar ba naiyn 
nma nba ppnnwa ib'BK niin nw im xbi nnyi ai •laipaa pbia^ ^a 
anr ppacai aa tiv pip: pm ♦ P-nani n-op nn .p^aw nmnb p-'asp 
pn^bpa p'pnan lea nn-111 nam am T'apai n^aicat nn a'^tpa ^att?3a nn>o 
vacra mnan hv "nirb na K^jy viiaxata nb ^ip ^3 , vacb mbn by ^ anin 
[paiip nbia%n ^ab ayia nana pw nr-on nnaai p'^anna pk ^a ma bnra 
: num-1 pnn trpab mnan nbi jxan npa nar '•aai pnin b>ptrn n^atna .nn» 
pnaarnb inr oay Kb pi ^wna nnv nman nar kSi p-no^^ patra 
B^3K miKn^ pb 24 ♦ '» n^ nanaa w^h pk la'^anb -i«7bk "Ktt? naa • wia 
va^ya anaan pK i^ki a-^eannan ab ^aan ba nKi^ k*? "^a r^K nainnba 
by nTn^ na^K b-aa nn\n» ^ab Km^bK ib %hw avK by inw^a -11 • aiba 
avK nK ^'^ ]v^ XXXVIII. i : ab '*aan a^aa ^b p''-pnnb nnot Kb 'a^ab ttit 

• ^ana-mw Tiypn p • paaa b^-qt ^a^wKi ♦ ^bip nnyan p : ipk^i n-^an ta 
»)awb aba ^a p^ayn »)iBa yarn nwa ^b a^»K laaa /laair^ myaa iwk 
K3 niiK 3 : nbapi na^rn .nacy . nacy y^pni^ a ♦ nyr bab niaia g nbyn 

tf Ms. pnx. t Ms. ^an^l. c Jonah IV. 8. ^^ Ps. XVIII. 12. * 2 Sam. 
XVU. 16. / Ms. a«no. gZech, IV. 12. A Dcut. XVI. 17. « Job 

IX. 17. J Job XXXVIII. 25. 


Dnnppoa pyinh nrh n"nT • irn rbp n^r tk vanan ^^mn rroL 'pn ^stob vhv 
rhnh Dai nbip hp v\h ♦ D*btra • n rt^p"*^ ]'^^p tin napa . rhn awbi 
tjK pjp 'rTto '^nnm •^[Sp] Dp\n w «bp Kb wr« 'od ♦^^ b'p nbia^ 
pirn KVTW n-DDs 13-K nno njpb np3v nip'^n ^dk • injn o^aan bp no'»m 
. rata opoa »orw oran pio^o la rrn nbi pop n\n pian rpn ib^iw pjkS 
ipop a • n-nn ^aSw kti m ♦ c ona nnaS "»a • pcp^i ♦ nn^ xxxvii. i 
Sannn 3 ♦ vbo Kan\^ nana . rpna o^jno kvto D^bjnn ' h^p im^ yvyp 
riTTKo D^pnarw ♦nniK |niK jm j^'ia-nipn kS loa •vnw^__Dwn 
Dp-ia Dm lawa bipa o^anai Drvi bip antr^ nw iniK br mnk 4 : vrwhw( 
v3dS par* ^3 . ibbn onanS Dipbn oapy^ kSi • -laon mk D'K^aan o^ni 
nioipo nvbra la^atr nara 'wbai T3i*?teWK onna^ Dapr rata bvf ibip 
oral pK mn . ibSn mbip n^ bp naK^ h^oh ^a 6 . Kipa r^pxf na*?n 
• o^'^^ P'^** ^^ "T*^ 7 ; Ka^ n^nr\ ranxa 'iba nnpa orai • onap 'ipai 
napw nn^ap hv inia ova rr* ana Dmn laacp onKn ♦vaob nam anxra 
Kani 8 : pi-a Hin na bp TTTinb m^trya ''gyax ba npnb ♦ nob mainan 
nirn nvn nib^ imarmo rna-'S ib b^ nann D^mbip nian ♦ ann 'aa rrn 
D'^a an-n onria ♦nawaaw ♦ Dnia larw tp^ nacw ♦anra :mpiniMDi9 
Kim [Foi. 2oa] D^apn hv naiaan -ir ^na hk " ♦marmob * np-ar a panaa 
ipnna maea miean Kim « ♦•lean jar ♦niKjap ♦oipa bw nao py p^p^ 
DK mwb DmSp b>aian bpiab D^aw bip ab^ppb • Dipa bv; vmbianna 
Dpnat '^vr rrw ^vi ^a^arw nnwa na-vn nia^Daa nonna pn dk aio 
'K . ona mncb inno pjiob • a-ana a^awa anb ipoai •natrnrKnaoniaa 
na^iat na-KW piK ban /pan nhr prma 'pn kSk ♦m^a rriTaa -laav niTBK 
pKa mw*? D^ara piKb aiac^ n^^K hw] hzh 'Sia nara naiob a^nri nnh 
dk npni Dipa p'KW mpaai o^ina onma bik ^aa majmab aarb bk i3 
K^K mim |a a^aaS k^i aarb k^ ♦ p nb^nna nTaa "whd annin'? Tan»6 
B-'ara iniKi navn K-Kia vnra nnr a^pnat '^^'^n iwav lonb bk ♦ n^aia^a 

a Hosea VII. 1 6. * 2 Sam. XXIII. i. c Lev. XI. 21, reading pa. 

<t Job XX. 9. ^ Ms. i^*Jt'3. / Ms. lio 13. 


'^y ^3 nnana vSk anb ♦ pnf^K *T>p |pn bKnapn ai pn ♦d^tti nb'«b o^onb 
lOD ^'m*?RwtJ 'pn -|b jn^i jniD\n '^Jp nivio "vria rrnn ^^a nawnr nt 
fcn k'?w nr ^jrn ^o-^a nnanw ^b a^iD ^d T'K'di ♦ "^ 'too ntetb -ima nnKw 
ninab n*? vr pK na^o n^to •vawnttr ni *?p ^d '-0 ^bi aw^nnw pnbK 
161 mxa ^K'a^v^b insa -inw a^ar^ ^k »» niw bipa n5)y nnjw nnri |a 

^m^nbl rv ir-TD^^n iwk "laan '•-ivk '^n bp a rmoi kvi noio nrp ^b nrip 
inaa y^vr hn p 'ob jan^ wi • inaa ^a3lP' inoio npn iwoi • ^mobn 
D'onn T^bra mia viToa ^b i anaasm onipn nibwa imSjnb onKM riK 
'a . S^oa piDon wi c D-'a noi 'aa mia rrm pTaa inxn ^36 Sr o^iaajm 
n^aio nnK no" nbi 'h dikh i-TO^^a ♦ lani rhp npB ^a 23 j d ••on 'a nrp rr«a 
%-nnan p^yan iS nmy gy 24 ^:na n^^ip nbyp ib *dk ^ai p nnK no^ nbi 

♦ D^ami ion nna la n-ai ia im dik ba t; 2b rniK*?Dyi vion br a^bna 
jn a6 loipi? ni^ iS nitt?' p bp vonn ^am anp '•a^a pinn pra . tt^a^ gnaK 
kSi inmaa rrs kSi k^'JIp mntr 'aiK • ibyp K^agyn ^a ^4 'anw 'cS • K^jy '^k 
\y^K a5 'aKw "obi ♦ mom rann -ea pi rnnia: 'oa nana irn 'a paro 
te^anb bar nb ^a onacp antt? oiKn ""a^ pinna m "o 'btk pinna p^a^ 
rnma: '•3W nBoo 'wn^fi annm .'•b 'Knj p > npn kS vay naaa pinna 
pKi ♦ man iDb> nnna ova av na ^a ♦ ni nana bin; pi p^v ]^ rniKbaai 
inaa^ nbr apn o^ca nvnb a^a ^paa pna^ ^a 27 . npnb aS 13*? pK . npn 
nb^nna nbip n^nr n^K aipoa naa lainn .ipir .v^y 'pLVivn a^pntn hp 
naan p^aipa nbinnaa pKnpn*?iyn'K ^b ""a nba pn^n Sr 'pn^can ana 

♦ ia nao B\n "gnpi iniK ar hv ma p >> peDn ^n'^'^: n^ *?r nnaa nnv 
•raaa^^baiKjjr pai ♦a^aipi nTatra arnaana*'' a^ay in^ a^ara aa^a 3i 
n^by i3tn ♦ nxya naan • niK noa a^aa aan bv^^^ ♦ niairab ^nan a^b^ais 
Tr law aani bny\ nn bip laniK vbp n^a^ 33 . n*?'Bna raaa n^ by nab 

a Ms. mw. * Ps. XCIV. 12. c Ex. XV. i, 21. ^^ Ps. LXXVIII. 9. e The 
quotation from Rashi begins here. He says rtOH u^mam. 

XXXVl. i6 — 21. COMMKNTARY ON JOB. 104 

noo ib^HD onan -^anb ^n1H Ti^on *Tpyi tjH <»nnr o: 'ib nsni nn^on >i>n i6 

• nnr nr nb an'ny ^ob obTra n^oa «bw npinni mat "Txaa ^ Ta 2? ™^^ 
nKT p br naiiDa «b« n-oj Hh^ ^anbtp rrn cpvm nma pana n^vi j6i 
|ow mw nat ^ao ti^i "i« 2? yhn^ "lOKW 'cb 'b'^ oai • nnb ^b nrp man 
Dipoa pano nh ani oipoa mnn mjn coaoo D\n'3H on^o^i Tin br nn^on 

♦ ppn 8^0 \T Tanbw br n-'anw no ♦ nanbw nnai jnnp «a nn«w n-otn 
o^jnpvi nn«a nbao dk ritn pii 17 rianwD oSapb ^mD^^ pani rovn dm 
^'^ 2n«^ nvK n« ^a o^^na ^niK laon^ nb nw^«? fearai • nbaor pn 
DniK pn n«T bjn 'pn Sk anb nnSa pen nian pn 'ip^bn 't« ^'•n^r 
^pna^ ^tki ""a mat nra inaaa p^m laibn^ nnaini toBWbi pw . o^wi 
nrvD^jBijTbnja 18 • vbn anb k^t ib b'nnnnb mat nra jna^b [Foi. 19 b] 
■nr T»2_bH pbT '■ tea an 'd iki ♦ naa nana nnnr onan na-^a para ^no^ 
nbnja t'K'd ♦vafiS onan nain iwh mn pntoan nbi •o^^nb nonn p 
T©^ bna .TJi DM 'iBam nwana ♦ ppoa nn*D^ |p ncna nnonr ^b vr 
Hh^ pn b^pr «•? ^a "ib natn •jn«?>np^ pn bra ^a .ivti «nT£W7irni9 
nnrw nr • napa jwb mm T^h'hn >]Kyn a© kS -a n>nn «bni na ^acaxa ba 
bn ;iata nrnb »6w nt ^^1^loa1 nt Tri£jnrni9 'rbn 'thi na ^acaxD 
lac^pQ Katn ^a ^y\T nb mn-'v na ^atoxa ba ik lat ^6o ^H^atv ^^^an nun 
m Tn bn o^aianna pi dwd Katn npin Ta nbi Dnan ^nna «bi 
vfiat prb Kvw rnnw g^wrn bni 30 <finttnp bn nptn 'ba n^*^ 
nanii • nbfin pw*? ttwi • " ppM loa *^b warn • ^tat irb T£w e^Hv /pn^ 
mm na ^atDKO h^^ mata itt n\-in nh pnno n^\m ^nian nan naip dx 'ib 
matn "it • DoipDO D^or ibrc^a nb^bn matb w nBatni »ixrm • nb mp 
nb^bn Dn6 nfiatm f\WDn hn mata nnr nnn 'lo wi ^♦or iwia^ nb^b 
mbrb oniato D-mnnott? Dttipba abipn nK«? or nbir nrnb imbnbi 
nmnm npia orbi orn oinb man onn mat ^a i^man nan hv n'nv^b) 

a Ms. nw. ^ Ms. Ton. c 2 Chr. XVIII. 3i. ^ Prov. III. 12. * Isa. XVII. 7. 

/ Ms. pan. fi^ Job XXXIV. 20. 


lb a^ttr vhw iDfirba mat ib r^s irr pnxp p-a^nb 7 * ♦ aoH ^obwo 
anno ♦ Kpab p^abo nn tjin c •^b -iva ^rpn mPKr 'pa k^i ♦ ipiata 
p^abpb p-SB Kvr Kh^ Pfirpa pn^ rm h^tv^ nw prrbr VTari p^p^nn 
n^m PK1 '^D pmpH PK1 8 .nnpKW 'pa ^maT npp^ «bw 'vp • pnri naaa 
jro^w ^pb nw pK ^nlpa jnipn ^y»y ^bana <^ nabai pyta p^tipk *pnx 
• pbirb i^^ naa "o ph^wp wpwd^ p bjn ♦ pn-a kph «b« pnp is^r 
wpn^i pKPpaw^J? O'*!^ '1** •"" T*^ ^J^^ "^oipb ppjtk nbap ^aal bri iq 
pp brp^ p «bi /• n^av ^'^ arrtr "wh nn ^a n^ncnb 161 • ^w^i * p.Tan 
iTiapi lypp^ PK • pnaKP na nnm pwwa aipa pmp^ n n*?ap ^H p-p^nn 
pmp^ iba^ aTWPT pn"nar ijpnn an pn^anb 8b ^a ainip^a ib''H ira^ pk 
pnbr-'r pn^i ^annb ♦ mar nbtra 'ipptp^ nh pki » ♦ppnx ^pa aipa 
.abjp3m»3 ♦-j-'anbi njnb ab ipw Kb -wk br nri ''baa 'wwr) mapna 
pinii pn^pa nnK anp yn br npisn ym pi pnmar rrn Kbw pniKi 
Tp]w^ ap^^w na p^p^snpa pi nariKP naipb p-oa pain pK ^a * p.Tnvbap 
p-'bjp naai Tn*iar mpsp Kbn ^b n^v naa pnp npKb 'pn br f\'^h f\H 
iap3 HP npK^ '•a pnpK Pa rbK x^y\vr Kb ^ab nix p.Tbr Kaa paab nK 
nyaa nipn u ja br b-pin Kbi imnap w-'p^ ba Kbn piwj ^a b^pw npi wb 
♦p^KPim pnp3 rnpa 'k*i y* nspp p^pwi r^vy'^ I'Pi «♦ ^nipi ^3xn 'pa bioboa 
'a p^BKij nn^pa 'K'i **nrin pvb prnpm 'pa ♦aimb p^jpitpti angnpa 
inn m^Jin ry'^n^ Kb 'Pkw 'a p^p^snn ib'K ^a 'pkw "pbi /.ripn\TKbi 
^pb pbn nip^^a ipvpn raipa ^3P p^bn^ i5 iin »« ♦ jn^ p^isp ppwpi 'ippi 
. 'PKW ipa n^nenb Kbi pstk pnba nbapi ib a^Pi awi ipni van wpnip 

<i Prov. X. 27. * Job XXXIV. 6. <^ Job X. 4. ^ Ms. pa^ii. ^ So margin: 

the text has o.Trjm. / Prov. III. 1 2. g Ms. avw6. A Jer. XII. 2. 

I Nch. V. i3. The Ms. has *i^. J Job XXXVIII. i3. * Jcr. XII. 3. 
/ Dcut XXIII. 18. m Job XXXVI. 6. 


'veh ♦bnan wBr ana iiKb -^'Dm rt^ nbw oan ipk npp i^n '"p tic 
bnn Dw «^ biwb Trnia ^aai nbi n^ 'ww inw Hvn ^ paia -bars Dnrw 

an ^p pi TO^Kn Hb "3 D3n o^^n nain n^aan vr'a natp^ ban arn i •« 
nmjo rT xbi ipk npa npi avnb jkw b^aa^a px ^a nnyi 'P'H'di ♦inan 
•10XP "Jta *viH iHK inan hv yTT7VDty\ • r Bn ps ion wm inn bjn nan naw 
nwnnb lonab o^oin^ii noio ^nn obia bbiai nnn tn avH "rn nrbw naaai 
'fiKW 'ba man «*?) vann baa rnrna hv pn^ mnn Kin yn 'pn ^ann ib 
^fib |«mn nvb n tp 'Boin nnps m • nvrbK tion xxxvi. i • aiK 
ban ♦ nmKi tpt ''b nna > : arn 'pn nvbtt? nasa vbp o^spb nrbw m^ow 
pi pnna^ jnain^ onn '^ . bn^^ q^^h innmbi • yv:K\ lopo ^b bnm oiann 
't'V'H my ^a ♦mnn lonn ja ^nn^ jsrb ibwn cvriennn jb^ia nna 
mbnb nir n-na'^ ^a ^'pnx nK n^nab rin ^a 'ki inan baa Ynia^ttrw 
•r'K'Bi ♦mom 'pn "ann niKinb nnni ebnb yt:i ^3H jn nbpbb 'bKw ^Bb 
iTna^ ^ai^L hk Tnab ritn ^a pi /♦ tn nK unw "tp no? 'a nna 
TK ♦pirnbb arm ^3Kw 'oa jpnjWK3 ©pa niaa''bcrw '^bi A*opnx 
OBrom pnatn 'ib • pny^ |nK ^bpBbi on^rpo ^bo Kbi obipn nK y^n^ 'pr^ 
o^piTttT ^b^b 'ypv Kb 03bK "a 4 'O^sbKn ^bi niaann nnb lini 'Tp ♦Kxn ib 
nan ja ^a o^nain lananr obipa lop npna ♦ obw laab oan nm obipb on 
nw: mab nn nana -jop "jk nib nipn o^bn 'pn nKnpw nuM ^a 'ik wn 
Kin 'pnK\nw nipn o^'bn 'tb n\nMK ♦ n^aa bK |n 5 'a'B'P'K ops oipab 
nnoK nwKa *rBa p-r OKb^ Kbi J.u^v^ o^bn niKbob nbK^tnba o^J^ 
inina bwbb ab na n^aa K^n nmainw nssai /inmmb niKian rbp Kixbb 
n .apn' nt:nQ^ O'on r*Kw ^Bb »«y\ri pnxK Kb ^a ^nn bp ♦ pg^n rr^m Kb 6 

a MaL III. 20. '' Isa. XLII. 4. <^Judg. XX. 43. d Hab. I. 4. 

e Job XXXIII. 6. / 1 Sam. XXIII. 26. The printed text has ^m. g Hab. I. 4. 
h Ps. CXLII. 8. « 1 Sam. XVIII. 8. > Job XXXVII. 16. * referring to 
Job X. 3. / referring to Job XXXIII. 10. wEx. XXIII. 7. « Ps. V. 7. 


arjm iTisno onn ^'^''baw ^b^i *r6^ba ^nraa maw 'bDi <« t^bp rrrv nb^bai 

• D^ip mn^*T3 pvb Kinw <fD^xnr Tbi 'ba nnnai *ftb jan^ twi ^^t^ara br 
rra fi' ♦ iiaa f?a nan ^'^i rh'hrt "Jtrra \ti /• or iwu^ nb^b nijcn Tr 
n\Ti • ibbxa i»na ja br ^a : mbnab upSbi * t "i3wba S-op K^b^ba 
y♦^npnx d^k jabi Sr aoibiprarw la /♦pan pK tim oioa vnn hn Tr 

♦ dimS t]%nSK ^ryo nbi impwv rpwb lODttnsi pnx ib n^wjnp onn jaSi ib 
Q^pwpn TprarjDw oipba iobvo h wv nb onnxT Arirnp nvhn n^ nanb 
D^jyi |TK3 ^3ftb /^na D.Tpvir Tbi onib anb pKi Tin br ♦njir pn^ 
nbnjT pbn onb wpab nnpnx Kin onb onbatn nnm onw OTDiwn 
Q-pnrn onnK D^n ]w "aab 'P'h 'n'ri ♦ naa nbpin no 'pnb ban nnaito br 
mntDW niKnb Kbi picwb 'pn bai^ kS kwv thi3 ♦o^DWKn o-prirn ib-K 
Kb nn nanai »». bav Kb bor hn loam pna niKno [Foi. 19 a] Kn o^rr 
nbhsi pbn y^i^ rpab nb n^n Kb nt nana baK nnt* Kbi nn nns ib n^w 
jnn no npnat ok T»nan nb^nn br aoibi oiba ^Tt:i npbi ^bvb nni ib^Ka 
"JK nriKw 'vp V1T impn Kb 'OKn ^a gjK m Kwn nnanb nrn^^l^b «»ib 
baw nfcbb pn bapb Tnp 'nK ni br ibaiob bain Kb Kir 'pn nKin ^rKw 
'pn nKin ^rK^ noKn ^a g^K 'K'n vjlo Kn^ni ib bbinni . kiw nKn^ Kin jaw 
bor niKnb bai^ Kbrj mpnx onKb a^irr oinKatoKi ^npT [n^ ^b 'okw 'a 
pianni ^nnop nnbKi po^prn nxrb rowi roib Kinw nnoK nnKi 
r pan pa bpwa nab pn • ^sr Kbi rwo nnKi ^nrn nKin K^nw q '•a 
pb baK . ^naw bapb • ^n^p *wb ib bbinni ^npn3n ^^OBwo vsBb mm 
*a • nab onp nnri i5 • naa ib nia^jsn Kb ^a p nb i'K nwpnx br vsfib 

fl Ps. XLII. 9. Ts. LXXVII. 7. cps. IV. 5. rf Ps. XXXVI. 5. 
e Isa. XXV. 5. /Job XXXIV. 20. K Kx. XII. 29. A Han. V. 3o. 

/ Ps. XXXII. 9. y Job XXXV. 8. * Ms. oinj^. / Eccl. IV. 1 . w Hab. I. i3. 
« Job XXXV. 7. Job XXin. 3. P referring to Job X. 3. '/referring 
to Job XXX. 20. r Prov. XXIII. I. 


vmwp ^miara b^yx no i • nnixi nair nnw t^ nyr noi }3o^nb 3 'i»c 
Dx . W13K pnar na d^opd naa 'ok ^^w ib ^n«»n i*?-KWta '•nKono nnr 
^•w n*?n3i broo nibK pbn noi ^n^Db «vi pmi oni 'w ^nxnnnn 
nb ipnttw T'r"! nni p^b^o nanPH -ax 4 .^n^ww nmonib ^D^intMs 

♦ Tpix br 1300 wpao nnn nbnai pbn no • broo mbn pbn no ^nolla 
vhw loovTDjnoD WD3 Dipo n>m d^qp can 5 •npnxa nbpvi nh ^ai 
nxton 6 ib^Hw ^oo 'vfh Kim ♦ ^nrn3 p-nb h*?i 'nsitoa ib a^to\ib bam 
^nirnn nwx bp KiiDnbo npsosr .naiio nb p*in^w njn ia bircb bavi no 
'pn nanrs ni nai noxnw iTa h \r\r\ no "ik nnn ino npnx dh 7 ib 
np^b T*^ Hinno •^bro i*? [nu 'n^%n '^dktk '^OBWom^rjn mpnawa 

• lb ananb npix Kf?i ♦ rnnb bar xb nygn g? 8 nnni •ibrbannbn ♦ ^t'O 
pT lop nbnBnsi jnnbi biwb pwnsw 8W5t rnt w^h Kin«^ "poattrKS 
wpab lb n^n uoo tib jn^ nnpm ib a^" ^nal^DW "Dr onn pb •TP«n 
P'OKi D-'sw ano tp 9 'w • Tioa y^xb 'ow -fibi • T'maiio ib Tanbi •«» 
niaw nriKi .DmH looinai ibtib ♦onnK p'vv nmaai nrr aino ^^ns 
onn Q^bn:i Mn^manrir'w dik ^aabi .^bn opjna bir nirbno 
wpab lab bn a^n Kb w^ri K\n ny) .loftro d nw pKi o^st icwsi 
nwpi ^jbTw ^jn£jnbK_rrK 10 noKb /• msiia^i in«^w <? naba opbK vrmh^ 
nnvib DpK nb^b n«n 'Tr nb^ba 'n^o? ib jniD Kbi ♦^mn b^nn nK ^b 
onr nnw -sbnai ^aw bKn Kbn o^^sr Kanoi bm -jk nr nob noKbi * ^b 
non Tanb p-iKn monao i3pbo n '•-nr "ib pn *b pxi '^ok psao ^Kr 
pn obia HK n^noi obabaoi DonBO ^a o^ott^n >]'>poi pKn n^noi inaitoi 
bia^ n\n nbn: noan n? e^K y obaK nK onb nnb nair vbK oba ^a 'pn 
i^TT mbK nmb n? pa^ labo Kb Kvn ban hk ib jnw 'prw ano nobb 
non '••^ nir 'n'r •mTOt ib jnw nob Kxn o^orn tripoi pxn monao Kbi 

a Job IX. 2; IX. 3o; IX. 22. b XXXI. 2. c Ms. nimn. rf Ua. XL. 26. 
<? Ms. J3V3. / Sec Dcut. XXXII. 6. ^ Deut. VIII. 17. * Ps. CXIX. 62. 
« Job I. 21. y referring lo Ps. CXLV. 15. 


aoib ♦ '^rhvt {w dk * • d'»^w ^jd kiw nb hv aoia "nx^a • tttwoa trvp 

nnsim iDBtwa ^b von nnn ^3 m d , ^Dtwa i^*i hK\ ^npnat -pono 
« wf? mnai 'Ojw man nb^nnb inn inan nrn ^a lan nn^ y nai nt nana ^p 
♦ nsaby ^brb nsm •r'lan o^ob nm» nopan 'ib nasa man ^ftTl nabi 
'ND Hftd nKWi .iTrbK 'an '^wa -nira /• obttr" lara ajy aD3 dx n'r 
aabj£3K 34 ♦bnin 'an '^bw 'aa niown bai 'pnb w^k nana naxn hn hn ^a 
D^anipaw 'kw ^6*? •DannM ^r^b iraw aab nt^SK p*? ♦ 'pa*? 'anw ^ob 
^jaK 36 , '^h pa^ ♦ '•bpawaan mnr naji ♦ ^h '\'^'rD aab np»(b nm nn pi 
|a "^p nsp ja ^ja nja p ♦ pn" Kb nvna pn^ k^i • nan nnt» ^sian 'k'^ 
•?in3 nan ^k 71*1 bP o*th ^sa pv*?a Kinw pnn ^iian "r^sp -"rja dm ^a • ^an nm 
a^waw naTttrn br ♦D^waw ranb w vnanannxb nanai A^^f?KnanK^a3.n 
'aKw .na Him jih nPDxa iKataj ant^aw onanm ib-Kv pn nPDKa arx 
i\T Kbr "nap pK 'ani • '^bw 'a « pn ••brB or rronb rriKi ♦ .nbpab 
m ina" nrxai • aewai p nwir irn Kman ^a inaKnp pK vd:h2 mawn 
Kirw D^riBw WD n^Dia Kim ♦ kdh Kba irn ^a 'nnanbr 3? ♦ jnn ^pnT 
ann ♦onan nan nttrb y .pnaw nar poD^ dh 'a ♦pDonrra ♦pn vpia 
nriD Dnan "wai • "^ip nann 'wh * VDa pDan 'a 'K'n ♦ biaa Djnan man 
|ao^ nh 'DHW naai /^attwa TD\n bxi 'pnat 'dkw 'aa ♦ nnt^nb it nDraa 
mai opbKD WD3 ipnx br k^h inawn ^h '^d kSi »« D\nbH dp iniatna naa 
nxtn » ♦ Rrr'?H [n xxxv. 1 • naa |aD^ Kb naKW na hv viant^' mnKbr 
nimw ♦bKB nnv pna tn ^nian.ynac Taaba nnaK ppab rofyth ravn 

^Ms. (IN corrected to Vv. <* Job XXXIV. 19. c XXXIV. 10. 

d XXXIV. 5. «XXXIV. 4. /Ex. XXII. II. ^Job XXXIV. 10. 

A 2 K. V. 1 3. « Job XXXIV. 8. > I K. XX. 10. * Num. XXIV. 10. 
/ Job XXXIV. 5, referring to XXVII. 2. « XXXI V. 9. 



♦ D-'Snani on^aKn jrowb *ipn pK ♦ ^'^n nb on^aa rn" 24 • « nv TnK>at 
pb • Ta^ ph 35 nnain iDBtwa nrnn :rrpn nba pnavb *ipn pn '^t ih 
'^fibi • a^rnarQ Ta^ iwKa on^br 03 ab w'vr onnn ib*H nn n^jn iv8 bp 
'oa . Dp^CD D-nm nnn ^6 ♦ onnn inopw ib*K aa uori ♦ nrvbv rh'b ipn 
imnt^ na ano pn opij • o-awv amr laipaa <» ♦ vnnnb w-k laip^ nb 
■pna nriar*?i rhnb '^t . onnt^roi oniK o^Taow oipba Txap:n ob^irn ba 
pftp onnn nbpr dh^shh a^awnnn w^yvn nnn 'ob ir d3t •c^bp 
iH "TV ^'naa^'^nwpnabp'Tp o^n^^ir Diin"'WQTpbat]^6aa-iKnQn^br 
1:: D^Kii Bipaa an^br a-pBian obirb T^a ^a'?^ .anaa nn anairn 
ixnaiasai an^snita an^ian •nw'» mht^ baai hvi ^a «3na nnn jai twawn 
'pn orbr ipt maps aipib niirna 'pn nnav 'a'r pjiw "w^ br aniian 
Bipoa hv aaia 'aT ^'vh v B^DW«-in fo nnv i*?^h iai nbw "nnn .laa B3T)3? 
B-'yiiwc-Q nw^ vain bai • bbxpb v3B^ ipiat nbi innna nov ^^th aicn 
•an aa naiin BTa iboj BKcna ^a i^an*? ib^arn nb bt bp ibbwbt inapai 
iB-'panbi innonbi bn nprat 'pn 'hv H-anb 28 wikb t«i iS-'awn Kb nt ba 
npao Kb B'jwHna nwpw ntip^ b^awai ♦ Bbirb y&gy^ a^^ar npran ♦ ^^a 
ttpp^ Kini a© jsawa wr^i nopnp ib^K n^ bj? a-^srn iBpw nhi naba nprat 
inK ib^K a^pttnn nba^w nip e^'-ipn rntn^ ^ai ♦ aiapr"' Kb cn\r ^-wtk anb 
a^jfi^b Kw miOT P ana ^ai •annxnra ♦a^ajjnanCFoLiSb] tib^K 
^ bn ♦ wpa n^ana anaK^ KbK naiinnb toarab vjab Kab aipo ib [n^w 
Kun Kb nrp ♦ vjk nnn ^b^a^ btk bri • inK ^13 nnn naiw ap pan 
apwra riwb B-SD KttTW e^jn BiK nir ^b^B "lb na ♦ qjnanKTib&a Bo .a^sa 
miK bK '-a ♦ bKbKja 3i ♦ ^a bp a-aanm a-prpii ar pvrip -dbb ♦ a-bn 
Kb • y:t ^nKra abipa 'p7^ ib 'bk BKn ♦ ^wn bK vit inK nba k\'to 
Taai HKii -3Kr na nrba 32 *aKn bki yr\x b-ara n-nwK Kb banK 
^nn na^ na'' Kbw ynnv na ^mn nnK rnab bia^ nrK ntw ^niaina 

a Gen. XLVl. 29. * Ex. X. 23, wp. t Num. V. 2 1. ^ Dcut. XXIX. 23. 


pi . rhvth 'ptn nra oki i6 ♦ nDtra i^^ nh p^nat DHtr 'tr'D niair 
'bww nKt nyay panb nxT dmi • '^b pi -^wn tes dw irn -d a ^rii nra 
>]Kn "•fi p^ ^ptip Hinw na^nm e^nn p n^ncn*? nriB mn sjjn 17 nnr ^b 
a^ion*? low natpi wiarr inisn dtkti Mrbwiiw ofiw w oil -ira ^^D 
ramn obirn bDw 'pn*? fnt^iw tod ^hik avTi6 iborm vf?K nwpanb ^h 
Dr"tn'W lb w'np T'H «3W rrn ib-Ki * ♦ iDp^ttnm noip onix npa ib p»mpi 
rannb bia^ nnn nwD pnx brai pnx kxtw ^ba inw dki oisr ram 
|a Kbm bp^ba n^bb "lOK*? ""wn ^ai " ^rba nba*? noKn 18 'ijw loa tootwaa 
na^3 Kbi D^ngy ^3B KP3 8^ iiyK 19 ^ht:h 'r'a o^ana bn pri 'i*? im irn pin 
♦pan 'OKW 'a pnx kvi pw ♦ pba m^nppa '••nrrw ijsBwaa bn ^aab pw 
initb aTbp om^ «bi nani i nio^ pni p «> anw '•sb kbt* nh tk ^•?^m 'Ddi 
nwb on twr dtg opwpw a^bin hv on'r ^a ananb -naa nhn inn*a 
annoDi a^abpsi c^n^aa vth inaa o^ibwi a^iopw amr nh'h niatn '^wo in^ 
•n hv Birnn aaba bp apt wSai arm iipi . ap wyyy ♦ ab^ipn ^rpa 
Hbi Ta 8b Tan rmw iniK n-ai <* • npKawioba b^»p K'»b^ba rra 
■onb ape jnia iwjE" * •"^^'^^ *^wi inp 'wai mm 'pn naa an ^a naa 
iwa ^ba Kinr 'aa r^K ^aii "^p vrp ^a • last y-uctS tr'K ^sa Hvr nb rxbh 
nn&ib mabat pxi "jot pHi aa inbna iiapa vain baa inriK pipia k\i an 
23*3 •mia^ pna p Sp /a-'aiei a-pi niaiat ^'^ ^d-p [i] bp ♦pn abpaa aw 
•^va lav Kaa .laK ^nKnb I'lP air* an ira ^ba Kinr v]Kbpj6 
inia |ic ^a laiab idth nbar "ink lap nanaib otraa vbx nbnb nna 
ipia av Kipb ^nac lana nrm 'rwai btk ^aii pn^ irnw iwa maa 
mi wab ipin kth ^a 'pn p Kbi ♦ n-a pcaw ^ab kvi nan ax iipr6 
hp *^a lean am • an» -aa xr* Kb tn laiab wh nbaw nriKi 'vpa.i ba 
^bp aip^ xb '^Bw g ^a a v kvi ^K Kb avK 'aK» ^ab "a ♦ bnii irai naw 
inc bp a wb laii p Kb ^a Kmbn ib "ik p bp • nab imn pi mb^bp 

<»P8. V. 2. * Jcr. IL 27, where the text has onm. cisa. XIV. 18. 

d Dan. V. 3o. e isa. XXXI. 3. /Prov. XV. 3. e Job XXIII. 6. 



p o 13TK nb3 «bi njnvi nbi 'pn i-«- ^^b1 Kin p«nw [Foi. 18 a] k^k 
rbo pK^3 3 t HtrbK |p^ XXXIV. I t^toKD^ "Mw DRnftw DTvnn nTa 
. ban*? Dro^ in ^wkd nntnn pb-a pm [nan \nr^ p n*? natn Tmjnan 
'Dw ♦ '^ DD-niaKai oaa ^'^ i^ nmm 'a in^ ^n-o^nw pn "iwa ^"^ '^ ^^^"^ 
vftn moi tD^nair lawa 'tv ♦conaw laan b^oa na«n oa^niaKa 10a 

aii< 'OH "a 5 ♦ nnain lofitwa • <* or onn ^a d:&m nsrba 'ck p ^a arn no^r 
br ana ^3k ^b ttr»w nian notwaJbyG ^jai^m ■'oayp ^^on Snn ban ♦ "npiat 
D^now ittBra rpab *5kw iiapa 'P'X'fii w^arbb ^ wb -00^ Kb iwk m 
r6ini Anbin rwK g' ^Baa oan Kb br WDjbaa /^nWD ^^nvijK .ana ^jkv 
• I'.Tniao tTn»( ^ pil pnn n^ br Ka ^brmr ^Bb'*btW3 •! bp p^na "bnn 
np-'P a-innw ^tb hk ainn paa Kvn aina nbin npnrw y-ain pnK th hv 
-Qjjo 7 ' rrmao rren^c \y\ nvniK pia "atnb 'f?*^ i^on ^atn ^a xb baw oai 
ana nnw qikw laa * inaia t?ttnn n^ rrbai awn vrnh jmsw arKa 
-a nw MO /10b nv brt"' no ikw ♦ fiK "byip pynnanbnnKi s • ^Hxah 
nm Kb • » pD" Kb ["TOKi "a 9 i'iok" p ^a . yvn^w^nnp ni nana nabbi « inara 
D-wn natp bp tbv p^a ♦ opbK ay oj-atna ini'Tia aiba ib b-rr Kbi anKn 
a^oan ipow <? bnnw 'oa praon MbjwKpb 10 . iBn an K^n '"bk >a ban 
by nwwi pnx anK r^^nnb pgno ♦ nr nan ib Kin bin Tnn nb^bn • "bo 
^ab jn p aiB p ib abgr anK by a "a " bir |Hn n}ioK bK Kin m aaroa 
ib^ nnw pnx y^gn^ Kin KbbK . nb tjk noK jmokjjk 12 ♦ viaatn rann 
mby aK pnKa uvbai annn ma-K rbr npa "O i3 ban nibab nxin n^n 
a^ao Kin Kbm mybao nbia ban ap -01 tinibabo 1300 ktw imnaKn 
int^jwaa p'^p^h anKn nKanb lab anp" aK m Kbn • a-yttnn rjK nrnbi bab 
Kb nwK anK pKw ^ab nwabarir i5 p3D '^aK la^n^ Kb a^jnn rannai 

<» referring to Jer. VI. 26. <» 1 Sam. XII. 15. c Prov. XXVI. 1 0. ^ Job XII. 2. 
* Isa. LVIII. II. / ? 1130. «^XVI. 17. A Ms. nVw. 'Micah I. 9. Omit the 
words in brackets. J Kzod. XV. 9. * Ms. nna's. Corrected in marg. to 
nfoia. / Job XXII. 17. w XXI. 16. « Ms. p b. Corrected. o Ms. Jon. 
P See X. 3. <7 See ver. 2. 


'wx attn TP ♦raibr "^trh mv^ aw'i ♦ijnn na^a nrnwa inv awn 
nto T'K'K *nrv pbo inba ^ bp 'pn ira^ m ^a '^ft riDm « nno'n jtDp •V3 
rbp n^pD inK nKf?oi r^H b^bj o'vpaoi e^n^Db o^aKba r* ^a ^Sa pan 
in^Kb inyin imptna rvhn hn ^nn »« iw pba ib dkw 'ih iTjn •I'tawb 
*rna 'a nn-ina V3P 'pn men dki nnoH nw^a ♦nto'» nbi op" «bi tib o^oan*? 
nyyrh 'pn hn awb na irsft ma^arp jwb ^ nbin ^rH nnni o-jn t^^ 
npn*? d,tSp 10^^ ♦ D^ysH hv *Tgn 37 : inpnjta nsxb atn m ♦ nrnn ^h 
rwr '^ft |ai • "ittr pwb '^6 ih <* ♦ o^rjp^ iwa iiir 'a rrm • kidh ^b 
nwrb "h n\n nbi ♦ ^rrnin ^nv^ *Htn "idk'" i b«i pwrj O'w^h *Tttmi anin 
bya^ nbn ba p ap . nnra -oya nppa mp as tk ami '•jnbbj nnn "o p 
jnrK 'bKW 'a Kbi nntp ^:b was aipnS 3o na ♦ naa dp yStP d^qpp hn 
inp^ttD imn^ -a /^m xvx Kb ^nptm ^ • ^b iTanb nenn ••Jirn nbi n^ 
nrSw bp nrm ♦ •^nr nbi Kpn rSr '^arp 'okw na ^a ^»( ^iviaw • h 
rh^o^ Sma kvi Twhv^n ban ib pnpb opn ^r ira-wK rwb nwTX bjn itr ^jwp 

• Q^orp nw np Dior ipaa ov Tanaw p^sp inwa ••a nr nan br ipm 
♦DHD nt bjn ♦ n'^D'* k^w n^r'^nn p*n rwbrn "vaib irn ^rwp nvbw bp 

• Kpna 131C nnra ban d^opp nwf?ra atwD * vtkbiki ^n^m vain rpjnra 
lavn Djix-Q iKiDn nba '•kpio pK np dm^k ^aK*?Da a^-rSon iw 'a» rm 
pi y#ib HP11 an 'a kb-io Kirw nawn ino risab a^^nrww nr rwpb 
WW 'pn nima ^a ^onnanb orn fpn ^a drran h^ph ipaw 8bi ^bp "aaa 
/ ♦ iai iKi urn irin hn raw irar rrma pi a wba aaxp riw a^jaia 
antnb 3o ^ "TKiaa 'pa « hwD vhh ^ntms 'snpa '•nnaxm «» . mn ajn ab lam 
'^«nan Ti^n ^pn npnac ^nxpn "o 32 ^ rrpinb nwpw Tna nn^ ^:a lypa 
•TDiab V3TK nbaai rwp ipnia kitw 'pn p pnxnb Kin^K nan nn ^n1K 
•n*?H ba br mianwi nh in-^an ban anran rbk Tnr aw |iKa aw» pab 

« 2 K. V. 14. * Ms. m-n. c Nch. 11. 2. d Jcr. V. 26. * Job XXX. 20. 2 1. 
/ X. 16. g Amos II. 6. h Isa. LVII. 18. ' 2 Chron. XXXVI. 16. 

y Isa. VL 10. * I Sam. II. 25. / Isa. VI. 9. "* Isa. VL 10. " Isa. LXV. l. 


ynb DTK n^rh ^k^t nnK dpbs ♦ nnya ^s 14 ♦ p 'OKn nab tk nnt^p 
WK "mb» DTH r'n^ rT«w areai ♦•wiob wh nibib VKisn br rhn 

♦ oibna i5 'OKw *bD pw^^a no^^a h^h lar nainnb nnsinn • nm^^ nb 
]m rby tk ic ♦ nb^b pina aibna bn nai^ nnxa ^a 'anw na ma^ nnri 
anxb jma i3itw n-iaKw laa Hh^ ♦imaw vxan ^b pn1a^aal •a^rnj 
n^ br njn amn ia av ib^na ainn^ jma^^ai ainn" a^iaai • vpra nbnn 
151*01 • nw ♦ n^aw pK mrya aiK Tanb 17 wk nbr naai • wanv piiB^\n 
ma ^ab abiaa p'^p'ih vwa ba br wjn^ 8bw aaraa wa naa^ aiK br 
•jawwjiwrr 18 -fib prn n»na rriKan ip-r ^a Jikt ^ar^ naa^ T'K'ki pn 
a^^ ai8 naab ^ax^ pi • -n tkw^ nb vain ba bp mix p nvi ib^Kw nw 
ban naaa a^ntn nrx naaanm 'ab r^ a:i ♦^spx^ vbx mawDi inn lab rbx 
^n *iaa nnn t bx lan- nnna *a '^a na np pnn aibna is 'anw 'aa Tr 
TK ^^a aittn v^:t Kb bkw ♦ nnip^ Kb a^nrai i4 kviv -iK^n piaan 
ani '-a IK • irvK vin pin aiKaaa vaxjy aii iiaa aiKaaa naim 19 
raj •''Was apnn baiK bar . anb in'^^n inanrn o ♦a^pm ytv^d vaatr 
b5^a> .nbn aiaa rniKnnb nb^n nmnp niKn baKa ♦ in^^n Kiipn'^n 
Kna: pKw vniaxr laipi • nKnaa nb'nna rrrw naa nwa ba^ • 'Kna n\ya 
pini nbmi • IBID br wki piaan nbai p niaarpai iraa lau nans na ba 
prvaan piiai c a^j?i ^aKbab in^ni was nng^b a^pn^y " nr vbr ^bnn 

• p^ba HKba rsab nw vbr g^^ bk a3 sb hv awi r^n^ bk '^bki • iniK 
aipaa aiKb nab ^a ♦ iipr aiKn br T'jnb jnain p^ran gbK ^3B nnK '^bk 
a^nnaan n^ nK^xvn inKia 'a ♦ inria • pban nKbab naK'ni33n^ 34 m br 
n^a »ibKa ^a Tanr rw Kim inana laia ib ^nKxa nnt? nnw nn^nb 
i'tnbaa kvi pttm an nnaKw laa Kbi iviti ja nnK pba ra«r fnaia 
ftjbnnn 'bi n\nn nnp-r br aian nnniab <?pbnnn nban nKw 'k'^ ra^^na^ 
nb mra '"b pi 'aipaa "^tw vrthn pi •/warn ^aab Km aan njm • n-aa 

^ Job XXXIV. 14. '^ Ps. evil. 18. c Sec Ps. LXXVIU. 49- ^ Job IX. 22. 
«r Ms. n^firo. /Job VIII. 16. 



n*iat 'wh .iD^n*? ^3M_nnj3njrat^i8 ♦ip^ p^ .nhinK\ 'D H^rw «^as no 
D^gnn niaixa ♦ ina^3 K^x^•^b n-ann "lavh rxxrw ♦ nnp^ 8b pa 19 • ripwi 
"n^bow Dib 'jtoa ppa^ p p\n no^on nab o^rpanbw ann p** jicbbow 
♦*n3 n^5ttiK T5^j; *niDiKn hn wBn bn '3 .nms on nnw •la-'mb 
^yn ng^btp p HtPK ya bx ai •i^atnw npixan p ^h mn^ n^aix ao •t'K'd 
nnn ^nrTKbjo 2J avKb njr no^ low -wh 'i^b ib nsry Kb ib uj^w ai^ 
nf 'bib [Foi. 17 b] .bban p wir'amw ibva Kipi ib nsab ^n^nw oab 
'1JW 'a .ibttD W1D mp ornw c^inpT nbi ^^^H *ba n^nn tib on^ii n^\n 
bab wsaw wba ibw nvi Kb pnjn ^'irb'^a -npinn ^th tmab p>pa 
'a TxryD im npnr 'wb 'K"n ♦^a^ir "skt^ ♦oaniaab nnr nr pinrb 
wbjTTTi* .^jsm oiDa ♦ nyw^ ^nai bai xxxiiL 1 *vw:ki in OKttn 
nb 'bib nann "anw bx nn 4 ♦ pwbn marb oipb baa piip yn ♦ -ana 
irra tn ib rhwm 'a ♦•j^ojSKjne ♦ *ianb iibWH iniH -ca brn b-wv 
bjtb nviK ^b -3K ^a g'^y\ prrm -bpb ^ba /i»aw -bpb -w- ♦rrajb 
-namp nbnb -a ^:i^i^ nnob ^b pw irai ^ra n-aib nvnb bx "^lapa 
iiaK 'a mbb 'a 'rw "ban *8'^ a\td vbj? fpH -a 'a pnn -payi 7 ♦^1ba 
onpbm pib^n bab pre ^a 'WiT 9 rnab bia- 'r^i nnbKTK 8 b-nabn 
'nbab Kin wni bn "ibKw nipbb im -rwr nn -jnpb mara Kb -br iKaw 
nnbKi *p«nK Kb ra ^nJn br nibK nun ♦yttro: jhk Kbi -:k bn n-ibKi 
'nniK noK K-sn nb-br n- bw K-jn bK ♦-ja^-nb nib-bp ]7w niKisn |n 10 
bwni 'CKw 'ba naa ap- 1 1 « 'sbaen nnra tk abw "ba -33tn-»n bK 'bKW 'ba 
•-BKi • piaKb mbK nar -nnw pa nan ^rK it njroa nKt p n • « -bn naa 
IK nnKi ♦ niaie 'pn ib nanrw ♦ e^bK -5b nnKb ranb bar Kb -a mba pna» 
bp ^a-wnb bia- n-nr bnain ba nnw man vbK vni^ i3 ♦ ^niar nb-pw 
mb ore baa 'bibi ibr nainnb am nvaa unsb Kb -a • nay Kb Tan 

tf Job XVL 6. * Lev. XIX. 3i. c isa. XLV. 4. d isa. LXV. 1. 

« 2 Sam. V. 21. /Job IX. 33, 34. ^ Job XIII. 21. * Prov. XVI. 26. 

« Job IX. 22. J Job IX. 2 1 . * Job X. 7. / Num. XXX. 6. w Job IX. 3o. 
Job XIII. 27. 


ib^BK niHTW trvpb ronn nxni ^3i7 pn pi onitn dp totvb p 'pn im 
irio -iDibb iniK nbr "wk bv ni«n hn imn ^aiai p nma irn pnat KVi 
m p-ara npfw iniov br h nar^ no ^a bbs ^h nsp nb p br ♦ ^ n-'Dr anir» 
iKnpji ''rriH na mki niDa pr nn pvb yn^D na ^lana ♦man bp vr^anpi 
Dn^ rrrrw loatr pTajw 't'VH nayo iKxo Kb iP8 hp ^ •now bp niriKn 
*?r xrwmrh 'mawn Sa ^a • ir'tn^i ♦ nwjw lea vaxp nn pnx "^Ka la^mb 
vT'jm m*?ab a^tpntpa in^K*? la-rn Kbv onana avK nn nan 4 • onxi ^a 
mnra^ o'a^b ^asb o^spt onw ima^r^ on 'gk ^a o^brt ibro 'Kr fpyrh 
'TK TTKa oBjMTvs tki lb mjpb inav am pnrr nr ^bini naia Knv 
♦ Kin-bK jri^ • Tba kiisbk pna '^an 'vba 'ona nmi tpb nan ajnni 
D^"un Tr cna nnc-w c ^tv "hnyt inips p bp "nnnB • nnp np "nbnr 
rrnpKS .^va trttr d3 ar cm "tow 'ba o^ag? am naT o^a" 7 •^'D^stb 
^a . njpra ibn u-Ki pan n^ n&g^ai • nb^ '^6K ^lana i^ainr noann £n 
'n-rpa arns nbi 'bipaa c^^k wia^i /iw 'aa rpn nvbv wara nan 8b in^b^ 
pb 10 \T3vb aoia nbi ^a o^apT nbi nvbw onr ^cb o-an Kb 9 ♦nan Kb 'a'p 
br aoia inaKnjp i3 . rj3Ka K\n nn nvK lab iK ^b nnpa maw nwK bp 
ij^ bp ^Knw lb 'sn^vn no^i .la^Brib naan ^3Kxa ntKn \t /?^pn nmK 10 
i3pm bK m bp • vrpa pnx Kr? ^a ib nwpb bai3 na baK . nt ba iri^i 
nr»na^ lK%m ♦ nt bp in^ainb bia" ^jiaa \y^K Kbi ♦ vnnvnai r«?pa Taan 
iniK onpunnw paneKai . oab laa pb^ ^bK -py ^^ '< ^3tp natav naa 
•Tpnv ♦inap nan^ Kb ^a '^rhnvn 16 nip np Kb i inni3 .ijanrK Kb 
Kbr 'P'K'D ' p^npry • »bK niKbea punni nap 'ai ^Kntpn Aopn ba nap 'a 
ana ipnp a^bantp J^pnv p trrr* ik .onnan onK ^sa ip^np^w ^p nan 
pi ♦ nipn 'a nnv "ik 3vn pK -a wk nbaa pnpin -aan ipbns njpK 17 
nbnnKi 'aa ♦nspK 'a Kxnr ik njj jaKi nbpn 'a Kinr * adnata "jpa aanK nbpK 

a Prov. III. 12. f> Gen. XXII. 21. c Deut. XXXII. 24. ^^ Deut II. 12. 
* Job XV. 10. / Job II. 1 1. g Ms. in. A Nch. VIII. 5. ' Job XXX VU. 14. 
J Job XXI. 7. k Exod. III. 17. 


♦ja^D '3 ♦orio ana mm •ai^n n^iam 'd ^n p ♦^b_rowjbjn^35 
^n: ansa -^fto hv^ ^^nrDwa ania rwHw tojnon ^anso rn br p 'tk pi 
Kin«? ^br iin 'D wn noK dk ^asr ny rv^ynh ^ri bran ^np^K ^bp ansr 
jn^ ^tt 'Kw imK naDb hvk "aar by 36 «)k ♦ bna ariD kvw neoa w pap 

♦ 13T3H nrx "iDoa 37 ♦ na^ar 'vh hvti * 7nti*>3 bp tn:v 'a ^napK • ^b jwaw ^b 
nana bp mm kw ^na dp ^nabn dk nrat ba ibo^ 'd»w Tab 'oia 
inoa ^nitan ^aa '^tK dh38 nan Tanb 'pn ^jBb laatpxT^a 'aa ♦^•bn 

♦ na nwnan mxaa «mn *Bb pym ^nanx ♦ waia ^n^n Taw naw '^bkw 
itrmw D^briBH law br t^br paa^ n-abn im •nanin nava aran xbi 
mmi fi/nna nn f\or\ nh naiKn nx iiapn "a m bp ♦nnaDK39 •nnn 
«Tbpa ro3 DK «iKi • n-ow »)Da [ma .thw np Diba nsaa ronj .th k^t 'h 
/^b^ 6 a^^nwa nan.'nK nmnn^a •<?wa5 noa 'a ^naKan •-nnan ^b 'naar 
»lKi oaaa nbna w\n ^hv 'm bp .nnoa nKan vh Taa ^kw .D'^Kaaaittn 
Kbi ^na runt^y nann nnn nm hsl^ waq ^pnat ^awaa ^sbprb rm innp 
pi •run pD^a^ar^ kvw nan Knp^ |ai nxp laa jnt trirK^ .ban nibab 
nwKa nan 'pn op ^a ♦ r pn dp arK nan lan ♦ a a^trKa wpn D^aiP nwpb ipn 
rRna n^anr ja ^a ia nabw bp '^d ♦ '^w^ p nn mb^on iba pi p^spn tjioa 
inap^i XXXII. I. : mamn iniK nnK iKata^ man mb'an ^a 'abwb niaran 
bai vrpa pnac nn Kin ^a rv^ ntw nnK nb men rrpa pnx Kin "a 
inan ^npn Kbn ib naiKa bin: pwna ipntnnb ib-K p^ vn Kb aTniairn 
ipnw 'a'p 'aiK p ""a man ba bp 'pnn a^bp Dnana '-dk Ken Kbr 'ik kvh 
abipb ^ai ^vnn nnpaa in ^pv9 ^ab 'ik p ^a p'^ int^pca a'pni" orK ^a ib 
p'^ irumb Ka Kb xn^bK baK pbpi pna xiDwb onb mK^ p bp • xnpv^'* 
lb pK mana maa pnx rrn nn «ikw D-pbKa wbd ipnac bp man bp lani^nb 
pK ^a aatpaa lap Kanpi .'ib maKb ^an:\P1 *pnx TKaa mbpr* 'prw nb 

<i Ezck. IX. 4. t Prov. VI. 21. c Job XXXL 4, 5- ^^ Gen. IV. 12. 
* Job XI. 20. /Ms. 1^3. ^vcr.6. A Isa. V. 2. « Ps. LXXII. /Job XXII. 5. 
Af Job XXXI. 6. / referring to XXX. 21. 


bano6 ittbvfi lorst^ ^r^wm dm «cpKn iddiv Kvan '*n bp •obv&d 
baiK Hh O'^jto iw^ K*? *nwe 'pn 'vt^a dih nrwa ^nnrp miab biD^ -n\n dkv 
^ro ^'inapa "s nw na ih«^ d^k -53 nyxra ^bos ant''nayDH a4 .niarb 

• rmK n^: prb ^rrjp oin ^ih moK dk 36 ,<rnin b^nn ^"^ nrp n^ dxw 

J TK Ti pi ♦bai bsa K^D Knw ht mpw /|iKBpi ninp'* tp ♦noiaai 

nana mia bKPbttr rrnwa -a bKPow" pKa n-nw nb^-*? 'ok pi ♦pp-nar 
antt? *Db D3 'H ♦ '•b^bBjTTjtVTWas oaiH naK 'Tin praa nKT^ipawwnnK 
nnaa nn -^ana 'taw ^b^i pnaan ia pnanS bar w*? anatn ananrr 
hnh ^nma p -rvvr dh ^ana^-m ^snn • n aow^b ^im a^nw ^b^bo tip 
' wb KV11 'a nrSn n? «ata'» laan ma Tea 29 ana vb Tanw rrv^ mxb ^£ca 
maa ma r\vnh e aw ^f?ai ba3 yhv ann ^:a a-nawr ^a*? p iw • n^ 
iTjnb baw Kbw ^ab Tanr ^>owq was nbna biwpb "on nanb "nns h^i3 o 
♦ ratP3 xb ntpaa [n^ ^a ^Kiwa bj? ^bnx ^na nan Kb aK 3i 'i»c p br ruja 
^njn ^ab ng^aa p *rp • ttt ^baa baw nb an pi nnacp wb ipbna aK 
nb^a '^DK WB3 "n^Kir Kb ^5Ki -Ksra IK "bnK -rjK d-ksw rn ^^ ba 
'am ni ppana ttn 'nnKb twi Kb«? pw ba ^b Kan *nrK hv v-awnb 
avK br nipaa |n^ "a avK nar inaw p 13 pb^ Kb pna 3i [FoI. 17a] 
•nr iiara junb bau Kbi ♦ ij pb^ Kb pna w la ba w^r nnaar jawKb 

♦ P'lPK ^3 34 •'^naa Kianb "iip ^^Kianaa canal d^k "^KPa aiKa "n^aa aK 33 
•lb nxn p ^a pn^ aai ♦^inirjTDraa na tk nai pana fnpj ^n^\nttD sjk 
^3Ba niKnnnb ki^i nnaa aaai nanw aiKa nan pan nmai pip ^3K nnp 
ptKnKi cnjn . "jn^nan ^rn^n^ * av ^bai baj 'nwa 'aa na *^aK3 ab)pn 
nt ba ^b Ka "pwaa ^a 'aiK anv nwa ^iaa ^n^ nnab '^aK nKatb Kbr 

a Job XXX. 20. ^ Ms. Kwr. ^ Ps. XCIV. 2. d Job XXI. 1$. 

« Deut. VIII. 17. / Zech. XIV. 6. ^ referring to XXX. 8. '^ Job XXX. 8. 


D^vrK Tjny n^bpi • dvd rrbj^ ib^^ roxban riKn ♦ a cnmn n^aa 
na^ KTw " ••b Kaw ids kSi ma *ia33 mo pnat ••aiKa on p *3 .rrrapnb 
pj> 13331 nan T333 D*n«D ^nwKD nipSb •nr* pni tefitpoi ♦ P^'b-ba ppKvn 
Ktemn bsKTi pnaK np icn pk ''3 « ♦ nan nwKO ^nj73b3 no*?i ♦ n'h'ht 
peoi tju nibab ^aba 'ik w^ ^^ nKin tmn gnrn ^nKian baai •ma 'unan 
^n^n DK jai .^•las nan nK3p -o ♦Dp3 ora biorr kSi •^bwoa 'Bfi •wna 
Dp^wa rwip ^n^^n na 14 -^a 'aiK ••n'^n ja 'a ^naKi nap apya i3 i^^bk oioa 
a*w |tiaa Kbn i3 p-TtDjnS baiKv a^'^Kna ^bp mpa^ gpi ^ap acwaa ^ 
vin . oma i3niK pia >ma inw . vw leaa ^swv iniKi ; i3^aS thk 
^n^n n3abK ^3^p dki D"«3tBn D^bnrw na ♦ yana P3ia ^n^ dk 16 pi ♦ VTSsian 
nab ^na SaiK Ti^n aK baiR i 17 "lan rr'Sn ^aiw naxa nnma nbaa 
aa T'^ nabi ♦ ^an Kin ib^Ka 'pn ' *:hiy mpaa is mr nsaa am*' *?aK nhv 
rwiK 'aion '"a ♦ nansK -an taaai cinnr ainp nbn ^siaa annnS a^aa *dk 
^'na m^i nann na 'aa napa 'wba na "nioaw "abi naia nna nK6 
nan hrt "nnan • nanjK "an jaaa "ai 'i*?i 'v:strw ^la bp aaia» naS pn^ 
piB^ te 'h ini 'pni *^aK jaaa ^nnr anp K^n ^jiaa a^nnn*? lab^aKK k^w 
>6bk» . ni3i naiiK_j{nK_BK «9 pi . jnu "an ira "a annnb a-^Rw ik'h 
♦i3ttrabn iwk avK Tna i*vaK arainpa ^nwabn ivna va6n "aia^o 
aaaxi rrvmn aipa Tainv a^atbnn •i^am n*?^nnai laia ba aanft^ T59 '|Q^ 
^abn ./nnun an*? 'ro*i nT anp inrna i>aa na ann nsm aipan >nni 
niTKb nann naS a^abipn pan 'ik ibn<a an^ata niaann "pna a^amn ib^Rw 
Kanb IK n^nanb am" by "niaTi aK ai : yr 'wa Sp "nann Kbm . "b 
'aawajDnaw aa "an nn ^Kair a^ain" nipnn nan "hv 'aK 'wa rn^pnt 
]vhvn aacp kvw napa "pnnn • p'^^B^^'ij Knpaw tjnan ann kvw ban 
tea nte niwS SaK •pnat ^jmaa '•sbpwnwa maa ma n^nn mi ^napa 
♦pDjDw aK bai "riia;on nwK te aaia nna^a aj ♦man ^a kS ^aiaai "b nrK 

« Judg. XVI. 21. ^ Prov. VI. 34. 

« Job I. 21. / Gen. IIL 7. g Job XXII. 9. 

c Job I. 21. ^'Prov. XVIL i. 


pi ^br Dn-Tb irK id ^r bn^a Yi^'n ij>6i . maa ma id br ^swh^ 
IK ji-oKn hp ^enns a inanan ^w Tr I'laDsi vinnjjaw a? ^J^'^'S 
^janpnnjn •iDKXvnbDi ^raim oi^ 'd ♦paKnn lan Kbi rTio^* ^3Pa 
nan ncnra mn kS nnnpn nw ♦nanxba aapji nviw nnp as -^^na*. ^apna^ 
•nrw 'aD ddti pr nay niaa pi o^np 29 *i fioai "DDa rwK bnpp ^napi 
la "bpa "nny nipi 3o ♦cnap" nuDD ^dki pjnD naoa twph nD^'naoD 
bp 'D'nw Diina •inv ain ^:a . jmo'^a nwD'n nnn 'axpi tdov nnnpn 
niDKb lann br Doia SDm ^hv an^ia pm ♦bKptnn ^'inn" maatpm ^n 
"ypb ^niD nnp p '^jca m" id ^d ^nm ')xixxxi. i ♦SdkS loni m3^ 3i 
^dSi "rr nnK -nnb binaa nbina bp pinnnb "b r" nai arm "n^^nv 
. ^^ hp byaa pibn pbn na nnjn ♦ nai^a ♦nawnaa ib^BK Kann Kbr nD 
♦ SaKb mrD icnj nnrw amn naw k\"i pTi a^anaa ia br ny nbn) na i 
bp «''S iTDKb lanb 'lajnaw ^aai bipb w^anS Kin ^Kn ^b Kan tk K^n3 
^nbpa na "DK baK ♦jikj^ptb^ *iK'n rr^n n bnvi Kb» ri /"naij era im 
bp ♦ "bn na">a by nnani pnm ^nabn bk 5 'eKV 'a ^m nK^" kvi Kbn 4 
ab jn^ n^i "pn^c ^awaa n? -lana nnr ^^pv^c ♦ e wt jnb an^bn T" 
■nrK T^nn p i-io 'tj? v^'^h ^atia ■'iirK nan bk ? ♦ "ann nam jDiannS 
bra BiKa pan "aaai ♦ nrv nanbi bwb ^ ab ibn ^yjy nnK bki ♦ * a^Tit 
•nbri '♦natpnKbirnTn nnK tj? ♦ baK^nnKinynnw s Kn p a^nnK 
laD pTO^'D "mbab kS baK ^rn n"n nr ♦./nnK a^bant ant aanaab aananK 
wa IK virK Sk KaKi ♦BjrKi Kr ^na manK ^3n nna bpi 9 •"^nan 'aKw 
rKa nra npa anaK p rh'*hn ba 'a^rai ♦ * e|W3 nnar r)Ki3 pri tj^ 
^5a nrnanv mrK nnKb tnanr 10 ^rn n^n nr ♦laipaa 'Bn"«B nrKa 'nanS 
jma %Ti "I'v *nntvh ib '\nn 'anaa nKn ♦nman hv kvw naan uravnb 

d Lam. II. 1 1. ^ Josh. X. i3. c Mic. I. 8. ^ Ezek. XXIV. 10. 

« Job XXX« 21. /Obad. 12. ^^ Prov. 1. 16. A Deut. IX. 12. Exod. XXXII. 8. 
« Mic. VI. 15. 7 Isa. I. 7. * Job XXIV. 15. / Hos. VII. 6. 

87 COMMENTARY ON JOB. XXX. 17 — 25. 

HS\ wftnnn 'M •^w ^nab pcnn'' na yn i8 ♦iS »)Ti: nb inoitn ^ 
'dSi ••!«( tj^^nb ^bro "viab nowM "ik pi maa ntovfi wS ♦« 'on^ 

roa nra bpfi rmBn^ inan ♦ btk ^jntsa iTTKn paT irxs pnw ib nrrb 
Rna ^n^rwa ^vmh pann" na a"^a ^nraw -w '•bud np^ai icn ^^ ba bna 
■nuD rrtpi ai*vb •mv nbi mmn opts Km mxp irrw ^nsroj^p nnjn . \om 
•vh '^m tifiKn Sr rovh ^ieh\ tivi mn pnwn 'k'^ "irnnb ^nn 19 ♦nim 
^3K jnwo nt baai a© nam napS ••^na ^waj ^rnm "iDinb "aa-'htn • * o^a m^ 
ctspn ba nop 'a jnrba "npntt? dki ^mop ♦ 'h rmp ^rK^ ^awinw 'pn i*? 
•iiao ^3Ri wnnK npai ^nppat vvyoh "a pjanni •np^nw jwh >nip-i 
*?B\3W Dn>a "rottpn •nptnn -p^a "TjajA ^Bn^ nnn ik p nbiai ^jjmnw 
nabi D^ttpw vbp «nnfi oi^ baa pi nme opea in^anb nani "trm iTa wk 
Db>pn p ino ^jpboni mi bn "aa^ami ^^jwn »» D''^na *b ^nKa nnn ^a Sa 
"Daaian i^^n "b 'u p '•jcfi aaion o^^nn yiiKa -o iwk "•nni . rrmnjJMibrn 
nra ttr» ^ • mo ^k '3aww nma ^npr 23 nrw D'^anBO iwa naiab uh^ 
♦iiJM pnx '6K *ro3 trphn w k^ "a ^''•maKa "ajK aib nbi ^n baS Tno 
"Da^nn nun kvw "yaausn "a ntsKa pnio "Dnaanni nm "o "jniw) 'p'K'di 
DKidmb ona *vnhvr giro npi tti bp/nSa nwpb r)ttttDi "pa k*? ik u 
. pw dmS ttr» -paBi tb onb K^aow oniK vraaDiw "jim *iwn ^Keoa 

♦ r\'*'^K\ mpn an*? rv inM^r ' irwip ^k dikh npr* 'fia ♦ pnea rvw 

• "p'^VTt Kvn ♦ D^nji D*na tk fmo^n lann^ k^w jv^bi 'b pw 'ib tt^ oai 
yn^BG ^pa 'a ^pa_'p'K'Bi .ibwi nn pi jwbn rxt kxd" k^i nam 'rb tb 
DK i5 , *:>-jn^ K*? TBn npwai lapa iitpb it rhw^ "c pK ^a p^spm napn kit 
^Bnnw nitt j^k ^i ♦ ^rpn mat vbp Kaa wjwp ih r^r dikS wmj6 
"h ipwa panb "iPBa noap [FoL i6b] .^a nnanM nh nvitaK moi iiaK*? 

« 1 K. XXII. 3o. * Ex. XV. 4. c Nch. VIII. 5. • </ 1 K. XIX. 4. 

• a Sam. XIV. 14. / Nih. I. 8. g Isa. XXVIII. 17. * Isa. XIV. 23. 

' Isa. XVIL 7. y Ua. XVU. i. 

XXX. 1 1— 17. COMMENTARY ON JOB. 86 


lain \rho '':bo i>n^ iwo tsr^rh hv "h rr?w jo^ « ti3 nrj^ ♦ wn 

D1D5 ptlD^IDRWl imK pip "OVD jTHfc d1»W3 thXPTi TTH • Sv Ip'lfil 

SttD mw 'n hhift pa" hv 12 ♦ ep^ai vmc "jbo tram noB^K iS pK •irK 
nno onaa niBw mi 'i^ r?xn\ nma "H'ib luabnai •ni6 '3 mm ♦nn^s 
w -o pin»b wa-ao '•^3^ laip" p iS a-ao pwrvv j^ncn ^phb '3 '-t x 
pbnonb -Dipea rhv "bn ■'re rrrw taipaa "ra^ hv '^b ik ♦ pa" hy tdhw 
"bp I'piD"! iS 'TTw pn" 031 oarba "vik o^B-na "s^iw dni^roi 'nbw 'na 
"Tn ♦DnS "iKin i-Ka "siaewi nnj? d^ki'i i3kw lap arnS "im p ikw nimk 
IK '3T '•bra on-on^ 'na» nar "jni ""nK 'n'Ki * TKaa p*?o p ibiop t'k 
oniK an "ai ^TTn p •n^onb m^w "^^n 'enr na kvi wn3__o3tn3i3 
ini" npn "b rwovh ib^yr "nm 'ph ik "S b"jnr6 aib rrn narbi "mnb *iwk 
injy in<w "obi na-inbi mrriab pn ♦o^p^vi oniK naas "a^K ^so "b inp Kbi 
"sftTJ^i "aa^^anb a^pvi oniK "hv vnK" arrw o^a pies ♦am pea u ♦"S 
.biB3 piaan Sa "vn "br g ib'p^nn r)nio "niDa ^'kvtw 'kw 'aa nKiy nnn 
vnK" an'! pea ik ♦/hkiw waK nbra^ Tarw hkw nnn '"b n^n" ik 
v3B^r bj? ^Ba Kin aa ♦ nmba "bp^ann i 5 .qtk nvruK anb "brsniK^nn 
•ana mm 'n bp • pbpi nab "maai "nana • hbtd nna nviban s]Tin 
HBnpn i6 nt bpi . vtpw" "aaa map mapa ni-mw nnap apai ♦ * "aaaan 
-ip33 np3 "axp ♦ ni3b "b n\-iw nVba «? pio-^m "spja^jsiirwr "paa'^bp 
laatp" Kb npbinm nann onr "pupi ♦••aip npbinni nann n" bp "bpa 
anpa lar ana n\w< ♦rn "a" an "pnipi "a '^b anaai .nraa npaba imri 
nwK ran bp nan nrK innanaa app" 'n 'ki wanpin" "a npaai npa jn" "a 
p "a w .nnp ypwba a-pnip o*Knp3 on^rw 'p K'B'ai d^t: on "pmpi nna 
pmaa on» ppnip oa "JirnK^w "3P "O" naba ik . "ap "a" "siinK" 'aKv 'ob '"B 
.*bK laa "jiBnnn nab ambp 'k» vTam iB^bKoni lannba laar* Kbi 

a Ps. CII. 24. b Ezck. XXVIII. 24. <^ So Ms. for low. <* Ms. nw, 

g So Ms. for Ai^arvT. / vcr. 3. ^ Ms. nwVnn. * Ps. LI. 1 4. ' Dcut. XXVIII. 67. 
J om. Ms. A Job XIX. 22—28. 


•napb pm^ na iS^dhi ra abn dja Dbnm m^am o^jkx ^Sk iSdr^ 
i-^pm nwam nr ♦ nba *i3K la^by ^-nw o^noKO "ph »)k ■'b nob ♦ ^nonn 
r'l '6bw 'M inpmao ^w'h Y^n nnwa | Bsai iDn5r 3 DD'nunb 'V'3Dm 
^an 'KW '3 Diwva ^b na on on^w dk "bp pnc? nab nSs na d3 'ttnta 
"•^K n^M Kaa ^a-nir kSi nj^ K^a d^bdw I'yr nba na x *^b lan "irieK 
nmna i^rw ntnyai ntny rcK n'^ac pKD ninaibb c^n'nian oyTiyn • 'nap 
|3Pa Kan riKiwa n-bpi 'a KrKna nwr ♦nona pKO iwn kvw wok p^i rr^x 
•TD aw mba D''attipn 4 . mpo niro Kan »)mD niaa K^n ♦ c p^Kn rnoab 
I^^Kn r\rrt oipaa rrvj^ ^"^ ^^ nianbir hp pmba ibpn '3wa 'bai Kn 
nwan oipaa oanb p^ann gmn • aw miK ibaK" nrKni |C3 anr anra 
'K*^ ♦^'nnwa mwb 'a jS^Kn Kinw mwjbr ib^fiK .mba T'K'bi .pKn 
pKi .pnK ^3a aw^ ima nw irwjjja^ mw nab la bai pmK oanb 
piK ^3a or niarb in" pk . aaja whp ipn^ ♦ in*narb oniK ^lOKa p^k 
pnpa6 .aw^a pnvna nan pnjn nn\n ^^ ba aiijb iKa ib^Ka n^^ai n^aa 
n>a n hv wbr ornna p^p^ai npy ^mna uaw^ ow p^bnj Tpaa o^bna 
pw nabb pnK nne^w oipa pnjya ik n^Ka jmna pnnnoar <?i\t 'hp^v 
a^Kn^ ^a baK "baa imir pnr mab^K pa ovvwpa? ."•rbo 'an^n crB^a 
bnn nnnonb m bp nt ibdk" inaip^ bnn nnn 'Knnn npnr \ ni .aw^aKab 
la 'KW 'a pKa ueaa pp "ba "aa pj baa "3a s ♦ /p^binn v3B ipa 'a p^anp pa 
•BK nrKa pnapb "b nrnb p^noKa "3k ^ik '"ob pnjn bp nn irnjrja 
♦ n3"3wbi brab "I'v • nbab^anbjnKi "hp \pnvDV9 "n"*n pn3''33 nnpi o 
pn layn Kb "3pai ♦ nnaa ma anpn hp p'-noKa nrKa "sa ipnn "siayn lo 
T amp "nrp nn" . nnonrvja n .gpn\ na"baa "nnnan Kb "jb 'm bp 
"nwp "a nn"b bia" "3"Ki pn33a 'pn nno n"a »j"bnnr map "n"\nw Anbpab 
IK 'yp nb"nnaa "nwp yrrh na "a r* 'n'Ki nv^ nn"n "a ♦ jn^Ka n3"K 

a See Gen. XXXI. 38. * Job VI. 22. cEzck. XXXVIII. 9. ^'Gen. XXIV. 63 
e Pa. LXIII. II. / Prov. XXIV. 3i. ^ Isa. L. 6. * See XXIX. 20. 


. p nbvw »)ip Kvi ^ iirnfiS pn'* ^ar-b faa 'aj ^inDi 'wir? lYWon ^b ^j^i ♦roite 
^ba 'GiK "n-m . »ii3^ iniK 'fis nrnb •too "it'vw 'b nrjii . pT ttik^ m 
"D-PD on tf n^atp brao n^aepa pb" Spi . ••nnna d^d ^by mna ^ r w p 19 
^SvTl ttnnnb nop gnn nt maa ao ktpw ♦ *d^ nr rm^atp nbrn 'as jb^Kn 
inw n^a "nppi •^pnx booi ttcvD ^a'^a kvi •wk "ar n"«mbn^n ^cbo^v^ 
D^D'^abo hv npiBj rn irKs na »v|bnnjp .finwp fn^Ka awni I'P ^na 
ip^ iSrrnpwj^ra* maa 'ta\ •^'na iD^*rn^ '•"• ^^1 'oa ♦o^^ ^snaa^ 
•KW TQa • ^b nafinb ^nrpi pbpS maa ^Dn3l "bj? ipnw nw "ir na-ib 
I'xrn n'lib "n^Tw /»jibn ^aa 'aej^bnn 'P'K'^w •nwpn •m^ n ^nne nn" 
naiB kS ^b 13P'' K^ nan nnn aa ibrn br bca lan^ 'onpn p ♦K^iDnn k*:>i 
ei^on vh erhnh iD'^Bn Sk ^B.•^ nan ptapnai ^n'?''0 giti^n nxn area ^nxp 
iSnn irap ^'p 'okv nab '^a inr ibnn ^ yiai ibapn k^ ^ ♦ * n^a hp 
Th^w fpn naa Kin ♦ npbab 'a nra an^ai . bv:i nn^xp nra naaa 
nra pn nana rfn K^r "ah ripbab wa nan braai «Din.n wa pna 
"•a .DT^r ^Knia[Foi. i6a] nn ^a *?a irax^ Hh^ arrhn pnvn u nanb "^inm 
p'iTW nan *6a mn^w piao rn nbw naan aowai pnac nan m -p ba 
vh arh 'aw nw baa ^3d ik^^ k^w ♦ pW xb "3a nixi . anK ^3a mora 
abipn Tn br rrn^ w B-3a nKnP3 br »)ib"n d^3d nban "a .yaaa *3a h^w 
i3aa nnv pjnn aan nun ik • nKin b^a^ i3aa na^ vbr xai apn na^ annwDW 
apaa bain-nK natr .naia nh 'aKw aibwaKb "anan nnn rwjw 'a na b^a^ 
•aib nsnn p ^a 'nmiaa ^nnata Kb aann nnaK» 5 .'•innbi3naKm *nKin 
pawKwai ♦ wxna arx arKwai nnn labn hk bnan pa^ na nh) nma ^n^ 
•o a-baK 'anaan aniK 'aa '•n\n a^baK pa bki ninaa ^baa aT3^a "irn tk 
nnai ipngy nnpi xxx. i vm pa la^bK 'ww 'aa aansa pirn anar awnn 
ana a^aian amaK ib^ax TOKa nrK anw an ^ai • an-rat ••bp ^prw nana 

<« Sec XVIII. 16. *Ps. LXXX. 12. f Gen. XLIX. 24. <* Isa. XL. 3i. 
<? Job XXX. II. / Prov. XXXI. 8. g Mic. II. 6. * Amos VII. 16. 

<* Two words added in the margin. J Jer. III. 12. * 2 Sam. XVII. 7. 


wan VTp-'ri tt br pir man ♦^waii abn rot nb nn\-i fiicw bra 711 
Ktw ♦nrwjnwa? ♦na^ar '»b ^o'^a la pr 'wb w ^1n^ p^T ^/'ai p^ 
131 n^rn iro ^apta rm ariw ^bSi .rr^ nnp nnw . a-^apn 'nsBW oipa 
•n br rm .mainnni Tpn K^■^ i»k rrnpn '•cb 'av/nnp "cb onpr tS 
mab ^nK^ar-a pn nrwjrjaa 'b'at't ^k 'axi ♦«'av am npwn nbp tpai 
D^apTTTianS innaTaoa vomonwrw 2]|n8 T»Ka ♦ ^aria paK nron rh 
bcia onraai ♦ '* nario ^b rwa anb 'ib ^nat "n^ xb ^a Kacaa lap 
any 9 ♦pK yn p "a anrttra m^ap '»bi aba-o a^Sp anr rw^an 'vb 
♦ arraa armai vona an^aa bp i© p bv "ana -lanb ain^ "a ♦ pbaa nacy 
"aKW ^aTpni ^^nipnat nn>n pyi abtaa "ai^Kn ••nan nyar pK ^ " nab bai 
a^ ba 'a pKn bj? nnnrm aovan bp nnr prb baiai •aaiwab ^iKn 
a^aa iok Kbi pian Kvr iw br vwa irwajapabaK »» nrw • irvrmc 
Kan ^bp inbnaa nrini naiK nana '3 •airn p\ vth ^aaa niaK nbi aawaa 
in<p naabx pi ♦ybv nvnba nnatrm naab 'anr 'a jbrn n^a nairamw 
pnat u ♦*Dn"'bK Ka^ Kb naabK am laaw" Kb ain" nan n^bnaa nb nnp 
KV1 nKn 'IK banw innai riKin ^ab ib ^iKnn naba waibw aiKa niwb ^nrab 
n^m nsppa n^'^ p "b "iKnn rj^aat b^jyaai npra inawa ar^b pnam aaran 
yr\ lb niKVib ♦ nipb ^n^vi a^a^r "S . anaan ba bp aina arw a"«awn ib^K 
rann ^a ^npT Kb am ♦ anr^nnb a^avaKb ^saK aK «<> ♦ nnmm na«n 
"nnn p bpn? •/aa\-i nnpm n«nni nn br .npin -n'«n nnr nwpb 
nnnai »jnaw gnajvbya ^n^ vr»aj pntnan iniK bip n>pnba natwa 
anaK »ap ay nba naKi 'S ♦pa vanr maw a''aan inaK nt nn bpi .rbpab 
nanra a^^ nanK a^ bmai ♦ imaa '"a^rb ^ncatKan nar "aab paa ^ant kttv 

d I Sam. XXXI. 10. '^ Josh. XVII. 1 1. c Ex. XIII. $. ^ Deut. XXXII. i3. 

e Exck. XXIV. 3. / Prov. VIII. 3. g Ruth IV. i. * Isa. XLIX. 20. 

/ Pft. LXXIL 17. J yer. 17. ^ Isa. I. 23. ' Deut. XIII. 1$. 



bn n>rp hp dm ♦ rJDH* o^rttrvr rbn hv in i9fiv& onDm »)in • ib w& 

♦ D^npo naryr irai 18 ^^kv vr\p 'ov m ♦'oijn p ♦aT^na ipS jno *nei 
DM inD aiteD D^rsfiD nnv Ttb:^m nMwb ibDi^ nm-iM ^woi npirh 7m 
p naM naw D^btsan ih natn jnaM 22 nM*i3 ^bi • "•»» la^wS pian .th 
on ♦<«naK' npai b^oa ttp iniD'» D-^an riM^r ^a 'nT mow D^aanm DSvn 

• j^ypn rx\ tfch wxw nnw rryn pan D\nbM a3 rttMCtr nb p-j m' Mb 
D'nawn "nori mn d-'Di vm dhw n» Dnawn D-vtrn nranMn ^h^ ^ 'dim 
\*Tt pMH niacpb 24 ♦ m njpDa nioipo navia nyrom mDn^ m^i nabn" 
DHDv ^fib nranMH nn jan d^di ♦nnbjiwj? »5 vm p^pgn ba nnn nDP 
^3D hv nwriD rmi pMn nw D*Dwn hm ♦ n^wM^ia idd nb^nna "lan ba 
IBP urbwa bai pn nin d^dwi d^o ibrwa tid ^0 pTDca rrjnrra • * anan 
■tt D^o Tix "Di nn r)DM "D D^Dw nhv ^ ^bwDa c^'^ mi pn "D pMH 
^bv^ aaiD aaio dw aneDn rwr p bp iVMia nbnpa •^'pM "ddm ho apn 
Dw Tarw npaiM ib-'M p^arb dw lats nnn ^ nMo nn iniMw imi ♦^nnn 
nnn ^a ^bn aaio aaio '^bi nranMn p nrrw m^3 pMm D^bnxn rawn 
nimaiD D-'T 13^ nMti avMw inMi twam nnr nwa aaw rjwsD^ ^bv^ 
nn^M riD itoi ^m r\Kw vyn n^anb nxn *np aMn pj^a npb rann m ^a 
l*?im 'DDw Mim 7n niD'^Dni nMT nwn mapa rhv in m^ pwn oa 
^nbnmr iDa m^i .Dip ^m^a nmb lip ^nn'* -d* tjDn xxix. i tnnjTo 

♦ ibna 3 ^ a^aoo nra twi m *?aD "J'tdw nn rnbjw ^ k\v wi" nnr 

• "bnS TMnb .n*?rDbo "•*? Ma "iiMmr " nmn ^hv /aniM ibrr mSi 'a .n^na 
"h nn^n nnx dmi D-'Punb ^rn nra tot ibn "n^n i-orw na bw niM^ 
vn\p »)in npw.'»Bb ^B"in "d^ "n^n "iyMa 4 ninb *np "nn" na ♦nnDtnn^iiM 
•a iM ^iTD^nn "^dmi "D*in t" br im ♦ mw "D" p MTip n^mbnbi "un np 
"bnM "br .7110 p-'nos ♦•'nma 'a inn ni^M moa ♦ * o^nwboa ooma 

tf Pa. XL!X. II. * Gen. I. 2. c Isa. XL. 12, i3. <* Prov. XXX. 4. 
' Eccl. I. 6. / Isa XIII. 10. ^Talm. Ab. zarah, 7Sa. A 2 Sam. XXIII. 9. 
' Pa. II. 2. yPs. LV. 15. 


I9fir& tinh Kr pKfi nw mxin woai ♦ naipa nn n" kv» trrgrn testwii 
yn pio n>n^ pnapn ba nnn is^a^ pxn niarpb Kin ^^ u ♦nw paK 
K^aronb n^o" nisvri h^ nnn 's orbi • e^ri n^ pra k^i vjm nno3 oipoi 
moa pn d^di nna ••ob pin ^a bpya mnb nwpb a5 . nmaS Tmat 
niDtt nn^ k*? p bri o^bb nanxw nwa" wn nnb r* "a pK ba n>iwnb 
iiDBwbi uabip rnr6 nnaa pn d^oi 'th ^ on ♦or •nvm ^a onjtoa 
WKW" ♦nnn inw .ncio inasa nb"^ '^rbb 'tww 'aa laawb dk nonb dx 
hp "niDa D^jntnn [Foi. 1 5 b] ecwoa <> rbr niDto ^^nm ^b^ onp 
iK^atVD ^n3w na ^tbi labip idbwi rnjD anaw •ncai nn p ^bs D^jntn 
nibip nn'? in nw Kvn pn^pobinnpyaa G tKi ♦nnoai bpwaa vmnanKta 

D^B'n D^3j?S n>n:n pna hx* ojnn njw ^b^ nn ^iKipy\ in-o nann ikt nhv 
pna n»p nKwbi Dinnn*:>i &:rTv\h laba D^ptnn bp innari f> ^wh a^na 
nan^o np^ma vann n"»a nni*:> nmai tj^^ Kaw ^tea onvnnb -loan 
Djna nujmB "^wab rm ^tt nwip Kin p onnKa w k^w n^nrnbi vh:h 
viw naipai nram naann yin obip^ Taa ^aa^ onaKS o-'j^ttnn n"»a ^k iSip 
naa pTan< oipai jDDwa "pn kvi rryrx) naipa nK^ tk v '©aw 'a pwpaa 
nn jDBtra tti no^ nc" nnpni laoa nniK aw rniDo^i w • B*?Tpb nnaa^ 
br B\nan vnw iKwn p nnv o^naiK h^H nt na ^jn n? hp anK^^iaK^ ^ 
na^a btk^ naKa ni-n . -iKtm p •inr nin wi6 naa ""^ rwp na br ^a 
wrwraav ^ab ^K D^-Ta*! Kbi 'aiK kh anb pKW ^ Sk *iaa anaaa a^m 
Bvpaa en^Tw naan n yyi ^jvnjn^ ♦ anaa'' an i^^Ka bik ^3a noB" 
♦ ^'B^^nn pKa an^n^n unji Bj^nn na: iwk ^p nt aava anb kt njaai 
TTH naK na '^o nh nwK ^r ^a v^P B^^wr anKw nran Bipa wn pnamsi 
aawan nran naan iT-a^ xrw wtan kS pKa aipa ^aa baK B*?Tpn ja 
naw u\h^ an^naw nnK *iawn na-^ni nw K3tn ria "voi ••"• nKn^a "a nrn 
rra" kS aniaa annK a^jwn an ♦ BaS ^k la'v k^ an^na an p bj^ anh 

a Job XXVII. 20, 21, 22. i* Ps. LXXVIII. 50. c Ps, XIX. 2. 

d Ezek. XXXII. 24. e Ms. p vn. 


131 <«nb*irin pK bs amon ko iiwk na*ip ^b^•^n ^p pro Kacr nnai 
nobrna httw no ♦ iik k^xv ntyhvn D^a iria^ni pn^o n^ hp^ thuD 
D^-on '^D IK 'O'oni -lann 'rr 'pnw p-^arn wn^"* o-bn wa" nrna nn mMn 
wn" pKo ipT»w ij? Dnb ijKb K^an** dtk ^aa ^a-w la^j^a aiaw o^'np^i onibn 
omam KT^^na o^apw '^rann no br njnb nwn naaran naann ^ax 12 
1*? Karon i' pjo noipoi na'Ti oiKn i^a^r ^ib^ai laio nb j-k onio "innS 
Q^o^ onTibra la^iKnr ono ^wam bnon 'in 'oa Q-ran noa nnw naa-^r*) 
mo D-nanai o^biaa ncai . nt inx nt nnn noa io^*pna nbna naieai o^a^i 
armatn aioa on^o^ i^a oni opw r^no anb n\-i nbi anb ijnnw onr'na 
onnorn nano ipoi dtok 111 Kato' 'o pnnK nnn 'oa nawai c o^o-raa 
Q^^nn pKa xacon nh ^a nmapbi na^npnb ♦ nanp yian n^ xb i3 j^koi 
pKa ^aK . moib*? qtk bav nb TO^br lODir 'prw o^eowon baa 'ib natn 
nnv D'obrai o^pior onw 0^ oinn 14 '^dki . noob 'iok^ 'oa xaton jnax 
rp-ipa rvmn •npnbi loewb bia^ qik pw ana na^xr noK^ moipon bao 
|rvr]6«5 s Karon k^ K-^ni nv Kato^ pen "aaw •ip^ \Ti navn laKatoner D^^ 
JO nanrn 'h nbpnic .obia pi nxanob barp nmnn •iiao anr wnw 'niao 
1PQ1 D^arb aoio k*?i rhtyo nnnion kSi ♦nrnToni 17 ♦<'tBa o^Kbioon 
*?aai b^Kvn o^a^apo *^nv it noan »8 Kano rxi;:ib k\i narioo nbnin noan 
Dipo yrrh nwn noann nip Kan pKO 20 ma^w^w it noan ^npn Kb nnionn 
V-01 nb^nnb inn niK^po ^anb-Ka > ^n ba^a^yonobyam ♦namnKano 
Sa ^a^ro nobpai 'wr k^tj o-^n piKa Karon kSi . <? Karon pKO noanm 'okw 
ipn^ Kb ama 'o^ai ./"o^a^ p-iKn niarpb "a nt piai noib nannw ^obi .in 
narnr ^ob KbK ♦ n-moa o-orn pjiroi 21 'ok Kbi noK nioi |naK aa . te^ 
nioi pnaK aa baK ^e^r vt Kb a-na no^pai p^a^ pnKn niarpb "a 34 ntbnoib 
Bor piob laK pan ^ar ib-KO ♦ onn-o nnKi ♦ on'-ooi onaKO Kinwa noK 
noan ^T^ ♦ nann pan opbK »3 ^bini 'oor 'ai naKi ino OKttna -a o-rtm 

o Gen. X. 10, 14. <* Ms. {nn. c referring to Job XXXVI. ii. 

^'Lnm. IV. 2. <• Sec vcr. 12, i3. / ver. 24. /? ver. 7. 


•irK ^na bnsb pu •nwnn riK joiKn pir rwins*? pi iBPbi vninp" "nrK 
n»o Dnrj D^own nmp nv^pn ap» na_o£0 ^d Sd laai p£"iWK idp'» kS 
ir ^ hpHm'^ nsDroa 'oan 'nwD bna bna nvnb vofi ikj iidh nr opo teyo 
DtK ^Dv KXTon riT .Da 'nar*? bDV xbiy 1P3 rpKft ib*i hr\ ^» p^naya tr 
D^wtn on'? HT naaa m pixn s 'iS bsvr Katia dhk laa^ on^b pi Kiaaab 
Kbr WKj2_j[cn3W nn^bei n^nv Dipo m]? r* noib^ni .Tnnni niab-Ki 
inixb w^ Q»b Kxv amw nnppi n^aax tbq pipa e ban cnb K^inbi bnab 
h^h^ . VD^wnb ^inoa nbr i-apai ^jonh dw pp3 'okw inn . Kjncn m opD 
bfiiK pK ♦ in^ban njnb kxioi ipn kixo*? ibav Kinn ^rnn ^xp n^ban 
bpiK pK 'a r\}aoh pK "'arnba obpji cinon -lan f\H 'aiba niebaR 
pK naanm ^'nrB pK m^ ^di orn napoa naic^ nt br -a "b nKiai 
noxp riKn -a ♦Kvi_jaj6__^ oinn jvan pxa Kiatob bia^ d^k 
naan Kxn ^300 k^i <^K\n ^a kS "idk ann niaie o^aaici onb nx^xian 
txw 5rM£Tj6r yn5 7 iniK ^iki niaie o^aaKi ann onb pKxi^ laa it 
piniob nxn© .tk pr '^dk nriKi vh n^K pr infcir hS ^laa ^bra nioip 
25 niKib vna^n k*? ik 71"^ ^^^^^^^ ^5*?^ ><*? iiiamn h^ s mbip bab'nnr 
aittrb pnr mm nvni nan niBi]? ib^Bw 'ib nxm ♦ nyi miaai pw "•'^pa 
r* 'a'^B'j^'K pp p piK 103 obij^n aittr-^D 'inoji obpa ^a ba or paco irn 
D'Kanfi rr'bnai mb^o nn ^itMb dik ^:ao ob]?) -^a piki obipa kxd31 ipn 
DipbiniK *?w »^bSna ♦ it nbp yabria Q 'cw Kim 13b o^rm obira 
nmj CTfinno h^xviS ov-rtpo n^aaxi nmo Tjon it 'pn nhv ♦ a^na iniKai 
nbnai aie am oiSpni ip" '^ai ppa pnix^ oipb iniK hv nimataw «© |n^K 
D^awion nvwn n" br obipb inb^ai irp nntc^ oipo inwar ^^onwn pm 
<? on D^aiaj 'a aamj^bi "inoa oipo Kinw jaaotr 1 1 *ibvii 'ddw 'a naao 
'1KV '3 . mn obirn niann aa^oi -laoi wan nma oniarn rin^abr 'iS nanm 

a Ezek. XLVII. ^ Job XXXVIll. 6. <^ ver. 14. ^ Gen. II. 12. 

e Ex. XIV. 3. 


PP3 v^na in''5 naa i8 kvti . vvik o^^pno nwjn wa '•jdi rsaw RVi "mDoi 

nwb irs^Ki inawo npp rrp ♦nw k^w 'd'P'k epK^ k^i w . nwa meao 
irKi .mnpb cidk" kSi ma" asp^ •-» 'K'^i nwai vaaa mpbb ip^n ni 
nnx "-JTrK nnx ninba inrvn p Tbn Q"«arn p^aa inrrn «> , paj?^ pnn 
viia^bjttnw Qipaai . npio inaaa rb^h ♦ ma-K nbni 'ftoi nat -ran nr 
npi ^K npno Kri iDTpoo [Foi. 15a] 'rnpv^T^ onpjnw^ai 'did 
TTO QK vbn T^£2" '^'^*' '^^^ IP^^ ^^ obirn p naxn onpS nBioo 
'a ^"b^w^n ^Sp^ 'k'^ ♦ 'ebb 'ok^p nun mm moi jmo^" ^atn rmy nia 
}a bpi 'pn eora rna pti 'n^a" k^ 'fi'bi ♦ nben ^ba biom nh aprb in 
bjn m no nrnb ima pnna r*?p pin ottn nknn ♦ iD^pa ip^by pPD" a3 
ib^aon Q'3pnfin ba •v^na nph vhv ••inK nin vrvh naa own nwp m na 
^npinn -npnata 'bw no hv eioiov KanojoaSr^ xxviii. i pioo -a 
onann babi K3no r^ r)Da b-ara dk ptn nviK 'ob ib mtim ♦ t ntiK kSi 
noannw mn manxn h^b ^:h Ti^at no onnana qki noann pi iidov 'a 
p -a nab '3UKao ybn n pn paj bn xab p-spn m "•»» ^nKaco Hh^ nobra 
mpnb bia^ oiKn D*?Db p-^apar o^nann babi KXio t^oab w" "a '6 nann 
nT no br mbr mon "3k» nwn noann bax wa^ pno nwann onb majobi 
Kan pKOi Kxon pKo ma Kato nbi in^a "n^ bj? p nnic npib m no bn 
dvyvb VKawati vacb paa ipnn co^o^raa voi aioa vmaw nbar nnKW 
Kn wona ^a innn imaa jn^K© nt nanv 'ona tk . * lo^a^K rw< bopai 
lb nM nom Qibp pm b^Kin nan jnia T*<^ vna mpbb loatrb ib mn 'a'K 
innK ipnt naKo Kinwa /nrow wov la-awa inoK mei jnaK ban vo^a 
Kinn nuam pnann p o^o" nanpi o-jn omo^i mnbai onpi noioa 
pa^nao oa^K o-awiftn ban 'oob icb lanpnv 'a lan opo 'n^ob lan 
Dipoi • papaw onan xb ontna 'njn ♦ 'own par kvi in : nam rnnsK 

rt Job VIII. 1 4. ^ Job XX VII. 6. c cf. Job XXXVI. 11. <^ Job XXI. 8. 
e Ps. LXXm. 5. / Job XXVIII. 22. 


'^oh KV1W 'K'*i ♦ nfivr '©Sd tpev^ nam "aba 0^331 na ^n^Trw ^^b *ttn 
Ds^'TDi hv Dsb nmnb -ob nna-w '^di « *Din "o^a wn 'ntwo 'oa •rirvna 
"•jp^'TD ••a^iKW DttD '6 IK ♦ DSH "jp^a*? ^nia HK "a n^pnp ^ann V'tro \'r 7 niD 
"3 Ai^^Kfi "TOW^i Kb "5K ""a ♦ bipa .T.T D3n "b pvnp "paipnai pgro ptnip \t 
IK •*j?aa''K3W Tao • Tm6"«3no lann poo np^ ^apxp? ^a gjan nyn no 

•wb TK T^«^ "3 • ^^512. * ^ ^^'^^ ^^^^ '^ •'^'•'^^ '^ "noaSi ixpb Kara jwta" 
impn no 'ibn niKna»)3nb *^r\ jn-'wa 'iK}ai ♦noppK'jnbp ♦nibr 
1300 TiTi vi mj?i3n Kba rvho p br* T'Kn 'nw ♦ nnat rhy Kan 9 ^itwca 
WB3 mbK br^ "a '^b pn" ^ai ♦nban nbrn panw "sr on ^K ^'nsia ba i^kc 
7hvT\ bK 'a nbw KV11 ♦ irpnxa aw niKnb nojco n\-TW mipnoi wncao 
norm br" p ♦/^br3 br 'aKVir anpm bbr T3o bar ^a 'P'K'k ♦^^nK 
naa mao Kin no Kon vh Kim ^nKon 'ib ib »)''3no Kim ♦ cii3n p 
DK 10 ♦ "nKon 'lb ei"'3no ^ab1 nnst vbr Kan ^ Sk poitr' inppstn "lanmb 
r3"pa p Kaco" Kbr . oiba ^^a n^ino is^k lab ni^Kro biKrb 33^" nr hv 
.njnr^b "h Kin d3 .n^aiK V3ft bK '•^an*! nK ^K 'rob 'ok hkh 'orai ♦m br 
"am imaina baK Ken Kbr jnv Kim "nKtsn 'ib ♦ i? Ka" ejsn v3Bb Kb "a 
-lobK nniK II : lb iD"3nna Kbi pnat K\n dk ♦ i3P"r v ^^a v3d br iniat 
'ca bK DP ym d^tk pbn m r i3 on^m oabia onK p 'a bK n^a oanK 
'"'3'ai V3a iai" oK r u innK in^ai V3a KbK ♦v^na npib i3"Kr pm rw "nnoKr 
ion oarpa nio" Kin baK ♦ onb ipar" Kb VKatKsn ia^" ann 10b inio npa 
pn" nbpob 'OKr 'a i nap" nioa vnnK ip^to onnian rrnr i5 ♦vbn pKr 
TP . nbnan napn aTbp D3r "fib . n3"aan Kb vni3obKi '« ibnKa mnr 
Kb vni3obKi ibB3 anna V3na mn 'OKr 'a «nbb mn on3B nrK inbai 
nppa g]oa naar ok 16 ib\ni xor 'a inio "nnK bab ^tri 131001 ♦>n3"aan 
^s^v'na naacr gjoai vnnK rab" pnsn v^na r^na pa" 17 ♦ riabo pa" nonai 
**D"nbKn "3Bb aiteb nnb Di3abi r)iDKb p"3p in3 Koinbi tp i"nnK pbm 

<« Job XXIX. 4. b Ex. XVIII. 21. cisa.X. 12. «^ Jer. XIl. 1. So Ms. 
for i» n». e 2 K. IV. 28. / Ex. III. 5. 8 Job XIH. 15, 16. h Job XX. 26. 
i I Sam. IV. 19. >P8. LXXVIII. 64. *Ecd. II. 26. 


xm IK ♦ * mntJD p ik 'ncr p ipn ij'^an s]di3 [Knni mBtr t'k'u • ^ p)n 
Kinw 'K'^ D-'aw p:nn ♦ nna rnji mBW Bnisb rn ^n**! e|0T3 viioa n^03 
T^K '1 nc^rnatp hn 'xpa nnaar n^-oi mpa 's ki-w wnj >np3i ^bnn 
hv mirr b^Bnbi nnnnb -ippi T\vpri -nrK V3i*i niacp n'rK |n u ^r-i^Kaa 
pKT ♦iniK Twrvh ijb n\'n ornnnm isaixn xpn ^nba*? cnnoi b«7ona n^ac 
onanw 'dt'Ki bina ^i» D\m n^wa jnissi p^iba p-THni o^awm v3Ba nnonb 

^Sr 1^63 D^bwn ^H *nnn pKn netoibna cno nrm noK"v raob iki^it 
^D»n • D3^ j?3Di ifibir wpms i:oo nriD''w iniraoi o-br mor nr ftio 
i3Db nawb irDB ^3^ mm'* b^Bn*?i wnnnb ibip jmsi o-piow iniiaa on 
IT n^ hn D^wi pian" o^wnn ja i^] ^a • o^bnai in^bx nana 'b^ 'as 
nam : oab bora paa^*? orvhT nnennKi^ pK nt baaw ^'^•^ o-^ora d;^"!^ 
van njv np 'k k^w oa^^p*? man hv "^nn ih ^pr\vwr^^ ib ^prw nnr 
n3K ^3 e)K . '131 'bw 'WTj? 'OP nnoi bran 'anw Tiba 'lanr ^obi latipa k^k 
Tfia 13-K lapa lODirw na hp la-rn Kim .i3BBttn vbp nno b^tar ♦^'an 
am pmai labij? Trnai r3ia vk bjn • r^p rrn'* nh ^a no^-nnb lecra 
gjon xxvii. I. : ni Kin rrpa bnvar pDna pK vnnia3 cjni p3n bbinai 
tt?-n m3Ka pi K*n njnar^Kjn* .D^K^a^nT^ia > ibra nK\p avK 
i^ht^ -^na pa\P3 dik j-kw 'pn nK naj? nanKa avK nioa p w» -i 
'bKjn •K%-i 'jnar -^a nnab bai3 vnnKW pvbai ^ban hk nau^ k^k 
pibK nni ^ajnarsr jai baja 3 > nPB3 nanr nn • ytv n33b ^oBrajvorw 
'iKn *3Kr Kt:n -nKWr ^aaJ3?a 'V'aa -mnr nbip "npr n3iann ok 4 • -aKa 
'•3K ^a annaK no^ 'ibi DaB*3nnb aapnata "nvnn nbxa pnio^ bapb 
nan i3na"' naai KanK Kb» pnnnb -3aa "nam tbk k*? 3yTi3K 13? s -a -nKan 
npiK Kbi It nnx -br naa mpinn ph amp "Tar rnpnatas "a .'•3K pn3C -o 
Kb :jnio"*n npipa ^hp am nb "Kma "36b '•3K e]3n Kb "a jnii" naai abirb 
n"nr Kan "nKon Kb "a nion "nnae "a"a bapa 3?3a"b "aab aba^i e]nn" 

a Isa. LI. 9. b Jcr. XLIII. i6. c Job XXV. 2. </ 2 Sam. XXH. 14. 

<? Job XXV. 2. 6. 


ppatntti37 ♦pnt '•bpai Kwa^xbr lobars Dibw mwb ibr nnoi btwam nna 
patOHa 'YHKa n^bnw ^b*? irbp ira^K b^onS no^ba hv yiH nbin mn bp 
"ba "vnKa n^*?n pKnw .ne^ba nbb "ix r^ ip*?n3 niyh^ ntei tbabn 
rapa D-o inx^ nnn n*?D »rn oiSa "nuo •iw^o br 'k^ ♦ D^Saban pajOKa naj^va 
^3B inKa o [Foi. 14 b] nai Ka np *ip onnx inoip maaa on papijcw 

• apn nK on^jea tnnD woa o^owa . a woa pan D"«ora 'it >»a 

♦ KOa ^3D mi31 THKOW 'BT 'Kl '131 * ^HDW 1WK ^'^ DW3 IKTn kS ^niKM "IT .11 

KTW n-»p^p bp iDpn nannnn nw nn *?''Bn • rens n^ai isap nra w^ 
'a ♦ pm wcw ••ob ••o^n ikw3i n3nnKn mk b^on^ w'bbn nbea 'Br 'a '^b 
pi naion aaia wrw ^a^a ikw*i n^a b^Bn^ rfnaion aaiai c Bm3a labn^ 
o-inD ^rn nw" 'in bp i33P rtpa vbp .omoa nain r\hty\ .tfOBono 
ppvn B-^bw 3in 4 o^a "sb by 3n pn nS na pin i io/B^pn» ^ar co nam 
toiPBnn^ bia^ abipn 6' iik pw DipD np nxo pini ♦ D^ir ^annab ne3w 
a^ao r3B^ ^30 ban K3Cb3i ^wn kSk dw pw nrn dp nwn ba an . nnv 
'p'K Tp 'ttcb i3eo nwnb ra-'ao Dipa pxw pmiob np a-aw ^niap tp 
B^ay 'Tia p 1 « 'B'P'K ♦HBn n»abi mn kit nbpabr na bar -lawivban 
innp3a mam dikh nxana i bbit ♦ na^ba bp^ xmn *?p Dia3n ana naab 
'ipb 'K'^ ♦ DVTpnjnaai «a *V''P'^ n^^aaa niDannbi r3Ba nnanb pw 
o .D-ann '3w bp nriB^ inn D3i .Ao^pnb mm 'I'p 'msa •*? 'k'i ♦na» 

♦ an^bp D^Kan a^'iarb mm 'th ba-u d31 • a^mK im3'w npa nnm 'ib ba>3 
B\n niK3 : am pna :BTinnb Tab anrai abipn nt^paa pianaw msianai 
D''a»n nnab 'ib nann aw marp imnai '3 .inwi lam bbna Kanai 
an Tina n^na \pri3 n^ nbbin nbpab v^p'^n nnab n^apa Ktw imna 
pna xnt ^npn 'Pi ♦ am "aa a" ^papaa ib maa j-ki ♦ c papaa naab 
p v3Ba aar^b waa niinnai v^p'^ n""«a3ai 3vi jwb nbbin •rainv 
p^aanb xbr nna pn3 in" nbbinb naina k\-tw map atay inina 'ab "13 
nbbina am naxnan ana Ran^a 'na 'n3 n^ nbbmb ann pna pa 

aPs. CHI. 19. *Jcr. V. 22. c Job XXXIX. 4. </ Ex. XXVII. 5. 

e Ex. XVI. 14. /Ps. XVHI. 12. if Ms. nwn. A Ezck. XXVI. 16. 


w^Kb ^^•^anD niTP no a lyrow Him nh^ h iy wn nh p^np moi mrrbi 
n»r na3 rmaao tr nb "^ wd rr>T nr nn no men vn^ ptnb na Kb 
rm pooinni pbmn o^wn rno npiop rv:i:^n nKT br ib noan nh vrvh 
rin w^ no -3do nan bw lor© rnvib nrnin anb noam mgrin no naiea 
vo^ ba »ik:i nxi bw • vDisb pas unn nbnoi wft ^ba ion oxjn mo^ 
• ^sna-rn no ni bv • p 10a iioa pnx *iki ♦ nno wwa monr? imoa jntn r^i 
isK'a^ nan bi^di *» lor nnw h^ron ';^rw "nrn^ "a ♦ nbna pb'ts nnyi "o nn 4 
*tb^ iniD"^ lab *?K a^w^ -a nr d*?w^i ono jne" Kb nob ma baK t^wmh 
rvTr\ ♦ ^00 nKr "o noP3i ib 'ik • la^rn niniaa Kb ^a n: vnan natp nnbaw 
nKat^«^ no'wjn "•» w *iBiio nKr w^bK »?na KOip • nwn * ^ow ^0 'a ^0 
nbap "001 nwb ^n1K nran ^nw nora Kbi .^a nan bK nn Kb ^oo 
pi non wi:k -a »ik nnoK "a ^snia-wn Kb ^nan '^p^v br "•» ♦ onann ib^K 
\nbK -a n-ao rn^ na ^ai ♦^w '•»b inKan-w p '^d r** naai ^nrbin onK 
"sain D-o nnno bbin- 'pn o^nen '^dk t'k'd ♦ ibbim o^Kcnn s :Kxn isBwo 
Kinw ixon nrr" ow '^ro oipo Kinr biKwa "a rT br b'weni nonKn 
Dn''n''n o^r^nn ib-K onr o-nen ♦ e px nrnnna "nopn 'n'r mi • pax naia 
vnn mr ibbinn iKna- -ai •oibwa inoi t^iKsbi nianb /o^^nn pKa 
i»bro nK nrnbi n-anb vnn inncn pKn nibnbai o-on nnno sjk inowo 
jnrnb rnio Hr.Tw noKnr vddo iraan laittn papm nrbmi nona ptv:v 
^no1Ka nmaa nnawn nn\n p mn ib^K ^pKa d^idbw D\nbK ttr ^a loatp 
vna no^-nen onKb nioa p-oin mn nw c nrbin dhk pi non widk ^a tf\H 
n^an rrr o^-na awb mr Knan bbin^ Kb onK noro "a p irK baK "aioa 
D*non«? biKrn K\n nbi^o . biKgr onr o -a 'psan napa udd^w 'pn tD&vo 
nioa pKi 'Dpn bK awb ocia nba^ nr noni papna an otDDiirb ia o^ain) 
inno^ DK 'IT .naKn nx:b iba^ np vdbo dw nnonb ♦ pnaKb vaeb 
noKi Dibri iraa^ ibdwo n-'anb law Kb nn-p nnKb Kat03 AD\n rpnpa 
b^BO KV1 ^aa baK ban ^na^rn nKXOs • aiv^ jn^ Tki on^na cnb mn 

a Job XXV. 2. * Judg. XIII. 17. c Job XXV. 6. </ referring to IV. 19. 
e Ps. CXXXIX. 15. /Ez. XXXII. 24. ^ Ps. LVlll. 12. * Amos IX. 3. 


'^nhn '•3 vam n^ai irfi 'h nw "iwio ribbi on^na osip aTbp npiB 
ba ntmi baa bttno kvt ^a ornxib ib rm ^bp 'oik onH ittTxa kvt tDBwon 
lb rrrrw 'TOK lb nam ♦ippjbwan xxv.» mba isa^ttn mbnoriryo 
nnen iKn^«^ D.Tbp ihito b^enbi ib ram r^nbi r^na vv^'^ riK n^nb 
nnw p br aino Kaat bp nno b^wai nxTpi biTTO K^'w ih hth p ijoo 
D^raaa nbro xax bai n-viK noiK ittD mano hoik nw j-kw onTa Dib\y 
♦om ittD ^bba p pKW rtb voinpa oib\y nmpp 't'P'H topttiim 'K"n .V3fib 
'TK 'aT D^ejno o-Ottn Kaxw ^ub 'kd dki nncno mn Dib«^ Hmp Hxnwa "a 
ino-b baw inx yn ^ nm^n op^ Kb ^d bp 'a'BT'Ki ^nnab "tteQ grn 3 
oba "a . DCBW" nbw onx ':ao r:fi itdoi D-'bror nnoKW 'oa Kbi raco 
labi vrr vbn D'^r* Kbw bn dp ipisk pnr no 'a'Ki 4 ♦ a mp3 Kb it'k npB" 
br DBWba isK^a*' Kbw xena bbmen ngK n^b" nar no a^ npiobi ^-ipnb 
DBWba DK"'a'» Kbi orf^n 'O" ba onb aitscr d'pu"i tp-r 'ik 'nwp «» obra ba 
wbtpn "b TKn Kb 'ik obiao yw hdoi nbro mKaat vnnh ipdd gy^ 'k'^ 
"fib baa ibbwo nw p vanna nara ttk*' nwa oba -a ♦ naabn ^b m-Kn Kbi 
prb wown iniar vmn Dip*' Kb ^0 br ^••anr ^ebi oma^^nbi on^wrop nv kvtw 
D^bwn Kax bao nnosi noano Kirw 10 'nna np ♦ ni'> nr ?n ^ "ik ba 
•3W TOBB^oi ipmo naw Kbi m nnK^ Kbin onp" Kbu? inra Kbobi icnb 
nnan D.Tbp irp Knn Kb«^ rrra la? Kb nb-ba o'aaia^ ♦ c Dnriob nn" 'w 
Kb rata b\'nr nbci ♦<'inra nnio K^annn 'tp oKaat neooa K-amb 
nbp n-^a Knr naK "a ^ik 6 ♦ bnK '"ao 'K'^i »|Dia ia f\bHn\ ♦ <? diik ibrr 
'i-iD'"'bi wBwbi ia bwonb ihv inoi bwanw imoa ecira nrbim no-o 
Kb mbKi n-iOKw uaa Kbi mtwm n-npea npicb vbr ^yp^ Ton in^anbi 
K^^ DK pr baw ^aa la-rn no ^a avK laa-ir^ nw ban xxvi. •/nbon o^ir 
DP'aanb on-'^na d^jwvi Bcwb ib urw nnK ba pn o-birnb ^a ba pnpno 
onK ^aaa Dibw mwb ib Tnw voinoa Dibu? 'w^v dki on^bp nnc b^Bnbi 
onaia e'^aai onb ^^-iKt^tt? D^j^un tp^ nobi D-aispn mk D'^bnan irba^ Kbr 

alsa. XL. 26. ^Ecd. XII. 14. cPs. CIV. 19. *^ Job XXXVIII. 32. 
e Ua. XIII. 10. /Job XXIV. 12. 

XXIV. 20 — 24. COMMENTARY ON JOB. ^7. 

DKbDi arna «rrw •ornjnnw^ao . |mD« ibD,T Kb Drpnai D:n ib2,T dw 
roa-w DiK KIT Kbw onn nam ♦ ^dim atrai o^onn ^ba 'dvoi pn p v^na 
ion Dxra mb^ir )ih\ ♦ «» nbi nwa tt?abw • -sioa • nonb pno . vbr vam 
D1K noS^ K^tt? n*?!]^ pra napni lov nno^w nan Kb mp ♦ * vbn |u<bw iba 
Tatnb nbn k^ p ^eb mpr npn ai K.Tr D-'-iKWDn ttk»3i vnaa nwrb isftb 
D-'pnb natm nnb^ -aatp kw^ njbbK dk »ik5 ♦rsob pas ijnt n\T Kb law 
DniK 'pn ^rai aa nriT maKm ♦ nbaro rrnnir ^aa ib a^P"^ kS p-rr nb 
Kbtt? DrT'a-n bp rrri onb TnKo«^ "imo [Foi. 14 a] onvnnb inaa o^TaK 
lanpajn c miw i:ov ir k onnK on^aK 'tt^-m ♦ i^ro^ '^d n\T ik ibttD^ 
;ma pOK" Kbi tya-y? jn^ "o 'ok^ -Tpaa Dip-^^? cT^na Dio'^'b imaa ^TiiKa 
Drrna • nesb nrnb Tbjn^a^ 'p'm ^b rwTP rirnntp vrr nKnbai lab nnwa 
br rrw 'dt'k o^bK pK awm i3tBna mrrb ^a br irr^i /nnwa oibw 
baK prnn Ta^ Kb pai ma ixtn nrrb in-so ♦vTanbi ^b o.Tam 
ob'firo ran rrn^w ^a ba D-rnaa nvnb onb on^ar Kbw ttyayian a4 
nr"i mwb Kba .th Kbi ^ ^yshoT\\ 'tp onbw nan jnii "Tatpoi Draaoi 
obipn jiatBp" baa niK^nnb on^av Kb ^sr ainow ♦ «" ^a" -a 'a ♦ >aen oin 
TK1 p-JKn ^"Dr b-ron ,tb nxep nnbin pxsp^ ik -Din omo^-a o^Kanian 
mn na ana kh- Kbr Taa^ vbr WKt iwKbw nb"Qw naiaa onaii rm 
tKtt? inKa D.T-na oba "tc-o .th ib-KtP nana kvi p Kb oki b-tt^b jnnb 
baK TK-in ij^otp^ D^KtDnn ba tk ^a wra^r kvi ^a ip-k ♦ rn 'wrba pxcp" 
naipi i^pp p'Tio""'a mo'' nnKi vna rar Kbi vbiri pKbtP mo*' rwnr nnp 
^n-pb "Kcnar inaKn ^ki 1200 Kwn -cto ^mabp n -vdk nwKa rna na 
:baa mw mo j'-k nn Araiea orra" iba^ onia: o^wntp nKn nriK nrw 
mjabKi D^avt^ br ntaKns Kinw ^ebr Kin p dkw o-wbea avK nan nn 
pn pKtt? ptKi3i pnnm amaa D'pwn nam nnr r^na npb p br a^nnKb 

''Job VII. 5. h Job XXI. 23. <^ Jcr. V. 28. d Ps. LXXIII. C. ^ Dcut. 
XXVIII. 67. /Job XXI. 9. *' Ms. num. A Ps. CII. 1 1. « Lev. XXV. 2$. 
ArJob XXXVI. 11. 


0^^ D«>3P IK ♦ VDC bv D^^ moo ^a inwn onx piw d^3B inoai vidi ♦ ^*?p 
i-^iiDi ♦nb^*?a on^anb o^nan pbmn 'K'd > TttS lann ovn Kaai bpbpbi 

'H"*! ♦ mobati mnba onb * injn riK btk t|w p p-srb rh'b orrrra -Tpan 
mp^KD 'pn *ryiD p p^sr*? nb^b D.Trra T^an pnn . n-anb onb T^r\ "d 
i^Kna pnD3i o^abio i3^iw nnx 'ikw ♦nb^bn niobx j^«nw n)jnn jn 
piw nb^bm "1^:3:^ vnn^i nb^ba la^ww naa t^ w i3b n«T ^o oma 
Dra 'ba ^ry nb'»ba ^ki itow nb baa DnnonD dvd 'pn ^rD^ ♦ orra^pa 
nnw . KVi eera 'nibK ^d VDnn itk n^an k^ nab na bai mx vt nb ar^^ 
• pKD onbea npbn onb nwa nbp p^bnatp o^a ^3p by vibeaa Kinbp i« 
p-Tio^ be? neani . m^aa onbco piw 'ib nxm • n^bp 'ea bbipn nbai 
n3P'' Kbr ^K^"^^ ♦ c ^o^p^ ba nrnanaa bie^b noipn onb nip kh' xbw prp 
rf'iar TKW3 D^ari inatpi ibww onriK nnw nnn onatab ♦ o^aia th nip 
^invrn • 3bp ^a^a ib ibta^ oin d3 o-awa riTxr rrx 19 ♦ rvDV iwa ib wr tki 
nasa nra K\m ♦ amnm .T^atn ittD*' sininn "a^a innem id-'btc? na bsw 
am D'«ap'«i a^anaa ibT3«? mb^ian nnn on^^na 'pn onb -nac? .nn^B 
ajnai Kaata on^bra in'^an ^-vw ♦ wmwK bp nn^a 'a'»''nn3w > ^nan biKu 
oraaai aeiaa ano'^b ib nm nbpa anb nma 'pn'i • B-133D nap qh aia-m 
na 'P'H'f) TbKb 'd^ nm -aaa nnv la-'^nnsi ^xan biKtp ^nnw ^3iaa BT^na 
mnba an^br n-'a- ^a • mabatb npa cnb a^w* 'pnw bt«?vi ib-H bw B-iaw 
•T'a^ Kbi * n3pn '^^y nwKa b-'B •'3b bp b^x kvw nana aniK a^-'i • mabi* 
B3 cniK ibta^w • :bv "B'^aa an^anai anpbn an abipn p naK^'w Bn^»bK 
B^a B-BBban anni* a^aab 'n K\n bp pnn ♦ buw bn n^r p ain b3 n^ 
bp mp lab^ bkw b-o a-abvi p bp a^eabb a^Kn^i pnna /anbns bbpn\p ^eb 

A Dan. XI. 18. ^ Ruth III. 14. c Ps. CXL. 11. i' XXIV. 10. 
e I K. XIV. 15. /So Ms. for onpVn. 


♦52521 ♦D^3JB*? ^3«^ ^f'^ labn onp lo abann ban dm 'wbo vnnift 
orpBO 22£ P^ P^^^ ^'^^ ^^ ^^ D^bu5n u^mry ^a 'b'^ tk •D"'ar'TOi 

♦ n\nr «'t.Tniiwa hv^ o-en inai nwn pa onm^y pa n tmwn i>w3 
Dona Tinai on-ixa ■t'k^ nwaw ^cb p inp5i nnr mrpb OTin wna^ 
cm c D^nb Tp Sa n^^nry 'oa dtmb Tro « D^*?ran nnasn oaxrb ^ain p^ajy 
n'r ♦ D'''?'?n rsai • • o-DsiKn ib^H -dbo . prr ipwr o^Sw^n bw on-a ^dk 
Dj^mnh?^ D.T^na ottrDpnb n*?pn p^" yh D'OwS jnrn ^'t^hk ^tn h^p 

*?r "a ncKn t><^ . orr^na icBwa w-i k*? 'bt 'kt amoa pno^bi aman ^*? 
DTtpw • iTK n-iiaa i3 • p irnv in-'av ib^K -n'TO^nD ^na nm ^n^rrw np 
n^aa ^vi TMsn 'K-i ♦ m-iTKon iw khip 'pn ik nwna an^ra *?a "a miHa 
. p "ib "b n*?^bn -a /hkt vh^ h ina o-ap 'axw ♦ ^hv nnax^? ^3K kSi niK 
prvn ♦ pp "nipn vh -tfsKb '3 ny^ gip^ niKb i4 'ok-w 'a p inaK nan ban 
'T« Ktn pi ♦ ^w^a a-abinn a-aaa 'araa vaw nK'a ar n-i" niwa miaa 
. A' inmK Dip^ K*? -a *?r ♦ *n*?a tta^ttr ntai natn iinn br rain r>^an nb 
-a-^n n^an k*? •k"«i ♦ laaian" p mil wa«ci iwk 'rwnja^iawMJ^ '^ i^^^^w 
kS n>ni ^H pK 'IK rnw wpw na wr p br eawan \nbK Kmr 'pn bw 
mSra am nwra n-a "tik^ • a^pttnn nx »aw Kintp leawa ma^nsa pw^ 
"IK p *rr T»nn Sr a'TKaa aw^^ aTaab anp" tM mpai: nn'^'TO nnm 
biTW nS^Sai nb»i npma k*?k biab id*kw ♦ ibw pk *?e"i p^aKi "3p busp^ 
Kxa^ ax nS^Sai 'K"«i . jiaa pa^p hv a-na ^mn a33a \t nnaa bvah 
■prinai a^3ia»aa xa p • a-na nmnn a33a \t . avb niaa n^^-'^ra \irrv 
n3n r|Xi3 pn i5 . nipn- nnsxm ♦ ib nbini mn^n xba biai& na tpym 

• V3''3ra n*? nan xmw »ixi3n br "Ta^r* nnri am nix X3Wtt? a3i3n *?r nan 
x^nw inxin anx pxtp '^nvco maa pr "3^^ xb : anp xin«? • tiP3 rx-wo 
'nax nrxa nxn- xbi h nna a-ar 'ib» laba acnnr xn** i3''X 'pna o ♦ hyr^ 

a Ex, XXll. 25. i'Jcr. V. lo. c Dcut. 111. 6. ^'Gcn. IV. lo. 

<: Jcr. XXIll. 1 3. /Job XXll. 14. fe' Job XXV. 3. * Ms. \sv\ 


nnn ♦aoip' i!)vh o^nrn .neoa 'oaw 'oa 'W3w nra n^b 'pn ri^ k^w 

♦ voMtrnjb ♦ ban nmi mnw tdhSi inw ptS onb ."Tttw vim^ ♦ * ^\^na 
on^ro ^lP^o^ j-VTwa ^a irnn orr-'na orrbr ohw^ inap3i lecwo >6i 
Rtir c mKDX ^"'b or ^a ♦ ibD w nam ♦ nob onri -nr ^3px3 kS mm "'^ 
p33 pm : 13^^" nib^a: *m^ oniKO ronrmKb 'pn hv ^ynn tk ♦ Dp3 dv 
ri'DD n^D "anpo bn^ i3^^ on .w^J]^' on^np 'bo nnn ♦nnn 'd 
0^^ nb 'mbm nan siioi p'»3rn baa Db3trb mn ib)3 nnp ^mra nnw 

♦ D^anna onb D^anwaw anneo ib^ Dn3r 'tk inm ^nno o''3vaK ip^ 4 • <f rhtr\ 
annb nana nva^b on*^ o^Knob ^ anw nt^nn'i ♦ nnnn -pn pabvm jnMDW 
nanp [Foi. i3b] ♦»inB wpab 'paa wr biro '\n no abrca ikt •anaipn 
nanp hv:h inmana o-abinn ann B''nP3n ibaKnt^ nrihb n^atnr Kncb .jib 
nvna nnra pnn • bwb rop^ a^nnn bw ib^bannra^ m bp nt bca nanoi 
tf an^sDb D^3nbi ^3bo vbpa ^m« nstp-* pnp nwa^''n3 Kbw/pon b^ba imKan 
mbp nb-nna 'oa h\D nose wpb pbBi3 n"onw o-jnenn D-nnx bw onai 
T^K 'n'K ♦iriTata ♦nnK" ♦ itppb^ nnan nnx jnzn bw pnn ^f^v^pbrt 
wipbonv nijn irpb" vnnstan inoL'oh i30t r^3'' "na nfi3tbn pwn bv onai 
n^H wia** |D crown mbp nr nxiab 13'no'' hSi p-pn nra '^t^i^n ^D-'on anr 
bttDnn ontDa msrpb cnwan nonxn ••nair a^nneo n3m •mnstan vbv O'V^nri 
nb« nnco n^r bww ntaob a^nn bw anro nnata^ bt^ann ontDa oonai 
"300 0-3^? D-en eain pn3 n^rw aw 'naw nt n^av pno nettn • D^jncnn 
B'^3rn omKi ♦ nnpa rnoab ib pKi imea ibtt3gr ^fcb ♦]rb^_mnP7 ♦«pno 
IK n3''3CT aino ipn** iww laen^s a^rbon nnn B''nnB3w Bn3a arh pKW 
BTirvn np"'3^ Ar'p3'n a-abo nn 'oa wojbrru ♦ynin aion 'ca 'nbmbo rn- 
pnaioi "Q pnornoi iok nwo ain^ ibT3'' '"b n\T tk vm3V0i ibaKO aipo 
ib*B^ ^nab br anb n3a ipbn^ 'n br bm3 ib-'B^ . ibian^ "33^ bpi . mw 
•n .rpnpa i6k ban 'wb pKi rnnun ^nbn3 anb ppbnow Km /bni3 

<i Job XXIV. 14. *XXIV. 16. clsa. II. 12. ^^Isa. V. 8. ^vcrsc 12. 
/ Isa. XXX. 24. ^' See Judg. VI. 11. /^ Amos Vll. 1. < Judg. XI. 11. 
/Job Vm. 16. Arlsa. LX. 16. 'Ps. XXII. 19. 


♦ TOP nsnnan 'k*^ jcr iwinai nai) ♦ pnxi iw^ •Y'sn*^ leurb oipbi iro"jan 

♦ n^a *«03 ^n\n nh *nrw nnp "mK no^i eow viu<o nxab ebe) -nm 
"mn Kb ^■nnKi onp ^ pneaa ^b1^ ^rr^n ^b^n 'n^rw oipo baa tnp p s 
♦onnKa d^bbw inwag ♦^b r'lK^ |b ann "n^n k^i "no^^ •wk inw Hano 
n^G e*?B3 ^n^n n^t^w vt»w np onriK iD^^b |^ hv ^pr nmi -n^n nh 
"h^ Kano ^n^'n amai ^sana nay ^y ^n etraa laa n'Dm 'pn rr* ^"w i© 
TitTO '^rb 'Ore p *?r ^nmK bw 'OTannnrnK ♦ iii iiiPKa n nrw jyn ^en 

"nrr tn'' "0 3 ^nn pv 'pn hv nbnn pnp f n 8 'b'^ oii ♦peatb ibwaw mtob 
biea^n pa^ pk k'^i ♦ibaraa mtwan pmn mpd pp^jjpris ♦ inKXPKi 
T*?DKi . <* ^pn pnb IPS jpnp t apip "nnpp hyi ♦"mptp nb '^npp niaPQ n 
'b'^ PJ1 ♦"Dbp mp'« Kbr rp nen ppacb mi "iT^n ^aiipi "pnp inr ^ppn 
pnp IK vp npK ''napat nnw btpk Kb ^br pw "wk ni»iPi ^b P\rw pnp 
'ty)h 'Dn**! nppi) nnKs rv'aw ik r- nnxa K^m i3 ♦ m^jp ^nba-ww ^nib'^inp 

♦ pnKn riK p nnx iphp Kin bpK 'p*? r» pii • p^itp n-n- kvw '•pb m br 
KV1 bsK 'PP13 nrK inKD n-p ncKP "o t'K'pi ♦ tip ippvp *?p TO^gy^ ^pi 
••p^i ♦ ppyp npS nrTjnc t><^ lan nn npia inbKb nnvK igrpa gypi ♦^nanip 
bv nb^nn iipnb ^ppwai pn p-'banb ib rrn ^ 14 'pik "naoat pnp 'pkt 
oi*? a^ppi pnnK pn o'hvjnh ipr nipi nana nni -npnatp "b p^brnh ^wp 
narpi la-ip'^b bnrre? pip^^i pn pn p'''?^^ ^a 'k w^ ♦ ^^b -n^pi nh ^aKi 
inrpp ''pp piKb bpia la^Kw p br »5 rwp ^pp pth^ bpia la^Kw man 
TK ♦ Tin Ski 16 ♦nnpK i^nna p^anK rai ppwpa npp nab bnpK v3PP 
^rnn "app mn^patb -nnaa nh "a ♦ mn*pat 'wb "npxa 17 vapb np nnPK 
na-viKP pa apip Kb n\n'«i • niPK«^ np bpiKn "app npa Kb irKi ♦ -br nrK 
ipprpp bnaa ti^m Kb wi mr lanp^-'p n^n nhw bpiK "app npap n^m '-p ik 
m Kin rrtPt p xxiv. i -atpn n\n pr pbirn n-wb -nKarr Ttmjapp '^p w 
nan nwrb pnK bav Kbr rapb n^K^ nwa nb-bi pnKn -nr ^apar Kb nvp 

«» Ms. mK. fr in innrgin. c Isa. IX. 1 1. ^^ Prov. XXX. 5. <^ Gen. XLVII. 22. 


^'^b m) 'H Till ♦ a nthvH ^n-n: iwk nar 'kw n'v nb^r ^d obtpn ^ma 
nnn pop *ienD ^'? pp^i '^H itan wnas ontppa D«^n nwr ••vhk niw ^ dSb^k 
'ciw nnr loa k^i nix nas n^ain br tk] ♦ ipna ^nvaw nnr 'tia Kbi • p-nw 
bain TIB ♦ n;a noxni onriK ib''Bttn ok »ik ^ 29 *c y;ri o-'w^ ^ma^na br 
T'K'Di ♦ ^b^awa 'pn p^'rv a^yv naa ^ftn p^a^p rwi ♦ nnana iiwabi tn-aanb 
onKi ♦ ibocra anbw mna n'" hv mu? ♦ o-'renn ib^Bwn iB^xa rmn nnK "a 
b^jnnw Tp ♦ pa pK *oa va*H pba" 3o ja *pn r'vv D'«a^p ntp inrw nnn 
'*r\tv "IT pi ♦nnK > ^^nK nwi loa prK pnio px 'rv^ ♦^baoyb 
n^nn aboai ^r-^b K»nn ^a pK -jcn ♦/nn ••kh awv 'a ••pa-'K T'k*bi ♦ ^nbn 
own** mpiti Kam oom braw ^ub -"a avKb td^Sk nawn nan : yfs naa 
'WDpt^ baa pn^ Kbi nm Kb 'prw n\n maoi a^ne vma^ao p bp niaobw 
D-'owb KbK D-'rn oa^KB? D^rm onw KbK on^^na e^ptwa 'pn pKwi ♦ o^v^ 
no br avK laa-c?'* nt bjn j initaa on^-'na tto^^o ninab kvi m ok baK 
nnKi opgQ racb in pb bia^ ••n^-m "Kibn '^ow* mpni Kani btaw 'ok«^ 
o-'Pttnb aio pKw noKw bjn ♦^na^a nKi ww«^ noK*" ok ^ ^aar pb^ 
Anbian cw^ Kb nibKi onnKb pooini pbnar 'oai 'oa nn ♦onnKb pr^now 
nno '^Bi /TKO n^iio 'nc?^ ^ap 'oa ♦ ''nip no a avK ;p^ xxiii. 1 :bba on'^'^na 
nhv oa"'n'0'«noo op\p nrnb naio ••n^\nr orn oa b'n ♦ nin^w bao ••n'v 
n^ • oa-'moinan nnK ovn oa tk oa^nan 'rp ^orai VTipno tip ••aio-ban 
IK pw 'K-n ♦ n»br piKnoi naKno ^aKw noo nnv maa Kano "aKW nnatn 
•noonri '•nbwtp ••a pn-'j^o onKW br naKno ••aKV . 'nnaK br nnaa "nao 
pao ♦ inaian 3 .o^no ^ma-ao p bn or Kina^ >'inoi niato br 'a rr^Tn 
♦ na anan t^ ♦o^nan nnan ocvww nw br ♦ oppo vaob Tinpb utoa 

n^o Kvw ^eb ^j^^USSO* "'^"'^ P !5^ npina nor an" "aoo nnv ib «rv 
nbo T'K'Ki • am br ok ^a nnK naio nib^br Kbi abi nvba jma wnr 
oipoa np" 0^ 7 Kin KbK ^a pant? ^o pK ^K Kb ♦Ar^b'^attn iq^«7"i 'oa oip^ 

fl Jonah 11. 10. i'Ps. CXVI. 14. c Job XIX. 8. ^Ezck. XVIII. 10. 
e Ps. CXLI. 3 where the reading is 'nov hx /Isa. XX. 6. iT Ezek. XIV. i3. 
* Job XXIV. 12. ^2 K. XIV. 26. >Nuni. IX. 11. ^ Isa. XLI. 20. 


hv D^no yhv Tttonb ^oan d-o rwt'V ¥h\ ♦ r\>icr\ n'«\i h^ man rum 
i6n li Da "jjinM nnb D-ajn onnpDn 0*13 na«^n ih 'b'n ♦ D^rn ^^wo 
nnoa nt Sri •1200 lan '»3 p^aaa \pki na^ '•a nnm ♦dw xn naa pi'^K 
nran .rww "JKw 'oa « Sk tt no njm n^in riKn ^rKW ^mK-^D • *noKi i3 
o-ay 3im ♦ ^wbD nK*T> kSi ib nno o^ay m vhn aor' ^rab iraw bcnp 
ym irH o-ipo d^^b^i ^-n n*?atn ♦ dStp nny n i5 t * niinoai 'oa oan-D 
vn nob lor nannnb OKtDna ipb K^r br ona Kspnnb pn "no in'«bacm 
. innaai uhypn jo nr xba itso^pp 16 ♦ jnn on*? oa irK ono nnr ^b 
omoa nmh 'h aie ik 'n>n . biaon nn -tPOKa diid" pan^ nna iipk oipoai 
DTPn nxy "3K i aia on^na k*?o wm is mw onaira lob ntp brc" no 17 
nnw hv -ai ono inr ^b mr vi 'ki ono nnv ••b a-enb ^b nvii ♦ "» npnn 
ysh "pai inor'i inbooa opnat inn^ Kbn 19 • pa nia6 nno nnn Ttin 
OK 20 . 0^)0^ n^n pKm on-b^r pan'v vijo ino oni i^ikwjw vaai naa 10b 
PK nbax on^aa onr Dnn** nowsi biaon ^oa i 3op g nnasp noK ni px -ai }6 
nbrob n^anw pn nnaa vh dk T'h "•ci ♦ w^op loa lao^p nsm ♦ onoa 
nnaa n\n xb oKg r t*?!* 'm ♦ -pn no Kbr onr i3K -a ''w • laoy mnw 
in'^brw mnbacna KJpo nnKi ♦ rK nbaK ono inmaw onn^ »ik labw Dip** 
• nxT TYi nan T^-na ^b» rnn nwK *?r ♦ ip hp pa maib maoi on^-na 
br nmn vpo k3 np aa oiSira n^nn Tin obn lor no3cr'? b-'jnm pom ai 
noom nSwir nbir p^nnn 23 ♦ naaba ib'oira ik dkw vnoK o^n isn- 
pinnni <'^bK^ a-ao -aatn^ ib -jokw loa kSt ♦1x9 ner br n^'j24 ♦T^nKO 
itmvD n^a 'K'^'t ♦ ^nx30 ♦ ^nsta np n\m 35 ^tsw Hbw ' t'pik "'bna maca 
•^inr n^np tw pn n'v ^ n^n** pnr pn nipyin gpai Dpvnb» T'anna n\Ti 
bixro biKwb np br 33rnnb> *?ain tk -a 26 [FoI. i3a] ♦/dki mDjnm 'oa 
K*? ••npnan pwno nnnw ^m br kSi h^sb ni^K *?k Ktpn tki pneaa ^ab 
mi njir pxi pnat nnxr loa kbi /» ^yop'^ vbx n^nyn 27 atdk tki -rK-n kvk 

«»Ms. '^n rT. ^ Isrt. Xl.IV. 1 3. cMs. -raiv, d Job XIX. lo. 

^ Prov. X. 15. /Num. XXIII. 22. ^Job X. 15. * Ms. 'rmrn. 


hnhn a ♦ tp^^k ir^ : whn nana H:'r{ nmaa T\\ovDn nnn rrrM rrrta -ja 
^a ♦ pD^ ^ • nvDvh ib vr no . 'pnb nabb Sdi^ 12:1 rri ♦ "laa po" 
10P xa [Don leinD n«D po^ n^am ♦ vhv b^spo 'pn 'pr6 nobb nTrvn 
laa b-'jnn pD'> bx^n ♦•nirbK n nexi ♦apr 'an ''ca TiKxa ♦aobn 
>cr inmarai i^roa ib b»*m iso'itdw o^mn vDinai inpwa nabb bai^ 

♦ nbim 'DOW 'OD rrroa m^o h b^mbi ib yonb rbx "ob o'voi b'^awo 
D-^wn nao^ 'IK 'nxw Tan onn ok ^h yacaoK i ♦pnatwa nyb tr ftnn 3 
laoo on ibo3 noi -paw wpao nnxw ^m1ara 'pn n^vi no . '^ ••300 7\pn'^ 
nnKT TnjrpW4 jon^-na ono'^'h ib n-n***^ c^jnara "^a nw no 'okv noa 
nnK f\WD y^n^ '^lo^'h opipoa nop ht ^ nn^av nioa onnK p la-KW 'tk 
banrrpe ♦^'na npb nh cianara "a n«^ no 'otkw ono nnr nKon Kb ibK 
lb noKW '01 nb a^^n Kinw 'tk nnKi oiba i^h a'^'^n irKw oan n^nx 

♦ moow 'oa 'p^ Ta jT'wrw yv:t^ nnpo na n^r p '•a ♦ na*n nnn Kbn .< 
^a ♦npgypn o^onpnaa ^ pi ♦ "p mn-'ao ninan pKi pnat loao^ 'nr tk 
jm • 0''«?pn'? naa vhv pKV orTrn onppnb bia^ dtk pKw . mpb nnac p 
'a'p nmo t^p paaa nijnn n^K t-'W ok 'n'Ki Kano tikw y^o^ p 
nonb nraci "ona crnn pi^o onnx '^kw nn^aa npc^n g^p O'^o Kb ? ik 

♦ onK "aa nanan Kba nwvh bia** nmn ni bai .o^oai onba nonp nb) 
pKi ^nb '^a^^n UTW IK n*ni noom nbia rnnipKnjbr n^n yinr ^tki h 
K-annb pbia*" rn Kbw bp nnoai "•»)? paw piao vn ^a nwrn no nb ik 
m yn bp^ obrb na'^^m ^oi n''\n o^aa Kipa ••nnw opwoa kSi nnta tto 
nirnn 'oki .-p"' br KaiT o^oin'* 'irmn anbipo op-; nn'rp niaoSK 9 
Kiwa nnnr ^p*?i pRn ttn-^n Sna n^\nr 'wn'oa pn^ oai ^^jnnT vj^h naaa 
nnr D'tiB n\nia''3D p *?p 10 <? unpa larni 'a co^ T'TKm na awn • 525 
•VTKb kSk an^ Kb onb ^a ^ maj^a ^a nw no 'oikv ihiko nnv ♦ n^na 
*iww nnoa rv bp 'ik " o^^^ onnKb ijnn vh^ b^n nnoK nwo omo 

a XXII. 21. i'XXI. 16. cXXl. 15. i^vcr. 8. «?Scc Dcut. 

1. 46. rxxi. 15. 



'03 na rwrn no ib 'oibi rna "jmK td^ "irK mn ^0 tian ne bj? n^r 

'OK^ ^0 Tp pnb aittT IK tMb noopno pni laip o^ov ibr nbrob tmcv 
nnK >nn23a 210a Yta** Sd nn 1^ obttr "O npin rwn kvti cnvrn no ib 
"n i3^Ki lb nn^n Kb mop w ^fin maaa bar nnapb i^^ ba Ktonw 
Kb ^D npgr ttrnj Sr k^k "a 'Kb w n3tpn«? t'ki ^:ioa o^jn piD-^a 
'Di ♦ D-o^ niD nio^ p nbttnaon nKiano pn t^ni nwrb nK-onn ibdk'» 
Sd ^^paiT D^am 'od ♦bmjDnjbjpno33 .pio^ Kba mob vjo^ npgr 
innKi imo nra o-'am ib ppinoi owb p-> ai» ib pK ^d ♦ d^o^ kjd Kin na 
piD"^ Kba no n\nKttn 'be 'oa d"'0'« n^ rrnn ]tv ^0 'on nro'' onK ba 
pK3pcn npDo pK nobi D'«moi D^pnx '^dk dik ba 'ki imoa niaaa •nap^i 
bnnn ban "aionsn ^-ki 34 .ino pw npoo pK vasbi '^b "jk OTiaaai lOibttD 
on DT^na lo^rK nsK bor^i onioai on^^na onb a^ow omo: a*pvn vn 

oa^mawn^ •ban^jomnrjf ^^^ '^'^^^ '^^ npibn ^:k ♦^Dioa ^ wir Kb onK 
^niK pr-«no onKw nn-^ai bro nKtP3 /rtn d-ik pbn ni ^b pa^wo onKw 
hv .Abro n nbroi loa nb^pob on ranp grvD^ nKW pwbo njrw 'k'^i 
nnKr 'pna j^nion o'^vvra br sth nan nn [FoL 12 b] ;"yb ior» p 
inaiB ra^o iD'^e 'a'B'r'Ki «inar5 "S ^nw no 'ik naio ^ro baa onb a^cnr 
aT*na ijn^i i^a^ ona" -pwa Kbi o^jaa Kbi niKnaa Kbi jiooa Kb ono 
>'500 rtpm D^wn nxrw ibrm norom nation ^3k ban onb jma Kxn ^ 
"b nwK ba bwi "sa nvan ^b |n3 nrK naiton bp ib ^nnvn map ^ttjoi 
oniKV TB^bK i:a'v^ nm bjn to-^no mo nnaKv nr pwp pmo^a non 
mnab rn K\nw -"o KbK ma onK nD"«o 'pT\ j*h nmab o^jn rn Kb o^pm 
irr^ p o^on o-oinn opn nb^ niaobKi o^oin^ Kan nwaw nroa nro 
m irK DK baK • W0001 raao opn xnnbun vp ••aeb v^na inmam ib 
br n-'onw * la bren no nKon dkw ♦ ma no^''0 irK covb KbK m^nab 

rt vcr. 20. t Job XX. 27. c Eccl. VIII. 4. </ Job XXXVIII. 38. 

e Ps. LXXIIl. 5. /Job XX. 29. «^ Lev. XVIII. 6. * Num. V. 12. 

« vcr. 15. vcr. 16. * Job XXXV. 6. 

63 COMMENTARY ON JOB. XXI. ao — 3o. 

^bvf Tvypn hv 'w nnnv ^-tst "cb nr kvi wrom tiara '•a "la^i pti raab 

♦ '3103 •TTDjrrjin'ao ♦«fn»o D-BBW D\nbK ttr» ••3 PT1 inn ••'•na kitw 
nb ••aai ti'nor n«^ ^atn -wk ^jiaa D^ano ncno nnir^w 'b ♦ nrnonpi 
lacxn yyin ipdoi V5a toera nio^-'b lab d^bti pwn^w nnK in'^aa ixpn 
Kb Tr T'K'Bi ♦no 'b cibiD patn ion 'oa lacacn nbw •la^ 
rrn obvj p-n ana Kb noi ana niowb in^ab mr aittr kSi ♦rfaro'' lam" 
bin awbi V5ftb K^vb npn iniK nob^ ♦ bn hvn ♦ npn nob" bKbn a> ina'o 

♦ aiaa orro^ nba** K\m laiK rysh ]ytT v noa laittroi isob no^Ti'v "»nrtK 
njni van npn dtk nob'' nbK bm 'wa ithki d''3d aoio nri nbo nm 
irK DDO nnK w' Kbn b'^ d31 ♦ no'^rvi inniaii it Dni^ ttpy d^oi kvtp 
ba Kb oananb nsm ♦ riKin man K\n rtb rm nabnt^ bKn opoa nana 
inibibvi lain oatra r\w v win ntia3 ••jiea pnovna vrw D"nv o-'jwvn 
vwa_nio'w »5 •viK jwi 'K^ni d-o^ ra«^ K-'-ta nne Kba vbn fsKbp ♦ ibia 
e niaiKbn bwa neou pKbr bw lob ♦ "aioa ♦ ib nn\n Kb nniap d3 n-iD 
n'oa peir nwb pwbai pw pap oipo ♦ wj^bb ♦ onw p-'DP vrpp 24 
pa vntn w«^ 'n'Ki «rnpwb 'ba n^mbnb Kbb npip^ vniaacp mai j/*ian 
yiaagrtpy brnm^a a^ nw pK • nno «^B3a now pai vba^i i3Kbw now inw 
no^^n' noai inioa ib m i"«na ib jnw Kstos ♦ aTby noan noi nn^ 
pa? ♦ban oanan iKa»3 nnow WB3a mo^wmoa v^o^ ikt nnw obirn 
nicnoi 'br oaaba rm nn^p ♦ maaa ^nrna 'br onawnw 'awno "npr 
••aibft ni3apo tki a'"i3 nMa tvh as lOKb ibam nnr imonnjbrw oom antn 
ba D'jnrn tit ^-lair Kbn ag , i-hk nat3b D3wa -^a d3''K dwvi 'bw 
oaa-n br nor 'n bn ♦ * im naip ba oa-'bK Kb n br o-ratm pK nnip 
rin n^n' nion ov nr *a lyn^ tk orb ^ 3o lobir nia^nab ibKWi iKni 
ninarr or nan now or* iniK na? ana w^a-p Kbi o^an o-a^aoi pmo^^ bao 
ynar na^b ^nawn nwK Ta? w iniK p-i nar or ib pKi rba? wa nn^o -mo"' 

. a Ps. LVIII. 12. «» Job VI. 4. c Prov. XXX. 27. ^/Ps. LV. 24. 

f H08. XIII. 5. /Mishnah Menachoth 86a. e Gen. XIII. 10. A Lam. I. 12. 
' Jcr. VI. 16, reading om-ji for oom. yjob XXXVIII. 23. 


im - - - - ■■■II MiiBi ..- 

nnK DVD na ho "Tsptp vnvn vino k^i "'^ "Kn^ anaca inw ♦«'nr'' bp oibw 
^ineao ibnieo pnr 'oxw 'aa k^i nnpo &)bv pn^na g ran p-np oniw 
"nnar e niai rfnab lar- Kb o'na tc^bm ♦ c 'n-o biD** br new "nb^a 'ok nw 
riK laT mw lo i or *?Da io"«nnb» 'DiaD . orrby ttiSk pay k^i 9 . ^nSroyi 
"inm nra33 K-^ep^ ^K pinb rin htjd b^rr xbi ♦ nop ppi^ kvw napn 
K"Tp3 pnb nbnon ^n ba [Foi. 12 a] ♦|ttbp"'bk '-oan 'ok nroi rejjc^. uh 

• on^-np |Kxa inbttm Sd^w ^baa laijn abpn napii Tia-p nnKi ^p 
Kbai bnj pwpwa nnw ^ftb pmb"! : poK OK-ip n^aa '^bk f'^pi nne K^a 
lanb iKW" Tp lat) nb dki obip ww^ 12 . on-aKa ibnn rtpT p-i p:t 
a^ea 6a^ '3 ♦ D.Tnra nnbwa lanKn Kb "«3ai ♦ aaip bipb inap'^i ♦^"jnpi 
"inan iwk -aiaa Kbi ♦ piw^ Kba ♦ ^nn^ biKP pnai ♦ p:3i bno Kba prro^ 
nnpi aica or-^p Tan na ipi •piino 'b nm» pnaj pn" D11 ./nt^BJ pano 
T'a'in npn^ ♦ g D\nbK nap wv ^a 130Q ^o bKb "^h v 14 an^po rtb ^rar 
nop3 "a pxa no lanaps "a ny no i5 ^^HHILl^ T^'^ 1^^ i3»pn kS 
bbcnn Kb nnKi 'm bp • ib bbBn3 "a 13b n3n3 noi b^p^3 no i inneyo 
on Kb onb vrw aion ba oaip OTa Kb p 16 ♦ ''a p3Dn hn) nrn opn ipa 
baai ia P3B3 ^a b''Pi3 no i5 'otk nnpi anb nn\n D\nbKno "a D03cpb la^pn 
D3 ^a an^rpoa nwpK Kbi onioa 'Oik Kbw ^300 npni o^yvn n3tp 16 nKt 
.>npn^ D^pan niK 03 oniOKW ^pr o^pgn "o noa '7 ♦onnbsn "npr 
lan nn lOKa anb pbn^ o^ban * Tpbstb pa3 nnn • dtk wbp Ka^ noai 
.nrTj3|Db pioa vrrtpis m^^K jnn oa nbw* •/D^0"'P3a ^b ht: o^ban 
nsK^ nac3b ibb3a nnoKV pw*n ppo •nbio in3y p^ai ♦mbpa »im3w 
aioa on-'O" iba^ ^^ baw nnw "^wnn p p anb n^n^ p « vk inoK** vKn 

• imaa brsw no innK nabno*^^ i3n< V3ab pr nibK 19 •omm biKr pjnai 
p3W no vna pwnb obrb ib n\ni inop3 kvi nKn vinK ipii rra^ ibw 

« Ps. CXX Vlll. 6. * Job XVIII. 1 4. c XX. 28. d XV. 28. e fea. XLII. 1 1 . 
/ Job VII. 15. p Mai. III. 14. h Ps. XXV. 4. / Jcr. VII. 16, reading 16 
for bn. ./Job XVIII. 5. k XVIII. 12. / Ps. XVI. 6. m Pa. LXXVm. 45. 
^ Job XX. 7. o vcr. 1 3. 


^fib n viK n»w wBn^ ^k dvk M^r- mo bv^ xxi. : OTuab rbr iiod ^^ '^15 
mo n^ mpr n? "^a viwr am ♦ ^3^5 iwKS mp hS ma ih rrn nnp npw 
Kia»b nawn iir xato Kb nrn nr D«^n nwa inbnai ipbn nn kti o^jw^n 
o^'j^gn 3nno 7 Dr6 nap tKi ♦ rwi d"tk pbn nr on 03 inoio kSw ■an vnmpa 
TKxo vh^ onacj nain m bn Ttt^ baa m k3»^ pnni ^h ai»i ran «rw rm 
DB13D ppib on^natp o^rBnn bsD loun m bba a ineoin naaa »i*Dinb njpo 
J D'«333m D^3ttn inion dim D.Tb^ ibD***^ D^wn nann 'oikw onxa pai vtvsd 
riB^ ^nan riovb ab Tonpnw no nm ^b vini "•» nxt \nni > ♦ nann sth ijrni 1 
> 3^rbn nannnKi ^oiemcn '•3'ik^3 ♦^aonab oab rr^rw oa^mainsn oipoa 
3^rbnb ••b pw pKiT'OK nan -"a wana inw\ nnn ba i3^3?bn naiKW nnn 'oiba 
aw^D pn'« D31 ^h na^r nab nnn Saw ^eb oan 'wb nnK Tn^ '^h 'm • jno 
n'vsK lb 'am ''aam 4 ♦ a ^vvy^ rit^ nbaa '^m 10a naivKia in33?«^ it^bKb 
^3aai ^Biaa ^npb ^aan ^ai ♦ ^aiba nipbb inno x-'n "jaw pvn d^k pbn nr 
n'p onan^tt; nann mn ^aw vrw : bwo3 vvn dtk bab n^nKW '3'B»ai 
mo *a3Kn 'me m mtajo « ^nn natpn Kb mo 'a'Ki *n3^awbi brbb nnvn 
^aab KbK yw pK 'a'Ki ♦ namai nana. ^aK oan onKb "oi %-»praa \nonn 
Kbi ^mi natpn Kb ma 'oan d^k ^aab ^n^«? pKtt; abn n3a ana j^kw onK 
D^pcnn pai -3^ bnanb •••on panb ^bK i3P 5 ,*ij?ac n^nn mr nanic 
np bp n^ lontn ^^nn npKD oainwK 'oa npnw ♦ lotpm ♦onb ^3ib'Wonw 
vnaT_DKi6 ""B IK iTP D^pttH 'Kw no "nnaT oanana dk "*t dkj ♦a-'vpnbo 
nnpn n^atbp n\pa TnKi m '»nbna3 onaiib oanan nK ab bp nw "n^ ck 
riKn ♦ "a\ rfpu^n onK pbn m 'tk 'hkw onnK o^pwn baa '•3K 'n^3n\w«^ 
boa Kn D3 • pnp • ornaaa a^a^ D'«niri yw cpirn pna 7 aab ^nawn 
/on^bp pa3 n^an ntm 'aa 0175 ♦on^fibpass .epHp nmaa nann 'a 
ana pin B''bi3 Kbi oap a^-'n anipa aT3pb avp npb abia ff *3ia3 nabaam 
■paab B'^aa nKm n'p nv^t hv anKatKan anan^ babab aTa pnnnb ^K 

a Job XVI. 3. b Deut. XXVIII. 3;. c Dan. IV. i6. d Job XX. 29. 
* Ps. LXXV. 6. /Judg. XVI. 26. Ms. oi*?. ^ i K. II. 46. 

XX. 22 — 29. COMMENTARY ON JOB. 6o 

ba lb nr tK n manb mao rrnn nKbon laeaa i^dko *T3-n pao riKSoa a« 
ia nbgy^ tK 'ispa nSob \'t a3 irY'nwib^ ^b nacnb i38ian wbm bar t ba ^a 
bp • <» nnoii rx D^nc lo^bp naa^ lonba nunb ib wn^ nbw ipk jr\n 
p£»irrwa4 DM nttD 'K v^^ ibaws vainb lonba iamb wa m»T«n inion 
no-^Koi nananoi np-aa mpno • nubw oTRttow la wtvai ann paa bra 
bia^ nw annn jo onx^^a ma ok 'h nann ♦nft^nn •nebw rbjn^ inuc 
*i^irw oeaa nn^s) oaam inp^ann pnn ^a nrob bia^ Kb ropo nvnb 
ppm K3r ijeaa pnm pnao prnw '•ftb i^toao pnn »iib«^b nrr' dk tjbv a5 
pn n br pian Kinr loxr pnn »iib«^b bar ok on ,iiw^ pnm pn bw rnaa 
ine ncno m^non ja ^ibn^ f\hv ynri ok ib nam ^b.T in*ii-ttyb ♦ * jiav 
ttTKn nt br ♦ ona^K vbr ♦ innacbi lapib |Baa "tkv^ nnvo3 row onKm 
pUDBn nr '^b p ♦ Ten nnub rbp ttr 'npana <: ik^ cou^b nbrv la "Tanw 
dy^hv in? V3ipatb poa ntpn ba a^ 'nnian inKW m br '^b ^nKXO Kbi 
n\T' w ♦ TKa r\p nr ib rvrw no i300 lo^bp'* oa oik -aaa D^bpn«^ "rairw 
np3 Kb VH inbaKn ib poat ai© anw tiao rrnw oipba ib rrrr ^wn riTB 
3n^ ^na mpa nncu bnaa ^'^ nbra 'm br ^K ev-n hv la-'K wkh m ^a 
oipo baa iKwab ib "nK ^a ebb-'W in^a ^5ab w-k awn*' bK 'ib 'atn ingy 
pv:tD inprx br niar naai obnti inoan iw d^op iba'* v obiav Ka»nrr 
^a -pawb ma pK g'rv Mniovr oik -"aa baw ^ nopipna pKi •/oean 

• y^iD TO ba Tiapntp T«br rrvsK "WKa nio ••aa oa o'o^Kb ib latn 

♦ "b^a Kvw hjDp rwipb 'oianna 'k'^i onnKb Katioi bbaa ktt ♦biybras 
ninaa ♦ nibaa pn mia^bn ♦ ibia^ oipoo ba^ T'K'bi wp mm ibia^ ba rs 
Kbi TT'aw pKi bian br 'pn bw ipk ora inarm nmnn rniKian na^n 
moK ntPK baa lan na pbnjrrig abni wano nnaan «niabfca nca» nwKa 
bKO 110K nbnai 'b"« ♦ lawb Kton br 'k'^ noK nbnai Tfi^brwa ^ba{p br 

a Fs. XL 6. «» Prov. XXV. 1 8. c vcr. 6. d vcr. 1 1 . ^ Isa. XXX. 33. 
/referring to XIX. 7. £r Nah. III. 19. /^ Ex. V. 12. « ver. 17. 


vai^p mw xai pap-n no-i K^a owaa *apn«? ^axp bj^ nittK -iwk3 ^ aapn 
♦ np'i rpa p^nan pk »» [Foi. 1 1 b] : pnac arn^^ na oik ^:a noio rm yK\ 
riDTno^ DK D^nnoaa sdw oaim n^vi nrr6 vm npino rvnn nn\-i dk 
maij? '01KW no^pm >om lan nina nayaai i3 nni^a^o pintsn law*? nnn 
baa np'»nr 'b i3wS nnn nvr\ »iioa kSi WKia Kb nnw nbr nbw vaibp 
wan nnano niwa 'ba ^ 'new n3W»n nw 'a 'b'ac'i ^an 'tbw loa .Tnpn 
lonb 14 ♦ c^ywh nnn oam ^nmp ^b vbx 'aa npnw niwa ywh nnn abm 
■nrira vSaRai lanb rjioa ^a pn -piia 'vnarh bav Kbw 'ib n»n rpaa 
nh ^a laacw kvi nain nbr ^pab ik lanpa o^Dnannnab h nana vj^aa 
i3>rp^ nnaa j6a a-'aaai bvi i5 lanpa fna nnna rvnv na aiba i:©aa nicin 
inru? nban ^aa^ raibp nwp nbn bx latyny n wbpnw laaaa *ib» 
\wn nna 'aai bwDnm an^ssn ^^wa-i '•injian ^ a^ana p>n i6 ♦bnpa 
naa n*ia ia ^bwai nwa ^inS ra nmn bik Twiara jnan Tini ♦ e napbi 
WTO tnwa 'aa nrn ^ama p ♦ nyax ♦ aSn la bnaai nan ^1n aaaan nn 
bapw ^ab B^pnatn ap nan^ nan abvb ban nrn abipa nan 'n'm /paac Kat^ 
nnam gyan aa -wk a^inan ^abaa n^baa tn^ hn 17 'ax p bp lan naa 
nanrai laatpa Kvi py^v na ik nnjn btair? na a^p-w nan nan pa^ a^pa 18 
b^nw btan S^n mn urnan lonw bvi a^wa kvw 'aa biaw na by a^r" ibapa 
Bibp^ Kbi ♦ Tian nain ih tow 'aa b^na fp p bp ♦ inman nnp jna ira^ 
p g pa«rn ba nawai bpwa bp KVin 'anap pr nba«? -ab) ip^a^ b-na «ik 
pnm pnja 19 ip^a^a ib Kar pa-n 'nab baia pi btaw a-wan p^a^ nnna 
TOa^ -naa rvn lom ana bitan ^a '* mra rrvo n^aa n-a p^anb a^bn nnaa 
laaaa rbr inrna rvKbja «> jhn lavnr laaaa nrba kvii p xbi laaa 
Kb btan p bianb i^an Kinr laaa nenw naa niana ♦ bian p nxbcn 
•Ta IK mba nnwa n%-i Kb Tan btan bp naia kvw ^ab Tn«y pK ai aba^ 

a Ms. 3*rn. t Cant. IV. 1 1. <? Ps. LXVI. 17. <* vcr. 17. e Dcut. 
XXIX. 17. /laa. XI\'. 29. ^ Gen. XLI. 3o. * Isa. V. 8. ' vcr. 15. 


^ara ibn ^ ittdh*? ^h rvn nwpTj^a nmn ism pni oonn ^p pjnac Kvn 
iT» pKw no najn in«rK w mo ^na imapm n» vjn ^3ttn ^w^ 
xaoss nan vrw nh ^ 'pn nxa r\i tow pT«n D^jnT '^yttn*? '^bk ♦ obvn 
in«i(i mar k^ ban \iin^ onn Dam bw -ivk d^kdwh m Sd^ dk ^a ♦ ia 
[a^a ♦ npi^c in XX. I J « )^ nooipno pKi -iwac laa^w^ nt *?jn innftra *?3i 
^a ^nnna '^t ♦ "a ■'pin p *iiayai ^n wb nan ^3n^»n ^p^pp rhn y^yi hv 
nawa wnan -nba ^nxi 'irna pna-i*? iv pDKnn*? *?ia^ "rnr ^a^wnb 
iA 'iDTOi iDn^aio nnKr raw ^»< ^na^Sa *ioTa 3 '^1^ ♦^nana thki i:^an 
na^toi nft-vi bw p-i nann *?w loia nr pxi ♦ c ann ^Dca oab ma 77^0 p 
WT_nKH4 ♦••a^vft^ ♦^33nK ♦ib nwb ^rar nnana paa ^3X ^naaa rrm 
obirn ani3 i^w 'w 'nnr piK ^hv dik -law np inw p ^ja a'nra rroa 
♦ rxH^yy anpa hk o^-'pnn Kb ♦ DWT_ronja 5 i dr\^:^'* nbi aan pVT panw 
Kb ^a <?npw pwb np^nx np "it ♦ pn ly laa gjyr nnawi ♦maK pnai 
Kb Kvn 'pn aniK ibKa obipb nK'naw t]3n K-npi na^-pna nn\-i Kb«7 rnnKa 
3^3^ arb wvrw iv inai3 ♦ ik^p p^awb nby dk 6 nKn^ai »)3ina KbK nap 
^a bbianna n^a ik /bb3n nra^ 'aa ibb3a 7 ♦ba^ Kb obvbw nno 
njnw mbaa '-0 tkw ^ab vi^srw nai ♦ dik ^3aa naK^ nscsb n^ainw ajn 
prrn laa tivi Kata^ Kbi pjir aibna s kviw np ♦*^:a'^wni ^3nKW3 ^a 'tp 
V3a 10 ♦ vapa Tan "i«i( f^vn i3mpn nip Kbi ♦ inxi inarw -irK tjP 9 . nb^b 
D-'bin DP iD^'ian^w pan p«^a 'K'^ o^bi ipwp na 'at pnonb lan^ vn lan^ 
rri '^aw 'aa 'K-13 /la^bi aip pan ""a 'H'^v ^ab baK ♦ 'P'K'aai mbiaB^bTan la 
Ti-a pK DK "Tp ♦n^a iik ik "iipa m^ la^w^ ♦imaa btair na i3ik n3apn 
ipina bpa a^mb ib tvtw na nripa nipa la'iDnb nan Kb dkw «xnp^nn 
raibp paam obp n'liaa ♦mw nisipwba maKi vniaaqy n ♦rinK vna-«n 
amm a3ia K\ni pnat iniK pann rnw nnp np dik ^aaa nnasi iabp3 nvK 
ba ^ vbp 133131^^ aniD^ n*" bp pn DniK nbaa nnp vrpa a^bpai nnaa 

a XX. 27. ^ XVIII. 2. c XIX. 29. <* referring to XIX. 7. ' Prov. 
XI!. 19. /i K. XIV. 10. ^Ps CII. II. ''ver. 19. 'XI. 14. 


nnnn nbv ^b^i . paij^a n^»n hp ninn n\T bna wa ^a ♦ |iaxn^ "nxa 
tm ♦ p'inn Dipa ^aa •nnw lonw nnwp n ws?"" pKn pih ^^wa na^nan 
K^ 'iba ^jipnnn nob ^k aoio i^ ^nyn^ ^axi as » nj^»? D»'pnm na-nan mnn 
^ai ""pn h^ ""SM ipoft"" 'iwKai 'oib nann priKi . ^5M mftTi^ oa^ rm 
K*?i nan lanan:? nam wn p ^p ^»n ♦ bmab ^*? aip^ ♦ ^a na^ ^amn 
K^i mana ^jpnrw ^n bnia ^^ r^ ""a ^njn^ ^am ')^ r« oai ♦ a^o main 
D^a nay by sm^'fti ♦ ^Dpnn oip^ D^aiinK nnna ^n nnr irK dki ^jp^tn^ 
nnKi ♦ nKT ipp3 nip thki a6 ♦^nata nw bp n^wi ^ibwa idp *?p pK 10a 
wpao ^n^n nw nwana mp ran ♦cn-'n «?Kna eipiaa 'aa oftpD ••mpr 
rrrw m^K mnib nacn ^n^M »ip^3m naibn ngptai ♦rafta nan wav» 
D^fiftw MW iwb m^K 'w «n ♦^na^n nrn n^Kn maon no ^b naip 
"•nnoKr ^anna nnt pio^ ^:iobni n>p ^tpw o^xnip nnio *?'^ oai ♦ n»aa 
nnacn ^hn wa nb ^a nbib onnana ""aTpntn^i ^/mo ^hd *?a ^anpn nbpob 
nsianooi ♦ nyaai ♦ bxiow iran '':vvtmb nnnn "pi d^pti" orxi ^ptna pn 
pnr "ab) ^b mnn "sk -wk a? inmaa "n^ mbn nnn ""j^ i:^^3p pirn ♦ ^nwa 
pm yna ^nvba iba y nnn kSi niD^** ♦ n^a^ni i>n '■a^pi nnn k^ ^ ww n"«a 
iD>rw oaa w^n pnoHnja as ♦ oTan maon^ nvbaw ^ftbi "jk kSk ana n^ats 
qnna no '"O ik ♦ o^xbna novo kvw la Katea nan ynp Kbm ♦ imonnn nob 
lann nnn ib^Kw ♦ n k»33 nan gnr xb m /^k 10a -aionnn nob nn hxw h 
oa^o oabnana ^aioa ipbn nhm ♦ ann "300 oab n^ ag "na b«D3 Kb rrw^ 
ni3TP rnana lab a^'Krnb vinac ova lo^apoi n^an o^pao onw non^a ^bp 
nnw v^'ipn ♦«'kw30 ^3ip bnab nbn rvtnp bp ann K-anb Kin W3tp ♦ ann 
pw ^a pasi can bp nbnn "nTnw npnb oaaab lo^w p jpobi ♦ ^nw p 
Kin pni bwa rm can I'nman ""nopr *n\nK nobw ]^v^ nnpsai nonppnp 
y ''^^'iP rrbn ^ nb avK nawn t\v} ♦ 'p 'k '^0 lai jn arw '^01 j^i ^a bipo 

d Job XLI. 2$, f> Job XXII. 24. cSee Im. XVII. 6. d ver. 19. ^ Prov. 
XIV. ID. /vcr. 22. IT Gen. IV. i3. * Cant. I. 7. Oudg, V. 7. 
y vcr. 6. 


mo ♦ nPHi nnpy -lo"! nnixoa ^nwanais^ -inn [Foi. 1 1 a] ^o^vtn ^hpi^ nias 9 
-irK tea ♦325J52ED1'** .^irxn iri Sp idi w ntjoi bna -iw rrnr nm: 

Hb^ h^') hx Yvnv dp poan "mipn pya yp^i ♦^nwaa omo pn ""S bai bsb 
K*? riKT *?Dai nbpob 'dw 'os nipn ib v^ pKa ittnw nirw n"T33n yn 

,</n^Kao pbo }Q ibfa^ /y'K 'K p^nin ^byo ^nx i3 v^y pKan pnion pww 
nn D1K nwh vnp nh nn /iSd ^ho 'aa w f^iann nx ^D "Dn "it 
D"'^"')jn 18 inrK*? nnt "inni 17 in-'a "jai vmnaw irYia nai is renvoi vanpr m 
D^S^iy 18 nba ♦ nar nbi napS K-ip^ 16 o^a^wb ib lacnj varmn 19 ia tokd"" 
mi ^rm ^)k 'awi ncix i:a^ttr nr ba *?pi onp: ik d^w^ ai^ ♦ ^tp ^bya 
nap*? pno ^nnw ik ♦^rro^ib ••nnio nsK 'bpo*? 'okw ^b^i 'rwvh "^bk 
^jab loSi a^aoo vrift^p-'W o^^inn om ^bpa OTon^ ^3»a ""ja bp ••nwKi 
naa K^m ttnso raa «nw dk ^ ♦ ^aa bp 'wn-ftw * '"ir« ^ja^ npnft 'aw 'oa 
. rwoa pim ono naim 'a "t^h kvi n^a r^innr inn ba n nani ino 
laonj DniK anuw nniaD tti pi lonb nob vipik om '^a^ '^a inai ^a 
♦y ppa rvn wa" caxp bp di>p im n'p pan: aatpn nyaai mpa » , o-'a^iK^ 
&-W D^jrn ""a ♦ ''3P iTpa na^pnKi 'ww vin ♦ nrr" pans "d^ki nro ni »*?aD 
riy:: nh^ n^ ^a ai ♦^"xi app" la-an ^wn-'BO ^mra nn ♦iipn jo mobtM mp 
ni njm ♦^-i onnip > ^pn onn ♦mo ^n^a *KbK nna^j? nao ^nao pni ^ 
'pn [0 Kan p kSi ♦maa'? btk ^a bar oinn vk n /n^ nan*?w lanp *?p 
aab nn ♦ m rip^^ ^iitp nom ^noxp ^3K ibtk m bp bK lea ^3ionin nob »» 
[jfvijtt 33 ♦ >papn Kb nrao nobi oa-o bnnb oab nn Kbi oaoxpo aKnb 
DTK ^3ob ntnvD oipo Dw boa 'ib nan-iw ♦ panai 'k nbnn ♦ yn vi looa 
pm ^a nooa onina vnw 'ib bnsn p ^vik ♦ Kip^oa ik ooa bnian bp 

a Job I. 20. * Ps. XXXVIII. 8. <: Isa. V. 2$. dEzek. XXVIU. 24. 

e H08. II. 8 [6]. /Isa. LVII. 14. ^ Job XVII. 14. * Ex. XiV. 3. i Num. 

XII. 1 ; XXI. 7. J Lam. IV. 8. * Ps. XIV. 6. / Cant. Vlll. 6. 
w Zcch. I. 15. 


yty nh^h nnoai "w^ -pi r\^hh T\r\p nv n«n 'ino nnn cu ijoi Ti*?a 

D^obpj D^pr-io K^K iDnan td^^kd oom b«3 jnw *?3b wvtv o^jnT 
kSk ♦ nb^nn Drroia aipon pK ^b bp «ik -pas nw^ Tna ^b^nnb omaow 
niab fnin ♦ nam ai^ |p»i xix. i '^ avK i:a'Trr» ni ban nabai irpi: oKnc 
np prKin [D D"'Dwnwp»^ftb ♦ a^apa nyp m 3 ♦pttn^DKW^ w? ♦P' 
*iwp m ^niK iB3n HT pn Kin p K*?i Kpn nwpw lawn v-ran pai u'a nr 
n*?wbi nwai ♦ pawn ba »iia nrw ••»*? ik ♦ a^apa naan iba ♦ « auapa 
♦np^p bp nnai rvann 'aa 'K'^ naa bv pj 'a^ab .wm ^a 'k"» fnann '*?Ba^ 
bwaa ""ba mur^ ^tt ^b^b "n^n naar www aa^-aia rrrp a^an q>n 4 
aab w^w B3aK an s , vjip ^nbapw ^nawa pbn ^hk ^bp aab na ann 
ax ♦ Tap pxi nrai ^sa^banbi Tiann ''bp n^mb ^nnx ara ^^ aa^a bnn*? 
aK nba ♦ ann^ni ib*?n nimpan ••:» '^a ^a ma^K in 6 , h'^^n '■bp aaan 
mbK^a aipa baa ipn Tiann ^bp '■amaini anana ^brj^nanip 'b'P'k aaax 
nn TiTpai ♦ nx baa law 'la'^a .Tn fottn ban ♦ '»3ia^pn nmacai nniip 
aam ^amip mbn ""a Kia^K irr ♦ -inv T)patb nn i:p^winbi la^banb m^n 
rnK' ♦vbn n«na nbw ^a mba 'aw nam ♦rmaon aipa bn ^niK 
annw xbi "nabb ^a^n aipea a-^aa K^am gi''pn ^bp nixai . ^ na appa 
■■amp mbK ^a wa^ pnr naai ♦ bwaa ^ba nnw nn\-i ^aii ••a ^a-na nriaca 
^HKam ^pwa nai na bp ^jpnvi ^jia^pnw nmabai aan bp proL ^»w ^ab 7 
^axpa npwaw ♦^nann nnn Tiaawa p 'ax^w ""b naip i:'ki napK nbi 
♦ ibKT ♦n^n«n bni <?mbK ap naab nai^w pwk ♦</B^na a^jat Tna nabnw 
*QPKKbTvim"iHy 8 vjab xab bia^ "•rxi /vja bn '•a-n n^ww cawo 
bwa i-n bp t\i bai ^^aa^nn a^awnaa 'aa ^nia^n: bp anp^ Twn nr labai 
nab Tip Ka^ Kbw naxb mxai paw irn ibxa TVD^]f^ -jboi ^:ab ppiata 
'IK p bp moaa >ewanb ntitai imai Tiab in^ja t3vi nb'^nna tkjw ib^Ka 

fl Num. XIV. 22. * Job XVIII. 9. c 1 K. XX. 40. <* Prov. XXU. 5. 
'Job XVI. 21. /'referring to XIII. 15. ^Lam. III. 6. 


m«n "pn nhv pn: mi ♦ a hbhti m^ro "n bp >vbnb Piftn mrpni -pn 
IK ♦ P^D^c r^y ptn** 'OKr ••»*? ^ijik am \t '3 ♦'?»33 Kb p 1b"•Kw^bn 
npbatb lora or no p53 tk^ ♦ i*? irK mk ^idk*? ajn ^n^ iStun kvto lawr 
np IT Sa» -irK nwKn nn ipSan ♦ i' law n^rKn 'oa ♦ niaa w? ""^^ ^"^^^^ 
apna nm cwnt -wai iftia ^b:p to30? Kin tk tdthw istk I'lijy na Ssk^ i3 
bDU( non irKi ^'apn ^bbna wi ann ^bbn D^ai»«7 ^bwa ^S^ pio^"' '^rpi 
'K'^ ♦ nia *iiaa ina bsK" ♦ ia baiK nonttr ihikS nttD tk ma VMtra kti 
ia nB*?wn nion nbnn ♦mo niaa 'S'" dot ♦f vismk "tiaa n'v n^ *?w ic? 
*?ro Tp imaa mon naa^w 'P'k '^oi ♦mo^ ip nwai inaK nS^aK kvi 
pi»a rrbp 'vd invK bp nan imo bp naiw vik inoao ibnKO pnr i4 
^noT t'^p nnoK nwKa inisao ik r^K bw ♦inoao K\-i/nbpa a*? na 
. imTaeni vrpca noia rrn na ba ♦ * obipb wna oa-p nm bp ♦ s ^pr\i 
vhv nwan nviba bp n:ioon 'iwb ♦ mn'?a nhth rrw Tanw vijkp 
w ♦ibnKO inatp inabrn 'irKai ♦I'mnba 'npa a^ao 'okw inn ♦naT*?b 
Dibwa mo^ir noa "WKa k^i onr Kba ia nrK ba mbab ibnKa tarn i5 
♦ynatiK Sa nr-ir n'^oi nnoo 'tp 'npa ima Sp mir .i:p dp ^'^ ptj'»wi 
np nnne '"ipnp ra"^ 16 ♦rmr nnpn^a iki *na mpa mioo bn»^"»no«r: 
bpoo vno TOWK) "I'p D^3ai niaK*? bwo vm ♦ /rjapi rw ib atr Ik*?! nwK 
narn Sk ^iiko imoinv is ^ob ^b or k^i naK nai 17 ikw inn »« nnno in^^-wn 
hv^o 'nacp na^brni im ♦ imTs^ banoi . « ibnKa yon tik jpoS 'okt vtti 
mv D^aionpi on-a nioow iK*ii ♦pnnKO op^ nwK ♦ o^ainnK 10^3 lor 
^TK^ pK 'o6a nbKTKai ♦imoa oKia^ ]t ooatp bp "WjiniK vwm ina^a 
nbanj oow ibriK nrnai nr^i on nvnb -naoi n^ bx^T bip maaiPoS m ba 
rrrw n-iin |o aw*? iKma Tan p ♦ bK_PT_j6r pipe nn ia nbip patmr 
nawn it p-ar -napa ni«?^i n^atntt? bipn Kin Pipo nn K\n n-nr ^ na no^a 

«Prov. I. 17. * Gen. XLIX. 3. <^ Isa. IX. 19. <* Lam. IV. 9. 

e Ps. LXXXIX. 28. / Prov. XXXI. 11. fi' Job XVII. 11. * P«. XLIX. 1 2. 

I ver. II. yOeut. XXIX. 22. ^Isa. XXX. 33. Uf. MaL IIL 19. 
»« Amos II. 9. " ver. 6. o vcr. 7. 


a^no "lanns noino 'vh irotts iS r^ an ♦ ir-oia ib nawDi t3"dp3P 
♦^ ^30»wn »)nB ifiK 'pn bp niOK nnn ♦laa^wK ^:k ^an p3^© Kinw « a^nrSc 

•p^ spr "'•• bpi ♦ nana n^^Doi waa^P^* "'^^ '^**'"' •'^™ ''^^^ *"•"* I^ ^^ 
'prm 'h 13b »"«? lb a^K^ ^annv 'tk nnxw Tnapa ^n ♦ aipnTDPobn 
wnn i3^Ki cpttn i-^a n3n3 pK 'taw 'oa ♦wn i^a n3n3i p-ttw mk aiy 
wpao iiac pnjn n'^menbi niSaS b^v *?k d-i«o k^k pnacn npiata 
nnr law 'i*? 13b w^ laba ^3rob^ ^/inpiat itrKb a^r" Kbi ♦laSip annrfe 
3m3 abipn nw 03 'nt mKD3 5 ♦ ^h two na r«Kb r3n nhv nnanr loa 
lajm "IT trh^y^ vrw 'oa ipt a^ygn "iik p ♦ nniapa n3nw3 k^i un3aa 
> Trr vby ♦nt bj^ nTT" nnn pm /•iapi3 w noxp by 'okw 'oai ^ '0^*5 wRa 
arw a^a^aw 'a ♦a^ar * vavn vbp xan nbi *grhv rawn nnni dx ht 
TK 'Bai ♦n^K^ ♦nr ♦^bvii n^Ra kitw maaa iTipa nb n^n « vm ^am 

♦ '•'b3n annaa mapn^Bn ♦ inia i3W npsc yrrr ♦TW7 ^'w TwnjTjKo 

♦ inawnai maty via^brm ♦ ba"" m ♦ rpia nhv an*iaa ib'»b "Tiao Kvwa«r 
va^ iba^i naia na^wa nap^'bi aibwa mab nna .thw yorrwaonaa hv ny 
♦*^aab ntma pn3 ""maT nbpa*? 'anw 'a pnan ^p3 kvw ann mnr ••»*? aiaa 
c^aaw 'aa naap hvt rhr^^ irnw ip nma kSi jn^ kSi ^npna nSip ^a s 
B1K pKw nta ni D^aaD3n w*irn ^aa am ♦ ngn bj^ baa • 'naaw nwjwa 
•aa BKna iab3 p bj^ rrtt^"" HDinv -naa rrnw inis kS kvd ana nnacb bia^ 
m TfTHsrai .lappa inK3 nan *vhry a^nnb maawa .appajmr^ 'aKv 

♦ i3aa iK-i-w ban ♦nabn anaa nb-^nna ^a a^arnn arw o^aac vby pwr 
nabi ybv nnn b3 nnan 'irna b^ir bn inn'»3D'"i vbj^ wt inbaa aminai 
inKom vwa vnrivi nb bwa "tp iban pna pae p 10 imiataa \on Kb 
rrnn bwaaa 1113 Kb p hp a^T nnai ^53 nrnb niaa n^n Kim ai«n nnrw 
vnKa pn abanb arn Kbw np mnba vnnyaa^aan p nnw ♦ Tiaa nan 

d Gen. XXVI. 1 5. ''Job XVI. 9. <^ Job IX. 24. ^ Referring to XXXIII. 26. 
e Ps. CXVm. 12. / Job XVII. I. g Ex. XXII. 2 (3). * Deut. XXIV. 15. 
i Ps. XXXI. 9. J Pa. V. 1 1 . Af Job XVII. 11. / i K. VII. 1 7. « Isa. X. 34. 


]T\ nni»n ^D -np nw nnn ^mpm ^na iftp ww non nBD wabw nw ^y 
•viK ^mpiat ^b nop^ nai napa bsKW "mo ""vtk ^a »|>n ♦ nr "3ip vi mpa 
TK mtoioai onaa ^niK ixiDnra biKty na i6 r)Kw "^na r)K ••*? nop Kbw 
Hbn n nebw nan piw opn -iwa k^t "*?w nj^bwn ntnn ""OP nsTin 
-613 n^ Hhv m nap3i ••-ok dp cbw "Wi .Trw *ipp by nn^ dki ♦ imo nnn 
"bjna ibft" nax ban ^b 7\'n nm nnrn nap "3a'»pT nhv np ^^na nbai narj 
BPbn 'IK 'nw DrwnK rroa p dki vnw D'^aiai d^wjo T^a *iapKw onip 
T'K'61 /iiaj^ 'p^Sk -I new nw ♦* bap ••anjo oniw xxds « 'k nvainjn ^oo 
IK ♦c ona rpm laa ♦ noab pp ^Krn ib-Ka bwo Tn '^d-pd ♦ Smr na 
D^binm oniK lo^r' or*? nb^b i3 '^dw noa ^ftn 'ca r^ ♦ na bp nnin aw^ 

♦ TBTin_25a pna pn n\-i Kb anpa mi nnp ♦ nnp 'h n^iKW niKni n^anw 
D":an p fb^Kn s^ioa pK»"» [b^Kn ^ftjp laa onK*? orw D^jan on na 16 •••bi 
D"3an a-n .<?n>p na baK" ♦<'nna noaa vh wtm "rp .ciKn rji^a 
nm .Tn tk napD am ^k iw dk i /3K pn "ikwd k^i nap n-j"" naa ^mbvw 
T^i bp avK nawn nrr D'nn" /o'Tinj onK aw nm 'aa ♦ n-i3 nm ik ♦ ^b 
•jwaa nipbb imaa rnw p»-i pKV a^wi Kvn ♦ nr ba vma ••a iS inaKW 
}aat3 Dab ^ai pjpn bai ♦'oapw ^a*" ♦<?*!-!» laK "aK nvKa pia'«a ^nKnb^ 
"aap tia^rn nsK np 2 :Tiba ^^yvr nr bpi xviii. i naKn pnanb bara 
la cmvi pnn . pj pnan bp n-iv ixp ^acp nwn ^a »i"idi pp 'aa ♦ pbab 
J\%^n pj non Kin» n-iv 'annn ••a nan 'aa ^atp nvn nam ./D'»b"na ptpi 
p bp ♦ lantrnb ain« nan ppb naxai p)KW aaa nnK ba 'ik pi ♦ Kntya 
nnKi • an na laiai man nb^nn iran ♦ man pn par** ana a^wai nnaa 

• nmm niana ks bKV aY»K 'hv 'aa ♦ nanaa ^arna p^na 3 [FoI. lob] nana 

Tan baipi ppiat hvw lap pnm ♦*mn^nanb ppn ♦bawa max oab ^a 
B^n anK aa^ypa ♦ ni bp lantr-'w aaa nnK pKi v^na na^^naw ima^ bp 

a XV. II. *XVI. I. cEzck. XXVII. 6. ^/Ezck. XIX. 14. 

e Job XVIII. i3. / 2 K. VI. 9. ^ XVII. 9. * XVII. i. /Ex. XXXIX. 3. 
J Ezr. VI. 9, VII. 22. *VII. 7; XVIL 4; XVI. 3. 


noia »aw3 D^pp nnibi hvtih maaa 'n\-W3 i^vvh . ••n^opn *pn nSm 
bs nto D^apb onb ^n^^n T'on mrov nnftriD nnrn wk mnDi •ncjni 
^D ""S 'noiK am f^nn fb a^ran nrao ^n-n "d ^^k a-p*? d-itt rn ^a 

an^^th ^3K •Tiaai ncini ♦td^^k ik SKDn "sratm t'K'di ♦nrjrbi hu^'pn 
\niK po'^paow DPM n3C!7 ♦ J^yifio Qipo nam ik 'hp ^^yvhi^^ pmw^ nnp 
D^ia^Kn IK ^D" > nix^ ♦D"'rrn "•iko yrni^ opsa ^3 ♦^pnam Dma-n 
♦ Dn^no^bDO obis bata o^wn ^:ft n-flan w cTian^ '^a^ n'p .onann 
^)T03 p3i 5^K2» bp au<3a Dft^Diia ibro'n ♦ nxn npnn *?p ongn ipiy^ s 
an^ -ojn'» nTipn^ wp'toi n naiam ^npn gan Sp Ren kSw loatpa v^w 
Hhn naip*? k^w nittrn rsnni^ ai«rr k*?]^ ♦ ?t^ ^v pnw*? bar ^o ^ lop 
mp rra im ibio nhv rr\ hv 'pn nmap n^r kSi nai»n lann pnac tnr 
ipja po^ nip epDv iftaa oon pnw p''-;^ nnpi </d\'iSk nap ki» rrnw ar^S 
^^p nar -i\pk ba o^ia obiio lo opia mat vSp Kaa »iann nnoa xbi ♦ vpa 
K3 iKai lawn ik ^3K ♦ o^pnam o^^pani onttrn ba hn "*t ik ♦ onnoKw loa 
]D2" D'Hin orw oaaw ipn tr^K '^pk aan paa KacoK kSi oa^ma^a wain 
^nipt ♦ ^na1fi "p^ ttrr'pw ♦f ^Kan ^p^ai np ♦ iboai inap ^nai» ^^ ♦ nap 
•npi pa ^patpa n^P ^n^n ^a ba pibwi naiaa nipb "nawnv ^niawnp ♦ ipna 
bna pnpnp npn t^i/o^T''^^ hk jp rpa*? ^unip ♦•lapi piria ni bai . pn^ 
'>n^t ♦orjb ^b ppntrp nS^w »a ^nipnat *?p "•amoaPi ^aarrip ^a^ rrnr 
mpp ^mn pkw i3 t^khi ♦Twnjapp ^narnpa ^h aiip rrn njK n^anw jaa^i 

aavSi 25H1252*' "^^^'^ ^^"^ "^^P^ ^^^ T^"^ • ^**'"' ''^ T»i3 ^rra^ww 
nrrp*? u 'ik p bp nbai a*pnp ^mn »)1P 'n'Ki ^^ p^an p-npnp aawpa ^naaa 

na ba oSipb ••aapn"' -opn nppv map ^n*n kS nnKjoK ^nampa TiKnp 

nnp ^nn ^a vnvpiKi rnw nsKi raK b:tH ^hTrD pikp nppn n^riP ^nmp 

'PKV Kvn HKt ^nipn np^K rpKi i5 ♦ np-i ^a pbwn kSw mpn pra napa iih'h 

mpa apno '•piai ^a n*?aiK npn ^••na »ikw nnp 'pikw ^mpn naaa mpK pk 

a Job XV. 34. * Gen. XXVII. i. c Ps. CXXXIX. i6. d Mai. HI. 14. 
<? Dcut. XXXIII. 25. /Obad. 17. ^ 2 Chron. XVI. 14. 



^n^ab vho n^nat bv ^nnj nan 'm bv ♦ iftww T53n ^oi nsinw ^on "psn 
naajna oiporr rrrrw ^nppt nftOi^jDpojrrbin ♦ m5«7 nm nbv *a moan 

♦ Dipo NT bm Dw 1KW nftiD nsDoa ^nnator no ^o^i ♦ v^th nan k^w 
bapb Dipo r'r 'oi ♦ opo \'r bw) mpj \t ♦ o^pnoj pK«r morn [O hvw 
K^w^wjnaa pnrr n^jcrocajw ♦pr-n nnpoa ^anpp nry 03 19 ♦^npjn 
^fi^ ami Y'hnb nr^b n\n» ^rbo » . bioa opon ♦ p^oi-ioa nnpi *nRon 
mbK^x ^3 yn ♦ "ap^ttnnb kSi npa bbonnbi Halons^ oab n\-n ^p^ ^f^*^ 
^b K»n nrK ••0 piSn nv ["jtosI «rKi v^kS nsAjpraw 21 ^^^ npono ncSn 
IDS n onsn on d»o d^-ioik onr ^a 1^ ^nKon ^3»« dk • Trana naian ""O 
^b^^ nno Ka^ i^ o^aTXpn onn ""^n maw ♦ vnK^ ^tat^ nrw ^a >» 'ow ^jxr 
•nn naai xvii. > naivnb ^n ^mya ^nat '»3»« p bp ♦ aw^ k*? hvh nnna 
^o- > layn ■'O'' ♦ voo jn nn irano O'^nSna •novo oiKra ^a ♦ ^^na nba^n 
nttD wa'?^ '•"na "b onap '^0 ik p^ o^'tap ••Ki*?n nv rnK^ nbi o^amn 
po^bnow D^bnn e-binn k^ dk j ♦ onso oao ••*? pm napa ^3»« ibna nai non 
«1KW "a^y |bn * ^a bnn p^am oa ♦ oanai onnenai ♦ pn nnn pn "a 
pp^K nb ^a nmao ^^ pK omo^a w^a-io ik oa^-on nait ^3K«d n^-'ba 
n^b Km ^0 ♦ ifhu nriK ik nai»b wk any 'pn k3 ne^ 3 ♦ ^n mo^p np 
:nnK nan bj^ n^n n^oaor onK nnna ctp ^ppina nn bn 'oa ypn^ 
Ka^jwnav ib r^Tvnnb nawKna man n\PK .wbn nnK ♦ naoac oab ^a 4 
♦T*Q"o wn ^:k ^a inoK^w baro naoat ^^^n nKr bv oab m ^a ^b» 
oabna n^a "•o nn^ 'pn naaa dki ♦ ni ^nana ^bnnm oonn nb ?a Sp 
^wao bp aiKao o^o^oioi ♦^^nan ^na onap ^S pKnw ^^'•awn ^bao 
Toa D-'O^anoa p'^ oa^Kw n^atn kSi bhik oeinn Kb |a bp ^apnrnnb 
noiam o^noar pbnb ""O tk ♦ o^rn to^*?K n^a" pbnb s rfpKvn vaon rhpth 'okt 
D'rnb 'pn n-'a^ m bp ♦«fmoSa r)3n nnp ^a 'dkv 'oa ^b ^nojnnw ik -ynw 
innpi ♦ vaajrp ^jann Katontr imw ♦ ^jann labiao Kin -0 amn onSi ^*? 

♦ ^aa^atm e ♦^''w tpn nnp ^a/wo vaa ^pny^ ^bnnoKnarKa r^p^v^b nyhzn 

a Ezck. XXIV. 8. ^ Gen. XXXI. 7. c Prov. XXII. 26. </ Job XIIL 8. 
^ Job XV. 34. /Job V. 4. ^ Job XV. 34. 


^^P3 hnn ••» ibn k^i s^jb ""ww d^wh ^-n^ '»3j^Sa*? on-piai ^by inrc »« 
•H'^ ♦« nSa 7inK imp 'as nftOKn^ ♦pi6orv;j|^pjrn ^^nb lan npnna tk 

an OKI .cynri ©t ^3 'oa ♦n'n^p 'h '*?•• d)i ♦D^nm orKir ^Jjiwn n^UD-i 

^D iTioK nriK tft^^K ♦^n"'\n i^^p »» ♦••jvnn^i "hv vidk now ^ab d'tw nw 
DKna nio mo^ Da-oa uph vh en hk tDKia^ tiw oibwaw d^wi Tm 
D^aan'bai ♦••lan 'wh *dnni\tm 'iia 'oa ♦^nana"' -wKa w\n v*?wj^ ^jioa 
nban 'a ♦pi|Ta '^ ♦nbaj^rmo 'w*? ♦^nwp n^ii 'aa r^jn i3 naia aw pwi 
^nvba iba *UMrw 'aa nTi) nianian anTtr^a 'ft ♦^'pp'oi nbft^ J-i^on Sk 
ronwi KM ^a ^nnno pK^ Ift^^^i ♦«pinwK "nvbai nn 'k p Sp ^p^a 
nbajSpis ♦TipKB-i^ K*?rrx»n bnnS ♦ pp np bp pip 14 ♦a^Kam^ 
♦ ppa lana bbvan a^Kai vbp mnp: pn vn nn^^r ♦ pxpn aipa Rvn *\ip 
ttnp3i lap nyn pn^j n'^a bpa prn rnpn^ "nnawa ••'iva mp ^pv '■n^^ 
i-fapn D"'Bapi prbai [FoI. loa] ♦^ppa ^bwai wa wa laaa f?^va ^3kw 
I*Tpa n^^p pn^ nb ban ♦ ^nw^^p "rbbipi 'np vdtti 'nv '^pi ♦ T^a hv 
fa KVTV n"»aia i*?r hv rm jibjf ap "^p anaai ♦ e)ian baa k^ ok na*? 
*?p nba ^by ^nnpn pr ♦^a '^pi ♦nnp aia ""a ♦ apr 'y^ 'aw ♦ a^bipan 
noiaa ppri nam ♦ ^a^ip hv "ipp Stp ^nna na •vim pwa ^n^^a nipn ba 
pjwa Kbi 'ippa rm lanp *?pw birn ""a "k p'n^K vjb^ tt^i pwa »iuti ippa 
^n^pm laa TibSnan ib ir aai ♦'P'k 'jn Spi ♦la^^^^K ai*Tp pwbn mi ♦*?naai 
rppa liana niabnai /^pa iiaian 'aa iiaian ^aa 16 :*Bnn'» bpiaa iniaai 
^noam ^nbias? by 'aib "^la*" cik pnr ^^ paa pan nh hv 17 ^prai aap fwh 
^nb^pnn nh '^a w ♦pi K^'antr 'pnb ^nbb^p k*?w n^wn n^pa ♦ nainnb^pni 
bnpiK 18 ♦^a nrnS ^iki ^aptwa ^ ♦ o-'b'bp 'ba ^nS^pni 'K'i ♦^nnanw *?p 

dJer. XII. 6. ''Isa. XXXI. 4. c Num. XXII. 32. </Isa. XXIV. 19. 

c Gen. XXI. 20. / 2 K. IV. 39. ^ Ps. CXLI. 7. * Job XIX. 27. 

«Ps. LXXIII. 21. JGtn. 27. 40. *Nch. Vlll. 6. /Lara. 11. 11. 



TTiTH ^platn ^ob pjpn n\T ^riD^ t'K'd ♦n^KS ♦ n3yn^3nar"ia^naiK 3 

'nn D3\pp3 tt^ 1^ 4 -loiKr '03 ♦^npr iba nbi oby^a ^^m .-TTpai yac 
03"*?^ ^^ pn^ kSi da^bp p "TaTK ^ftj 'nn 'Drw «r dKr "iBa v^ ♦ ^wim 
HRn" nc^oi nn npi n:ip ^3Kr ^br h'tokw ^33X p3 'nnft p Sdk "nh 'p 
^3 ♦ d3P»fti DsnKon npmw on'TaKW o^j^ann loa \-i"'M dk na^o "an oaa 
dnT^^w '^t: nnn oarej »•• h^H San ♦''3i*?nran d^rmn omK 'rv ^a 
da^p nana ^n^n daioa xnai v^w ^n-^'n *»o wd k*? bp ^3ioa 
Tp ^cKi Ida da^by raa ''n^\'n oanK pinbi ponb d-^aio d-'-on monD 
pnK TTia Kbr -i^aoi nv ^n"'\-i "a da^^p pwnn*?i maa^ «w>n rs'n dw^ 
dnxi r^p^h ^skw nnp ban ♦daaxa 'yon^ "din^sa viw^jnis on^p*? 
oa-nan hv axa irn" xb lana rvanb iftObn anna nnaiK ^3K axfi duanaon 
p» *?a ♦ anan p nbn^ "30 no ^aio^apn nhv na 'la^*? bnnK d»ti 'laoHnw 
h ^1H^ 'pn -3x'?n w Tanw ""aKa ''3Kbn nny hk 7 pinrx dK ^axa hi^'Vf 
•ine jai ♦^sd bj^ wns d^oopn -3ttdpni 8 vtti ^m > ^mp ^a mo^pn 
no ^a rrn npb ♦n»op3 np x^a ^a d-'oopn ictt^ans d^aan pw^ai *iedip 
"a 'nftb bai3 aai '^303 nnrni pw ^a niW3 nbw ♦ npna "a ap^i ^^^ n-ipw 
ctt^ttT IP3J aw d3 TiDKa ^na'^ ^3iKbn nny "jx ib 'dwi ♦ id^^k nasb na^o 
♦ ^'larm "^mao laai pnroi ddwa nnnn ma^pn nt *?p ot3^ dnaan nvx 
tatpb ^3toapm ♦ ^^aa TiaK^ nnj^a ••a ^aiaa nnr ip naw ••n'riam "niy f?a 
K^ ♦ TnaKP aian ♦ nrna ■'a ap^ ♦ ^^p *pr a rvn'y:^ ^ktj ^a nr br *Tan 
••Kva Sax ♦a-rnb na "h j^ ^^ -iaxn naa ax "^rHtrt ^a narjaaar ""nxan 
QTib i^xp d^3?n\n d^rtmb dxon ri^a la^x '•a m by ^nawn na n^ana pnv* 
x*?a Tai "xana Taa faxi px "a mnb T'ix n\n ^b bax ^nxan nb "\h na 
T\^m: ^hv n^ *nrw ^aaawi •nb-'bj? x'^a nnbxb gjna lax ag ynaa "nn'^x 
^ lax mnw dbi3?n mxnai ■»'? va^y rabi ra^ra ^by pnn p nat nwnai 

<» Jcr. XVIII. 1 6, where the text has wnra i'3\ *Job XXII. 16. ^ Job 
XV. 10. 'i Job XXI. 5. 


nrnS pK" Kb IT Sk bK nojv ma xwa npna nrn in^K jojrbK 3i ♦ a aw 
inn^an rrnn kw ^kti ^s ♦ n^n ^3d aw t"^^ x*^ '^^ '^'i^ twwd p>w 
♦ppp riKttnj Dio BD^^nnb -vairw inpar nbon ^r Kbag n 3a ooim bna ba by 
nswnr naiD hn ♦ranjcb rrnnr jusk^ k*? ♦^onon nica 'oa ♦ incai 
obn^i ♦<?Ta'«pj^ iDonj laa ♦^ib-a j\wh im ♦morrttD33 ^k .Tnn rayp^ 
.n^Tt pi ♦rnfin -vik 'ntT\ nb^nn nw jftn nbaaw 'aa ^ noa nbrwa ifi^a 
rm^ baa laiai nna ana Txp ^jcb ^a n br nn ♦ va^ib ^npy^^ Kban m 
jwbai ♦tfmb^ba naapi ja baan niK mpaa nban 'aK 'p'K'ai ♦<'nx3 
"ua w^ B31 ♦ ma 't oipaa /am: iKta 'ok pi ♦ n n^nai ibbua irnian 
Kb aiai mrn nana nprow iniK imttna ♦ rjbK Kba 'na wa iKxaw ^ab 
vaa nT ♦abis; aba 'pn aniK irKv . f\^n mp'^^ h vwa nman ^a paK^ 

♦ * -nn pina lai Kba mab: rrnnw Kin jn ^ "saa pm aabi ""jnaa vnaarai 
^ab «Tab n w^ Kb a^na 'kw 'Tp iny ^brm nn^nrm nbaK pw p kvi pii 
rwxvib pK nb^i ♦nnKX anaa abaw npin narnan ^nw bap mn pjs 
wp Kbw anai nanbi ►j-'Dnnb nnasn a»nab ran nana pan aaaai nwpab 

♦ TKua BP nainnb natnwa avK awKaw la-ibK naw dkt awn nvi i rr^ 
niainana wK^^nnb ib n^n Kbi inKn^ ^aa•nBa^ inK»m ipwa >pmn Kb nab 
avK •oa'»ttn m bpi .nv^^ Kba a^Kainn p pnab K^n p 'pn nnai bK 
Kba B"'Pttna rna Ki-ivn pnx bik pKw ni p-n^ kvi ww bap vaimnw 
'TP Bn^pra ppnv aaxp ym apwa pnuw a-'pn^ a^prna m baK ♦ r^v*^"* 
baK ♦vwpa irna"" wa» baw Tionb bar Kb nw Jrv bK bK na: ^a 'kv 
J B"»3aai ►I'liai paaa ^3pmw na abvaw pirnb p-'in Kb 'a'a'p'K ^pwa pK "jk 
«}Kw pn ^3ab ♦nwK mb^ pnar Kbw nbicjnpara ♦avKjri xvi. i. 
vbK awb awi tnan nmai mbvia 'bK 'Tavwn ^ai ♦*v3^pa lai Kb v«mp 

♦ anaw bnn la^bK nnK '^bk ♦ aabia bam bapi ^ansa baK ♦jDnnnbi 

a Ps. XCII. 8. t Lev. XXIII. 40. c Jcr. XIII. 22. </ Isa. XVIII. 5. 
e Deut XXIIlT 26. /Isa. XVIII. 2. ^ Isa. XXIX. i3. A Isa. XXX. 17. 
'vcr. 28. /vcr. 25. *Job XV. 15. Oob XV. 11. 

XV. 23— 3o. COMMENTARY ON JOB. 46 

D^pai p33 rp nroa rr" *:v rv ♦innata^ rn< ♦ oribb kvi td3 »3 ^vw 
ptrrn > inppnn ♦vriTnc^ ♦ imnra" 34 iriin hn r^pi^ nKxb nrn av n^a 
♦ irrab ^Tiy ibaa ♦^nnwan ^o^ la^pn 'aa ♦awa*? pam ♦ npiacan laaa 
'nacn 'pi3tan vnaaia"* p ♦ ib^m Kin rtmp yp aaai marjn ^na '^^na kdw 
Sk ♦^na '03 ♦nrraS 'ai ^vnia^aa b"»3Vi apm nbajnaa ^K«n tp rrm 
•a TiTab 'IK w^T B^a-i larn 'iwo 'mar nrKi nbaiD 'arw ccn^ nam jhk 
onpi^ n-pn rr'nor^ -Kiii iban m "a -or 'wb oaan nn "ixaw ^'Ta 
^K naa as [FoI. 9b] ♦ ipim i-iwra invnar nt ba in-\p nab apan iki ban 
na^i ♦ nw nnn vnw aniKi ♦ np bKi ♦ a\"nbK jn^ iki aianbi biwb tt^k 
^aipan-iKTiac pnna bibrbi Sinb ♦ rraa "aa ''apa *iKiata v^k yrv ^ ^aT^K 
bK awn "aya nbai <?B^3^3a ""p^dk mw 'rv pnm nw pwb ♦waa ^aa 

♦ '3?'K npn p ♦ »iun ppnna ann-a 2J2 ♦ niaatpn bp rraai "iKiacn ••aip 
tt^ i3ar ainai nKna ibaKai Stan ta labna V3p na^a ^a a; naia nn na bjn 
B\nbK pK 'IK ^ab^ nth nann rbaa bp baa:w pw vtt rtea bp "a 1*? 
wm6w B^Tjai maanai nnnap nj^'nnr anp 28 taw nnpi ♦ nKi nnbstna 
Bipa anp pa\y^ y •*?"• aai ♦ naaai anta nana Kba aw Kim ♦ abvb mp 
WW nnpnn nwK ♦ a""*?: nrnb p-^np pw :)nnh ia nnpanb aw n pKW 
m B^K ibn a^-pn^ vh^ ♦ mp ^wm6 «) J abip bni a^b^b anp ^a'la nn^np 

♦ iniBDb Tnnw bnK '^bk pKb maa Kn** Kb na" Kbi rr^a nKwn apan 
anpnbi biwbi bibwb naj nwK pwnn nr "a 'ib nn-i • anb nr k p ♦ abaa 
pKw anp jniKa ibnK niaab bav nwK np biwb bar Kb mp ♦ n"»ab n'^a 
Kba '•n-Ki 'i-a nanni . "b 'Knj 'wbn nt ♦ anbra bw nwK baa a-na pa 
pjnb pn Tpn ••ja baa bnK mp na^ Kb . a^na aniK Dipaa ^a "•» tk . apa 
Kbr3o <ix /nwn Bv n^a paj ^a 'bkw ^abi ♦aipan nvr n^T maabi 
/TB^ap vmp^j" WK-i HK 'n bp onan vja onpar hot viiKa tip w 
pbnaai nwa'tt aian p bp naan mbnb nb Knn nhv nanbw ra'^Ti 

fl Job I. 5. * 1 Sam. XXVI. 5. cisa. XXII. 18. d Job XXL 20. 
^ Job XL!. 7. / vcr. 23. *' Ezck. XVII. 4. 


D«?»iS nriKw n^rp patT nai ♦*^np^ niaos fsi ♦adTxo DntrDKn inp*i 
'aiK nnKW pnnn*? aw*? ^a'?1 t^'P I'lim^ l^n"» na '^d ik ^DW ainb 
njnrnr inom voinano r>r"'nm c^^no mo 'inam ♦ nnn Sk bn a-rK i3 
wn ba 'rv ♦ b:k*?b po inn 'th *?ai3 d: ♦ oovoa lOp xab p*?^o T55 
■nno jn^ '•o nvH '^h^ dik n*?peS 'okw int nar ^a tnax no 14 ♦ c S^oa kxi^ 
naai ♦ DDiar nhv poK^ k^ Tumpa p i5 ♦ ♦ jipa *?^no lonr "ob ^/kooo 

♦ ^n^nn aw^ vax^oai por kS "inapa jn arnb pwKn rwjnaa nr ta-bx 'ok 
p bp ♦ nbnorr mmp ""a^ vrya lat nb Kona ombin piw awn xaan 
arnajajKifi vaxba hv baaj ni aipaa ^a ♦B^a«?n xax rnapa av '"a 
Binipr^ ♦ffnannK'?n'i«?KTB/iPi*?Kraa ♦nbw ♦ i vi nKoiaa im*?inw 

♦ ^h pay TTiK 17 ♦ nbip a^aa nnw ^k ^lai kS a^ar ^3331 ♦»it:^oi 
maBHi vvjnr na ^^ paw ♦T'ana mo o^pnv 13K inw 'o'P'K 'ib nan-^ 
wb n":^ B^aan 18 k'^k nnn n:y\tD 'nh Samr ^n^^mci nsba ^aba »6i 
BnnnK apnn an abips vn 7K .B'pnx rnr annKO ♦isaa nna k*?! 
•pn man nbi ''pnx im" abip^ a^pnan "tp pKn nana anab anb p»9 
apni K^K ' an6 naana la'inbna ^m bp ♦ anbna vrvh B3in3 n3P^«r njS 
Kin n-'^ata ^mo ^a"' ^ar ao a^aann iTa^ na 'aai ♦n3in3 a-^pna 
n^np aniK "pna 'ii nap nh 'is^v xb 'K'n ♦ ^^••n 'ntJO ♦ nnanai bbinna 
'TP ^^mna pnan aain3 naipn pwn b» innSacn ^a^ ba ♦a^pnac onv 
naipn ni pnpb laaaca a^ap naaai ♦ ^jvp 'b * J ib *?binnm ""h an 
nnw innna pK3 aibtn n\Tw nnavai # 1^31x3 anna bip >i .♦a3in3 
^*? n^n xbi ♦B^pBnn ap 'pn nTa pw .nab 'pn ip^nn k*?i ♦J325H' 
♦Tnw ia^Ki3^ip pam xb in'ib«?3 n3 np pax^ xb ♦ o^paa hv manb 
naara n^n laianai .axna vbp xar ^rn inixa 3ipw parj^aa nnpi 
a^o nia inm33 nnx nwx3 inpns n^nx^ bxi vnannw 3nn bx 

fl Josh. IX. 14. *Dcut. XXXII. 2. cprov, XXIX. ii. <* Job XIV. 
1,4. ^Job IV. 18. /Ps. XIV. 3. ^Ezek. XXIV. 6. * Isa. LX. 21. 
< Um. V. 2. J Ps. XXX VII. 7. 


hp nmsi rnwn la-nrn whn b^H ♦ ia 'pn r|K mn p bjn ♦ «« Trw oina^ 

♦ ♦ ai*? a^o^ p •inKi * wbwi D-or» noiof? d^v3k |W nibaf? 'pn mna p ^a nt 
'y^yn }3o^ K'? iy -ta^ia n^anb 3 > nn nn nap^ oann » ♦♦m^^Kjrixv. i 
lf?3 ^3 r)K ♦ D-Kn^ miTa nt ijnjK njn 'oa 'vp r)K ba ♦ nnK eiK 4 ♦ ia 
nnKW 'pn btt? ♦nxT •ipn ♦oaioa aab ^b D9 n*TbK nnK pw ba ,cnh^p 
f-ian nrnbi ♦ bn ^aab nn^w jnnab ^b n«m nmr jnani ♦ pt^sno win 'w 
vn '^» IK ♦D3n D^nan nana nnKi ♦^lan 'wb 'iip-r rnam ik an ♦d^mo 
laip TP "Q*? ejbjrjas ♦njnia ^'T^*^ noann onpn '^ft naijb r-um bw 
•n-ix v*?r Kaa njm aittra o'^nanon p^ainp 'ly*? 'ina*? ^'? n\ni ♦ nn "^ana 
*rKi D^wm <?-vpw ^bwo laniK Kn^pi -^ano 'nKW o'^'^ann p t^ iytn'' 6 
Dicn DTKjTi^nn? o^nana K»in nnKW na lay ^^npy ••a ^rBnnb T»-at 
•IX ^bo Di-inb 'pn 'OKW "rp O^ ^^ '^^sn ^att7 napt anoi mbia onK 

♦ "iKD ^noan baK ♦ uoo onp ^mbi3 Kb 'OKn dki ♦/n^\n D\n'?K p ppa 
rvDT nsiian •ff»Bw^ benr ^pan loa 'a n^Bnai ♦ moan s 'oik p br 
♦'D^snoan 'oa wna lonb tn n'Ba n'aa niKb n^eonwa p pi ♦^irmnK 
amji napw nnn n'K^ Kbw nf?T3 nnK pwKnn 'eb r^ ns) ♦>ba3 moan 
d'ik'? vniKon pmnb 1:00 ^kw nnK nwKa ^aa 'pn nno |^w obipaw 
loctt^o m'?K moa kow tk v:th yzi^n n^amb arpao nnKV oovea top KaSi 
nob nanb ]n^w vortsoi nioo noan ^^bK rn^n i dtk wa -^Ktt^o nnv pown 
gy'g?^ D3 ap 03 10 p"!3 Kbi moa nnK npn^ no 9 o^ obipn hk p kti 
nna kSi noob 'o** pwpn D31 prKnn oik nnK Kbi • T»oa nnn iKnw 
'6 non3'' bKnw no ^op oba pnanoi pon30 i3Kw ^oo opon n ♦AronaKO 

♦ /inmKa no ob"*! 'oa ""lo-a pwb ok*? nan kow ik ♦^onn^ vbK awnw 
a-'ttnp vbK awn okw pti^ n3*KW noo noa "•oi »«V30 nK »Kb ^bom 
nn3ai oba lOP ^bv^ nioi ^"33 nnK nnKtt?3W noo opon 'b*^ 03i ♦ ^nuw 

*»Scc Jcr. VI. 26. ^Job XXXIll. 16, 29. ci Sam. XXIII. 3. 

ii Sec vcr. 8. <?Job XIII. 4. /" lizck. XXVIII, i3. t'Job XXII. i3. 
'I Gen. XXXIV. 3i. «Num. XIII. 19. J 2 Sam. III. 33. * vcr. 18. 
/i K. XIX. 1 3. W2 Sam. XIX. 5. 


IV hp j\v •lanoi htm TV'7^'v^ ♦ « dbds nnnx loa ni-ao •ribvi pinn '3i 
^na K^K nnp noiK ^3kv 'od ^m ^nop3 nnpf? man uvh h:^T} papoi 
*iTapn Kbi T'K 'Ki nnr Tftpb ^nn"i k^ ^3»»in jnio nn^n ox ♦ nn^K*? 
^nnwi baiow diio sud pK Tr p"» r6b *«n inri bn ♦tikbh^ pi 
hw'^v i^ brj K\nv '^pia nn dkh? ♦p irK d^iri 18 niK^a pK 'jn 'pi 
vr^ ^vi . pxf? Dib^D"* •irn IP D^bn mpnttn •inn ^jdki 19 ♦ uaipaa pnr idt\ 
napob pKn ••nto nann-w nb^nnaa aw on^bp norw onSftof? mpn 
DW *?aK ♦ ntDbb y^^'v pn ^aa ppn^a nf? pw o'^on np^nra pKn ntpb 
r)»wn v^n nm ♦ mann nw nvnb pi3k nipn '^an ♦obipf? po^pno 
nx3^ nnioi iBpin 'tjwo «> pxn nur n^ba ^Mwnp o^on nbaw ^k awn 
bton •iip'^r \nppnn 'i^ v* d3i ♦ i»pin nn>wo nip aw^ k^b^ nipn K*?a 
pnp D^aaK ntwoi > '?pi3 nn nwa h'Ti apr ""an njn bjn oibb lupin 
nanp ^nana nw nottni ♦ nnann gnsK npn p nv mpn onb p»w o^o 
^\x^ nnw ♦Dnm p k^i .p ••nnK nniui now ppb Dnm b-iwri ^a ••*?k 
t mpn Kba no ••a onnn p Kf?i ♦ ^aa Dnopn pK ^a npnvsw pKm *?d\3w 
nno DDOK irtj nio^ nopai ]''pv dk »|k mpn pp*? ^ ''a 'fib r^ mr 
nr pnnn nx nptt^b mn nnam D\n p o^b i*?ik dk oih ban ♦ nnft"* o^b 
mnbrn bai baoi ♦ imo ^nnK vsb natwa [Foi. 9 a] • . nvnnb bar Kb c^aw 
oaa njpba nxo naa Dnain ^nn *?r D-^an vn-n nayai ck ♦ mr aw* k^i 
♦iiDjnaw ♦npr ♦m brniawb lab Dnsr Kbi ♦mn^onra n^ Kb ♦c'nni 
rbp iPft3i aKa^ vbp p npa br pn piKn** vh ^a >» • ombp pwnnb pa^Kb 
I***?]; npTH TT* ^a ba rnnK in-aa p»n h pKi nta pn wnn irKi . baKn 
: ma la^Kanb ^b nn k^i in-^nnKa Kanas? mn nra6 if? rvn m 
man n^axnb nannr p*^ nan broa Kb ^a m-^anb niKnnb avK naiwn it 
ba baK • vroor^ na nnKi vnt 'pn impmnp natn mm vdu bK D-^amn 
m bjn ♦ 't'vpt^ ba bp onnb ib v^ "o lectt^b ib pK Kemtr ip-^nin Kbr pi 
DKncv lb rvDPw laa O'vvrh 'pn twip pr nai» Kb nawn lo^bK iDa^ar 

4 Gen. XLII. 3$. ^Ecd. ii. 24. cGen. XIII. 2. 


nr nvnnb a^y^p *vir^ '"bt ♦«D-b'« ^ nwK ti^^ dtk piDD bx aoio w 
♦ rrn^ noDi las ^n nn^:^ oro pTpnbi D*tDit^ nnK r^nn ^ipoa ^nn ^jib© |0t 
TPiK pn '^DK lOT mix -iay k'?! 6 naxpw wi nobwm rrrri rpin r)ioa*?i 

rproKS rjKi ♦ Snnn Kb pm bw irpan . bna-n pw e^^'^rmir p-JKn bpo 
rrio 9 • ipn nia^ •iBpa w -ippai ♦ di*?d b'pv Kb ropt ana ^d • i\gny p-^Ka 
TOD noi *i^atp nw^ ♦nnbnbon •iftpn p opb pn ♦wm ona Kba '^ft o^ 
irKi *ia3 'wbmrw ••©'? ♦ pbn^i nia^^iaj io bsK 'nrm vnn nnK pes ♦ yps 

7K rjri ♦ n nn^^n nonttr onip wkd ^a msi ♦ * ttma**! D^pbin on^i pi 
Ksb bai bao D'' ''jQD^o ibiK ti OKI D'^^na na ly? *i^bnr6 '•ba bai bao 
UTK bai rin" ♦irmcnbi inbnbb ya^ a^im nnr ♦o^^na la^vnb vbr 
pKn hv c^ow TTKw^ Kbw pnar ^nba np obipb oip^ Kbi .pnp aaw 
air^ fpn f pm ♦ oh^v 'o ba •napa onrK Hh^ Kin Kb dtk ^aa irp^ Kb 
nmi pwiiTjbi3 ♦nnnb vipwo onnwa 'wai ♦o-b n^io '^bk inoipb 
^3iown iBpa pptrw nan ppn ttrnwa ♦ '•rrexb nn\n biwav ^bp ^nTa 
•niDK nKT nr?!fa ♦ biaai pn ^b iT'yn ^3bb n^K aiiy ip or ^papn Kba 
ppa D^nn pKa ^3a bp ^ja^wm ^BK aiw nnK ^nam wi ♦ amo^Kn n^aa 
rwDKtt? 14 ♦ ••viaw ••P33 bp Dv ba ppiac ^n^n Kb w ^a inib nriK mnftbn 
rrnKW ^Kax ''y ba tk ♦ pia r)^bnnbi nvnnb bia^ n>p dk mrrn ^5iba "naj 
Kanp biKwn ^niD^ baioi bm^b w\n ^b rv^v^rw pmn "li^a biKtpa ]tx^ 
*n^^^^ n3ipi m ^ir^m biKwn p *nnpnv is pn rj-'bub wnv ^np'^bn pp 
•in 'Tp ^nc^bn nbb 'P'k 'ki th^ nypbb mbn 'b .cnooaj 'ba ♦spia 
^b rrnnw nriK nnpjais ♦iKtt73 nbwn e^bn nbrnp ^ob ^'Ka -mi ^bv^ 
'bpbb 'bKw iba Kbi npx iibbb nb .Tn tk rvmbi ti'-bnnb pn»ai mpn 
WID17 .Trrr pnbnbi ^nKpn bp -Tbwb ^b rrn Kbi ♦<f'»riin"nK ba ibwni 

rf vcr. I . * Ex. X VI. 20. c Gen. XXXI. 3o. <* EccU 1.4. * Job XIII. 27. 


nbnn nan ^5k ^tkik ^mai n:vH ^sski a nna pwmn pnaw "•of? ♦ piacn 
^3a''pm nrnntt? m-^K n^ inai ^»wn nnin i^jub o'^amn onan n^ainb 

• nt 1333 ni Dn o^bipw dk nj^nw ♦ o^aion -am 1333 niKPni m3ip ''b naa 23 
♦ttr3pnb ^a inm mwb i^ "nKi m nb-nn ^s^nn 33 wa ^nKpm n^roa ^jnpp 
n*?nn ^3n''ain k^i nb a'^ixb ''3attynni ♦••3Pown k*?w n^non 73^ no'? 34 
•o •HDI5W0 hv nin^ or an i3"kw mh niao nnpi [FoI. 8 b] no *?]; ^3r-nr6 
nKi pnpn ^3103 gi"!3 nbpn a5 ; ^bim widow 'oa n3''nn wpaoa pn 13^ 
m3'? bp Kin wa^ k\'tw3'i ^3 ^3 nm 131^3^ k^ nh rm okv wa^ pp 
ni3i3y "3^1111 BDWob ^3K''an nbJD np •inbKb t nnino ^hv ainan ^3 30 
lao'^o'iroB^ naunoi pi3^ \wh ♦Toa^? 501316 nb :m nb -vdh ♦ mp3 
TO nr^f? OB^on ^ob 'ib en .a^n^ ,T3noa K3no '^oan 'tt^bai .omoKn 
hn »|3 ■p'l*^ ^3 *i'3'"»^ ^^'^"^n IK W3 nia-ao ^tv ik nop ik to prm o-no 
ov • owo n3o n3K ijm3 * vma^ppi vnin^nx ba now iki ♦ ow oik Ka** dk 

• cmott?^ ^apjg; non nm nr bpi ♦n-inn nb^a ow Kawa i3^»oi vinn f\'vn^ 
nni . ♦ ••3VDn'? ^31 ••apr n^oa amai npnoo nnxw npnnn ^crny 'yjy inn 
Kima8 ♦ npnnn inn onin nron 6313 noww nwntt? bp ♦ 'ik po'3a n 
nobi nSa^ ap-o v^ko vnnK pnpnn vh dk pik Tainw s^a-^n wpi n'jpn 

• '^''^^ p'^x ^^^"^ XIV. I vnnKW piDftS pian Kim rvn^ ik rna vnnK pnpnn 
ify rr^T} Kbi r)i3-o inT3t^ bai Kionb imbintt? ng?K ni'?^ ♦o^ai inioai 
pn nop^ nhv i ♦ d^o^ nacp ♦Dp3 Dip3bi n33 nKio non nibpnb i3win*? 
by f\H 3 nnv jn i3K^a^ Kb dk • naa ib ni . vp3b bv T3in ragyi ^113 nbra 
TVDW^ nbi3V K001 BD^ tt7pi fp: nbv ^3KW ^niKi vna lOcwS T^'P nnpp ni 
inon^ Kona nKoioa imbinw kooo mno }n^ ^0 4 ♦ ^op p'^p'ih owoa K^sn 
n^nvno^3 mopnuob ^3nno'? bi3^ dik pK nip p'^^L''} nnor ^k .^^iok 
nmo |n^ ^o 'ob b3i3i Kanb p'^ nib^pio d3^k nipnscii rryaviri ••a ♦ n^ri 
D^3nnnDK5 ♦P133 ^3103 k3C03 nb nnp '^:^ nnK D3 pK ovn ^3103 d^P333 

a Prov. XVIII. 17. * reference to Ps. LXXVll. 20. c Ps. LVl. 7. 

f' reference to Ps. LL 7. 


vrrv a 33 ^h ^3ani lOD "TOin ^33^ ♦ •iwn nej^S D'»bwo3 vinv oariK *T>pnb 
navT ^33*? IK pi ♦ *?3i vbj; 33 RiH i^^KD noTi *?p p3^*?twaw num fpac 
"•D IK ni *?p mona ddhk Kaib dd3ik3i 03-33 n-n"* 13M *Dnrnip •ittm 
-3-3n3Tn^p ♦ -3Kn-Q'!Ki itpnnn i3 ntnh ibwonr onK nat ♦ddwdi 
na '»'?p *iayi 'ok p ^p naia nsn- pio^ Ksnonc^ ^d^ ♦crK npan 
Sd wnnnb '3wa nwa Ktt7K no bj; u 'tki ♦ ^bpt^ hprh ^aj^-^w ma 'bibs 

t • I 

*br nap^ OKI ^3K n-Q"!Ki '-D T^K 'm ^^ n^n** mam -a pn dki na 

♦ no'pjy "iBor loa ran "sk m -33nn'' dk ^aa nb nan hv W'^inh ••jDuvb 
-3^3 -ngn Knsi ^eatpa piob mriK nip ^h nw^D nBato '3Kw npn irK bv 
Sn-'K iS) -sbPiT DK jn i5 .n3cn ••sk mi man bv r^tb -naiinna -paa nppsi 
Karr mannsr •cb -s-ra ngya iki ♦ nb-nn n-aiK V3P bn ^yin v tk nuatKi 
mm Toacp Kn 03 16 ♦<'-pwa riK K-on!? y*b ^^^^ I'^ ^^ "^'^ ♦D*3-wn nmi 
Ka" g)3n vsp'? kS "a ♦ anano -3K riKD -a iKa ^b manw '6T'k ♦ npir'b "h 
nap avKi ^loa '3v imi ♦-3n"»a^ bki i6-3nnb na ^3-p^tt7'ia anKW aaiaa 

♦ "nunK i 4 11333 na Sip »•• bk viba_^wjpa£«7p Sp ♦ <? aa^bp bbcm 
*3K "3 "npn- m bp ♦ nnaini appa V3p'? "naip K3 n^ 18 ♦ n-3Ki mnwr na 
nap an" aaa Kin "a ly ♦ V3P*? a-aian "3m '-aiai pnnaa nbn ^ywo pnacK 
/Spa3 Kbi ■na3 nb an "a ♦vspS -oikw na3 -s^^-mi 'pn bwiaipa3 
P13K1 ♦ nip nanK kSi mnK ♦ ^smatsm nanKv an3n3 "•3-n-3in bk nnp-s 
piBpn m nnK msrw a-ny ^h w V3Pb mapKW apwan Km nai ♦ ^ib^3 
bv . nnp 'ap n wn n3b nann nn tist n3n n3n*?a nnaK nb T'3Pa ik 
*^^paj]P32i ♦"3-mBn pp -3 r^ bki 131^ SaiKv aipa "••? innv ^k nba p 
marnp ni:m mn BiKn e^aa npim naan nvn map3 »|3n mam .prry^ 
amia-ai r-on bv min3 nbn ni p-sp pKi ♦^ina'^Ki i»3b^ ••Spa nB-* nSpaS 

♦ 'q-Sp K-vpi '3 Kipi aa » lapwB ianp3 'pn "•3pS arniaS nnai Spa ana pKw 
paS nswKn nan ♦«pnatn jpaS nriK npa n'p nnn n3WKna '3n 'wb 

»» Ezck. XVI. 24. ^referring to Job XXXIII. 6. cps. XXXIX. 4. 

^Eccl. V. 5. <fJobXLII. 8. /cf. Josh. XXII. 22. ^Job IX. 34. 

fi Deut. XV. 9. <Isa. XLIII. 26. 


hnrw 103 paa ^duc Sft>3 k^ ♦ «» noan nioibpn ^b in ••or vn»w *pn nnr 
^Kj3K_DbiK3 ♦nb^nn noKv loa cdsios aab ^b w^b^ ^d^ nsjwn iwro 
f DHK HT bv h:M nncK •iwKS ^'••np^ ^l 'ibi ♦ puna lor anb nbi nann nr 
nannr no bao nona ^b px td ^soo n)p vdd Tno"* anb k^i ^••riDip ^Dpni'^B^ 
in" D^'Tpw nano npy ^bcip pi oarKw DnK_D^wi 4 'oik ja *?p ♦ inxo ^^ 
nona pSoio '^oan pwSai ♦<fO'ip bjr buani ••niOK k^v no '•br mnaS 
lb pxi ^^Sk iowv mKaca Ta w^ ••a '^man 110K ♦ '?^*^k ^Kcn ;nona*? 
10a nRiDi ona pK oa-nioinan *?a 'Oiba ♦ iKonb o^jiiano onin ♦ nmui 
o^aacrn -ipv ^Kun "ik w ♦^^^KjKiDn tnHiui if? pnw h^hn vyoiv ninxn n^a 
/bop ^onaoT h^ "•Hun n-u pn^ ny\ ♦ b^j ps^bo b^bx ♦ nKicn anb piw 
b^iK ^a ♦ D'^bao ••3ia''tt?nw noo inv noanb oab \nm pmnn xnn rt ]n^ ••o 3 
^nnain ks ipop 6 rnnnb nbi lanb TXinc^ p ^viri ♦i'awm oan ir^nno 
iram la'^rpn a-no '•aKc^ o^-ioiK onw ^nop nn^m *pn ^aeb naiino ^>kw 
D^-ono onKW bK niaran bnbn ? ♦ ♦ nana nno p«l ^a ^annpn onea no^ 
♦ n^-ian nano ^h la'^wn ib^awai ibi^ ♦ lu^annb rih\p "h Tonn oannao ^ob 
Kbi pann niapa 'nb dri may nannw n^ona mnaani pjwnjwis 
D^wno oriRW 'anuiana nKv^ oanK npn^ ya oaS aion o ♦n»'» ••nan la^an 
13KW3 Kb nuabi ia bnnb onK omao ♦ ypKa bnna ok • nu pKw\3i ib 
nawno bjr ♦ nav nam iq Kbn ♦*kwi3 '•3k oomT ••3D ^bib "x^i bjn ♦•p^^ 
n\nn «po niarno nac^ ba Kbm oa'^nan 1300 nnanw nnoa ok ♦oaaab 
ym npan pa ^^\HV7 Kbn n jw^h V3» ok ^a 'pn 'okb? n'p pwpn q^3p 
13 wan nanai 'nbnn riKwom 'oa iw iriKW ♦T'k'di *bow Kr3n 
^\Kn rr^r^vf nnpi cariK npanr nKn rm p ♦ oanK npan niKiwo fnrvo 
lab o^BTwa V3i5b oa^roiwa \nn wipo Kn^b oab rrrw oyhv bp^ y 

a Job XII. 3. ^refcring to Job XI. 5, 6. cjob XII. 3. ^Job 
XI. 4. <f Job XIV. 17. /Job XVI. 2. ^Prov. XVII. 28. * 2 K. 
III. 14. «iChr. XXVIII. 9, yjob XLII. 8. AfP«. XCIV. 2. 

' Judg. XX. 40. 



cD-rao '•p'^DK rmo 'bs pyBHS om orra^-'iK '•3D*? optna onbim db)p ••5^(5 

♦ pnna ona^w d^P'-bk D^bnan K-ips p hv^ [Foi. 8 a] ♦♦jnnK nsraa iriDn 
rrnw ^b ♦ D'^a^na bp na ntit; n^b K*>p fpv 'ii oTanb bpb ttrbnm ♦ ntn 
W3^ D^b ••p^DK n-Ttanw ^bf? na bn^ mp^ na *)KBnbi nician anb anj 
bnrm b"^a*?bn brnm bj\pnv ^vi«i dwi^ njabn b^p^wa ba •iwk tp nb 
♦Twnjobjbp bnS n^aa nt^ hp^ ^buD^ nba ijn^ nb) T^anw b''5bKm 
^*?a Kim ♦ e '^hyt^ K^h^hn wma bion^ tp ♦ npibr an*? rmw naon xnt 
Twna rrnw nan? bnf? n^w ik jai ♦/nawna r^t^ rr Knnnbbi Knp^bp 
nib'yae mnS nam nabai larpia mia Kb ^a *?jn ♦naa "vnnb oib rmw 
brra^iK br bnibra b^ab Kaar ♦irwb23 ♦ibvaa nba i^va" -ttk np caTi 
♦laan an bjr mian Ta buaw K^ibNDi b^abb nranK uaa ♦biaKS na 
bTaKnb in^ aaDpb "a bna Kan'oi b-'ppbbn mKb v:hv Ta pb ^abbi 

♦ biaK^ na nnhr^h nrm •nipw 'vn natr irr* Kb bm ibw annaaa ♦ rana 
pm nKa6 bnn "niw oibs^a b-att7Vbn pam 'lanw ^bb ♦ b^ab ntaw 
br attranb bnn nanac? b-na rmnw nnK p^apa ncb • bnaKb na ub'pob 
biSra babi "piKa vsonf pn nbnbba b^ann ba^Ki nam nan pKn ba ^ab 
Kb nnKT ♦ »|ib b'-a ib-m nanca b"Ownba ba-'binbi btwa mbab latbna bna'n 
PKn ay ^yK*i ab Tbb a4 'biK p br ♦anb Tnpn nK aranab ytn 
ana rtt7"^bK nrK bniKa anb nwua TnnKba \nma bnipanb aniK b^anabn 
nanb p'^am nn t -iiK Kbi nirn ignwa^ nn n^iaba lavi 'iwk ♦^pnbwa 
nibibpn nb na") "i»iac h "nbKw "bb m ba n^n nam b^atpva Kbi b^a\naba 

♦ man nbnnb inn nnjn anabran ib-Kn bnana nnKn p br *nban 
KbK bnK bpi "na bp bbirb nKa nrn pKW ♦ "a^p nnKn nbK ba p xiii. i 
pKw nb pm ^aiK nvt:iV) niK^b ^a^r nx^vn Kbw nbi ♦ bbia an n^a "a n^i^ 
"a ♦/nan mbK jn" "b bbiKi 'biKc^ br rr'aib nnan ♦labb p^ miaai nban 

rt Ex. XXVIII. 28. * Jcr. XXXni. 22. c Job XLl. 7. ^ Ezck. VII. 
17, not literally quoted. *Dan. II. 19, where the reading is •^a nrv 

/Dan. II. 22. ^2 K. VI. 19. *Job XI. 6. »Job XI. 5. 


lar TSirw ^ebi •o'lacr "tii ♦bia»n •ina pK r^tm 'tk wi ♦on^i^arr 
n^an hv w^k rbunbi tipb npiap 16 'iki nnn n^anw 'it ♦ ^ n^iian naan 
na nanon p^ar '•ft^ n^inuj .Tnn rh^t^ ^a ♦m^ianna vbp Ka*?.nwn 
Kbr ajwn viawom 'awn ♦ naroi aaw ib # n-naa ik nDan dx nacpb dk ^a 
p LTpnaca oaaaw 'ipw nn nawoi ♦ annx loa nacp laoo pbnottr virn^ an^ 
kSi lb ptsKm «» D*)K naan nf?Ka 'taxi bna ^anp h nva?i axriK mncb napaa 
.Tnw oibttDKb bftin^nK Tna ♦nDnbob nabb n^ion irra^aS ptaxn 
inata; baor ^a'lKn ^nn Kim nas^b h nbw 'pm D\nb8n r^K nana inatr 
n^bia 17 na ••T hp) ♦D'»apib Kf?i Dnb\n natpb j;ottn» nobw p ca^annai 
conn Sbw na^K loa ♦ouiai onaa ^hhw h^HD . hhw aoatr D''at3n^ 
np Dn-oBtt?oa omwoa wanw^ Sbin^ jnin ^ppign ♦<'ab n^ax ^*?bintwc 
bTi Tir 'om!^ <?nw vnna pnn ^ewn "Ti? D^'?Sim o^bao pawn^ nw 
bp ana mnob nniD onnx br lanas? mnoioni bypn D''a'?o npia 18 p n^ 
nr on-^nDiK br naannbi mnob pn^anoa mm moKn /'novsh nnn» nm 
oa^bv 5^ rn o^ana mn ^aai 'aa onaaai onw onw p^ana ly vrw pmiki nnr 
aniKbnDwmDpao onmaaog^ ♦ pma^a anw p^rvw aibbtt? ib'^xa ^b^ 

♦ «^bK nmo .*vbK man 'ca nNpa 'do nir^K 'ni ♦ p^aom vnv? 
TDD '^6 p hp p^ataKa*? 'ib iS n^n ^a p 'ib ip^pin p^ataxab 'wbi '"^a Kjnio 
mnpa am ♦ nnr nr law kSw anacjn p^aaKa*? r\2vt^^ nipw btt? natan new 
ananan pnw p^aaxab 'aa n'^rv) ♦ ^acap btt? pa nmn'* p'^aaxa biD pa "a "w 
naai annana ibaan^^ Arnp^ n^an ppaa 'aa mam Jupm *PKa laxan 'ao 

♦ Ml nnan^ man ntabi /mr ma pK 'aa mw nnai ♦ pnaaai a^anaSmanpip ai 
nrm p^nanan vai naca bpra ntai ♦ » apr^ ^m'?K n^a bpra n^ nam 

«vcr. 13. *! K. XXII. II. cMic. I. 8. *i Ps. LXXVI. 0. 

e Isa. XL. 23. /Ps. CXVI. 16. g2 Sam. VIII. 18. * Gen. XIX. 3. 

f Judg. IV. 18. JJer. XXUL 3i. ArJon. III. 7. /Isa. XXIIL 10. 

h^Pb. CIX. 19. "2 Sam. XXIII. i. 


ppmww nnp kvi '•u( svk pi ♦ pr par kvtw •iDon ma *?^nn tb li^t 

XT Kb vbn npo^c ^wnn imn ♦ vbn '^bp o^pi nnp kvi paai |bn nwp 
nimoab 'tk Tjnbi D^Tngy ia ^wyv o^^jn vnu? d^^tkjp^w^ nopb nrh 
prow "•a*! "••? 'OK '^hv ipnw^ p bp ♦ vra BDwn Kinw m^K K^an ipk^ 

laa KV11 .S»13 "TID^ 1th 'V'H 'TBI ♦DiSwn D,Tbr D.TaK ♦^aK "•DO 

'IT ♦ i5Ktt?n arno p ninwb nan n^on i*? Kaw Ton nara }Drrt^ a n^Ba 

♦ vby^ g^'?n inD^3 103 ♦ibn nronv d^k K'a^ "nann nn ♦^vnwnw naK 
D'0*?3n Dnavn on ♦ iranjwKb mbwa ^ibaa oon d^tw pnnwn nKT ^a 
hr^p1 TiD"! »ibm DK ♦moKwnBTX nK lobiwobiKi? ♦n^vm^K rwv^ 
mona ^*? inoK^ noan nnw nnn noan nnoK ^TO^ '•»f?i ♦^isansr -oi 
&nb Tn DK if?a ♦ <^ 'ok o-n K\n ^a Kb 'ok Dinn 'rv ♦ D\n ^am pKi niuyn 
bao "a 9 bbaa 'w D\n ••am pnKi »|T3n nona onca nanr nnw ♦ inoK^ p no 
rra ^nnw ban it; bri lo ♦ ricr ^b nnrp ■•'^ t "a rr^ Kby obipn nina 
n-on ^0 vnrba a-onbi rnnb bia^ pKi ir^a nwujn baw nnw ♦ ^n ba yoa 
nrib nt |nan ^-mmp row ba pKj6n " ♦Kin Kb dk ••ano'^^o ^oi ^aa nK 
ttTKb a'«o\nbi jnnb pKW nw noan tawwai 12 , ib orta^ baiK t^ »^ ''^^ 
noan Dnrgpa ♦anc 'oik p ••a ^nroto n)p ./Twini tr lOP ^:w inpba 

♦ napon wk-o bnin ntwta ♦ naian oaa n\n o^o^ onanKnv ^»bi Tao "•hti 
'pn D£ '1K1 noan oaa i^ ^k Tao ^n\nw 'oa p Kbi ♦^noan nion oaojn 
DTn Kinw no ♦ onrr jn u ♦ma-a ia-Ki oan vr ^a nraa oai ^ noan nab 
"•ob noiat noKv no naaa k\t ♦ nnr Kb naio kvw noi ♦ imaab bai" Kb 
bpnao^ naaa n-ao-i ♦ paan f\ih^n mw naa^ Kbi onT naaa '« tjbn- dk ♦ "njn 
nb"^nn ona onaw oipoo D^b%npow 'oikw D^oa_natr«5 inr b\np''i wnj 
laoo '^rob 'okw ♦ nno^ Kb 'n br tp oK'^atv ""Oi . wan n'^^atb oowoi 
DTttow ♦inixin ••aft br o-'o nbittn 'oa ,p nnK onbr^i ♦«nnift pKr 

a Job XXX. 24. ^Ps. CXLVI. 4. cPs. LXXIII. 2. ^^ Job XL 10. 

^ Job XXViri. 14. rXU. i6. ^Xri. 2. *XI. 10. 'Isa. XXII. 22. 
yjob V, 10. 


'^h nm ♦Djoif avK yn xii. i. tavK ijansr nnr bjn .m^K •ipn in»ab 
mnn^^n ••a ♦ nuK .tturi or 'hkw ^cb im . wnm D^na "na nntMC nriK 
omao DDK n0*w oriKr ^ub "im onttjpo p f?p now Tr*?ai t»^^ 
HDanrw lawnm ♦ a ^nt •i^r ^3Ki ♦ dbirn or ba ,TnrK m Dap^nwwav 
pKW ^b ■p^^**^'' taf'** imonwa inw Dfnrn 'oan bai ♦ ^a k*?i oaa n^ m 
"D^ oaioa aab ''b dj 3 ♦ aab^ ^auaa aiaa r^m ♦ m*?ic npn mxo^ ^tD^ dtk 
^asK^BisK'? D*?ia mapa nnx^ -one Tjnm^ nnK rrtsrvn inx Tn inpb obiaw 
DTK bav i6w riKT rr^ « nbK laa pK ^o nRi ♦maann witm ♦ paa 
lb .Trw viH? arb^ pvwb4 noyn lan ^jk ban .pnb njwa mxoS 
roa vbr pa^bow m "^r r^hnh >mp rm i^^rw ♦ in'nat njD ipinbi wiab 
mn^ }B nbwn Sk ^a•^K biwa yn bp o^rpbon jo bbv& nwr^ VTsr^ in'iac 
bp priT ^JKW D^n pnae by irn o^pnw ^bp odwd rxt p^rtp ♦ * vj^ra jm ^"» 
t: W rhT "WHO ♦ naTpb 5 : c o^bao pw rpbni nnoiw »a anf? Kf?i ♦ ^nnat 
\:nw ♦ d'ot: nttnuf? \Tia'»bvn lom |or nw "irn neb ♦ |3Kv rnntttj^ 
enaira pbuisw dtk ^aa nm-iro on «n3K bojn wrx ••a i3ot ^aob Sia^ 
. la bfh how vmbw an ^»b nao* k^i anb tai pnw la paai T^r -pi 
xb cw htvD DTKn THKa nriD niph bar k^t u vbn njnaMtr paa Rn ejioi 
aTbr prw Kvi -WK D'^bftin baa pyr: rvw Kx&a in^3i>ovi naia an 
nno^ K^ttT trnTitt6 ♦<'|3Rr mnw mwb D^^nK_r^6 bi«n rnwai 
vrrmn-n viiraT* k^w ♦ ^k Tana br if? nimaai mapa lea ith ♦ onmina 
oriTK ♦ rra m'^K iran -nrnb nno Kba Kvi p dt^ ^u^S -viao inw 
iwi n^K ban ♦muaa bm Dr6 pw onnK roKi n^ iran biow oTano 
nana *?3? aoia nt tei • lanna"' oibraw *iidi oTa m^K laira*' nhw pn w 
nam o-'aaKm x^hn ♦•m *?p fm hv m boa nimaai laien na ♦*ba-i 
npUKn Tftb ♦pmon hpo 'ax ♦ama ^^viajn mbi6 Kn>p San ♦/o^iraS 
b'ati ^am ♦ la vban nana^D rpoi rb«n |3Rm pTa naaa k\t mn r 

a Job XI. 12. *Prov. XXrV. 17. 18. cJob XI. 3. dXU. 5. 

* Xn. 5. /Ps. C3CXI1I. 4. ^ Job XII. 4. 


XI. la — 20. COMMENTARY ON JOB. 34 

P"i njn 13 pKw nai ♦ *a*? np^ ♦ aab" oar iod Kin pn iud nKana pornn k^b? 
Ta*? ran nnK dk "3 'ik p hp ♦ dnx atob aimr nv TM^'sn:i pior k-« tps 
pK_0Ki4 •cD'^uD bK T3^aaf? Ktt?3 "TJ7 abn ^p D^ftD ^i^Dim ♦ibisnnnS 
enaa t3d Kgyn tk ^a i3 ^jT'a ^sao nnwa jbnKa kvi dhi ♦tt^ n^w 
KVi ♦ pana n''\"n ^'^wi rwk Kb ^npnan ntbKV laa Hh^ oio ^a .Tn" k^v 
anK i^a TV Tn^ao^w irvnjj^'' ♦'pK "tt^^ P'»3t^ Tab 'ob pnna awron nan 
D'aa tib aa^^ na ba napn n^Kbm yr,o^^ bar nnp navan nnicjaio 
bn ^bRw 'Kv lajai ♦ "fiio^ -nam p tjiawb tv n-nrr xbi ana>pi a^Baw 
nnv Twvn p ax if? 'bk ♦nb^bi ar /'nna kbi maban nna-'p piK 
annan rnx i^n'^w •iiaa n\inrai ^bw nbn rnp'* arn nw Kinw annxai? 

♦ anp ^bbat br ibini i^na omatn idh ^a a-ir rob imw naipnb rrnni 
-nxa "inv a-'pna nbn nw Rataa •T^anw naipn nvin •i^xai T'b\nv -»paa ik 
nbai •mRT p lan ^a lamian nana rmbn 'vb nbn nam ♦amatn 
-iwKa eiirn miaa nvnb pn^ Kbi ♦ naipn ♦ naibfp bpir^a na^rn 'aa nairij 
^Ta nbipi pK np^rnna nnaai 18 [FoL 7 b] Joipn p 'aipn 'ann nh 
nbaw ^abi t^iab nan^i mnn 'aa ♦nmaa if? mnm nnani ♦^b^Ra^ 
ncm ttna nvnb •naa .Tnnwai 'irbn n '^a ♦ nnaai naaa m piaaa rnani 
hv baa '6 ro |wb la^acai ♦ aarn naab tk o^p'h a^inx nnima ^aviaaa 
man ibi«a ♦rnani 'a'^'in •^nan-n nnr ixa naa "o wa tpnaa 
urh aninb ♦a^anjpajbmip t'l'm niam ma'^aa wr 'ivKa •fma'^aa 
pK ^p''r^'r nbv a^jntn ik ♦^nn^ab laarr aw^jw^ tanw «nmb w 
t aiaa n^a iKata^ nbw anaa nax aiaai ♦ aacan ikt «br na^ban n^aa era 
nan ♦nan nnx proi pnaw p wataa ♦ /nnaa avaa pi ♦pam 'wb naa 

♦ naa mr ttna-n bnwa lamr 'prw^ uba nma Kinw avK hv -laiac nawn 
bia^ anK pK ^a ♦ laansr va nna^ 'pn ax ban ♦ unp^ kSw m^an br apibi 

a Ex. XXVII. 8. *Ho8. IV. 1 1. c Lam. III. 41. <* Job X. 15. 

^ XU. 16. /X. 22. /f Dcut. I. 22(?). *Job VI. 20. /Jcr. XV. 9. 

33 COMMIlNTARY on job. XI. 5—12. 

nriB'' DK Kin Ssk .web yxiv pnxo nnn p hv nnb bM k^w moibw 
n'leKwnbiK ♦ dik '•330 lobwv T^^cwas . nr^^n nioibyn n^ nr 6 vnuv 

♦ iT^pbtt? nbb D'''?D3 ^3 nb nj'n ♦ ono ^pnaro nnK«n ♦ <t ^sa^nn no br ^D^jrrn 
Kinw noD r^l ♦IS mn!^ inn poipi rwvn "d*? n^o nipbbi nnpb iih rm 
naaK^i fT^?? ♦ a^nn hk wmn nunjs ^'? wmip ^d ♦nw]j3 ♦pnp-pc'«o 
Kin ptt^ni on nnoKw 'od'k^i ^jip "d^ ^^^ nnno nisib if? r^w no bs pnp 
n«nr KV1 i^r 'oibD cnoDH nif?K nrn ^d 'od nnav fwb nr^ 'k'^i • ^nbso 

♦ lb pinnw f*v'H Ti nn ♦<'^tt73n nawn 'nni ♦731PO nxp nawa ^op 

♦ injn r)iD Kiaco*?i rtt?nf? bainn ♦nprn? t<f^rna nwn k^ 'd Kinw 

DWTDias ♦ ^oxp pnato nnnv onnn nx p Kin no br itoLtro rchDrr) 
n^\n ^an owb n^ w no ♦ bypnno ♦ yiopt^ hp yntiD dw nrK oipon Km 
npiop '01K1 nnn .d^ow nai: bv naiw "^th ♦^»fttt70 'onpo npnb owb 
nanw ^tbi ♦ ny^jorh nn no •/iDKaco'* ^0 piop piop *rp noann Km SiKtwa 
^Kxon pKO noanni I'p ^niKn bri annn br naif? aw poipm onn *?r 
n3wa /nam pan om^K 'ok^b? 'oa ♦^noan nioi*?pn noKW noann K\ni 
rmacQa ♦pbo rnapa iniK tjo^i nripi onKn maa epbnvDKio ♦aiic s^on 
Ta DiKn n^3D^ "'D IK ♦ii^ion nnK ibnpa nip ia la^wn^^ bmp'n ♦naoio 
y*pnh ^^bp hnpb b\np'n ♦> wn n-a njn: pK noKw 'oa ittuwb Pttm bnr 
♦vnioan dik "jao ^thp: ^a nnpr pa k^v 'oib ♦ laa^r' ^o ♦vwpo bp 
10a ♦Kw 'ntp jn^ Kin ^a II 'ik 'in 'a'jn 'hpth 'kw 'oa Arnoan *vyhpr\ v\t^ 
"ftb ♦lyonMcSw D^ipn pawim DTaw pK Kn'n /lOp paa k*? oa*? iwk 
omawjrai ♦ anno Rinwa pni^ d^uk ^nK Kin baK ♦ n^o nep3 npib "q^hv 
nxm aias yKi " . if? iKa pna nhv ^a anKn awim rjsb D^nan m onKn |o 
♦ aab>! ♦ ni br la-'wnb Ka dk o-'nan bj^ai t: k^o Kinw aiaa w^ '^bk 'ib 
oiKn r:th nf?iT» bba ♦ njn ia pKw ♦Kno n^ji ♦ la^wnbo injm laab '^T' 

aX. 2. ^ Job IX. 22. c ibid. XXXIX. 17. */Targ. on Prov. IV. 5. 

<f Dcut. XXIV. 10. /Eccl. VII. 24. ^Job XXVIII. 12. Aver. 6. 

/ XXVIII. 23. yiX. 24 *vcr.6. /P8.LXXVIII. 37. 



••a ^K n'v Dj^fi iHK DTD Dwni -03n^ Dv baw ]2]£ ''^ ^^"^^ nK3^ 

♦ mo^ om onpn 'Lbi ♦-3M rawn k*?i nors annn ? najb d^vik 

♦ K?an ♦npb nw o^om onp D^uSnna-i o-^Sn om .cnirbn rin^ 'oa 
pnia naS nor p ntt7>p nnKtt? npiKi 18 ♦ ijon ^'^vn ^h^r^ *?d ^ro vtt 
Kxw wnw 10D piDi Kba obiro ^n^\n k'? ipsa rrnK tio 19 pi3K ^snKnn 
^oxp n''tt?i bin p^i naiDa abia vn '^bki > ^o^ apa Kbn «> lap*? tpaa 
:Dn*?n'? •jpmnnw ^'niptt^n ^r\v nw D^msm ^B^ ^jn-ani ^25 
'naw 'oa pnpa ai .nrnb "h jd'^v d-o\t bpo joia pmnKi nr*?aKi [Foi. 70] 
lom ^w^^ mn nnp^p p*iK aa '3 : aic^K kSi nio^an n^n pK Sk ^Sk d^ip 
hSi ♦tkh'^i roinb w»a '"li <?nrri "inw nwv 'tp •vnpn nibr D-«Da 
baa nin ir^ftinrai mn • yon abirb '•a nb^bi or mo n pK ♦ an-ip 

: bcK 10a 'nb pbyn 
Kb inpnac r)iD s^ip ^a ♦ p^-np mo •iinab naron nia avK np^c? nn 
ni nob 'w piktib V3»b Kan pir^b pwa nbao Kin j^m pnw pnxb b-jn^ 
npi3g |yn XI. I : "iB'iS i:air^ ni ba bjn nns^r pK bK ibK ••a /pa^ ban 
BTK PK1 p^rown pnnKO n;v,i Kb p^-on an b-^att^a ^ai ipnan ann* 
n-na nnKw pnann ♦ ina ♦ ib 2£nrn3 pnr Ton nanb ptbp ib vnp 
bn ^ '131 vv^^ pn ^nnoK p bj; nn nnK 'ib vnnoi Pipon ••am bj; Tabo 
nwj^n TK p^nirni crvin i3ioa pjn p^ne ib-Kn pnan . '* npuin p^wn natr 

♦ nan ba br lanpnb nt '-it inatpi bK iipa p^rir i3k pKW p^nna i3niK 
na-n ♦ "npb it ^*^0Ka4 ^pnwb ^n1K p^bso I'm v.^hv 3*pbD nnK nt bn 
imi 'pnb 'OK p PKaton ^a nana npnn pk ^a ♦ y:^n "n^n nai ♦noK 
-n^n na nnoK nnK avKb 'ok law 'b'^ p3i ♦ « rtrw Kb ^a nnpn bp 'okw 
nan nsm nan 'pibK |n^ "o baK 5 ab "oan ba ^s^ra Kbi ♦ T*3-ra nKn3 ^a1 
nnno3n ^b ny kvi ♦PTUDWwnc n33a vnpp nnon pnan ann n33a 

rt Lam. III. 3. • ^ Isa. XXIX. 14. c i K. V. 28 [14]. ^'Isa. XXII. 7. 
I' Amos IV. 1 3, omitting ^ before nB*r. / IX. 29. at IX. 22. h x. 3. 'X. 7. 

3 i COMMENTARY ON JOB. X. 6—16. 

nh TTiiJwi Rin nnKi -n bv^ ♦mpm nttrm H*?a ♦DKn» n^aoi mops 
nn>w ^cb 'IK pT DP Rinw ♦ ^Dnno^n1xo bv tod dp ♦ nnnbp 7 :<iion^ 
K'^^a ••ab pnv nnnv r^wnS ^f? mn pan nnwnb it bai ♦af?*? nin"i 
npw bo b^ata htd pxy D3i ♦ nbpob idkw c D^ps^n nxp bp k^i ptnK 
mpw no tao '•npttn xf? ^a ^npi dp b'X'i ^aK •»» 'oa paam nrmw ryn 

ttor^ 9vnn nw pnxn riK nbnp 'okv 'oa ♦^22_TZ!L-12i ^'^^^ *"'*' 
'aa *yT 'P'K'd ♦^^T'ca p^r oKbn "a 'okw ^cb wafPin"*^ t^^D-r^Kn 
a^ao "in^ ♦ ^ y:n bo nx rwp 'oa ♦ ^3\p:p;3 anp 'w*? ^aiaacpi Jn'^ ^"^ t 

• pxa ix"ifc ^^3pDi a^aco ^bp natt?w ♦mdjttv paam ♦nD^bu j^a 
^b ^Ti ♦ ^a^un *iBp b>w "nan ♦ ion? ^a 9 • D^jai «nan n»^S» K*?a "ipbam 
. DKn oma p-ii ♦ \ra''i?ri 'o . ^b man ^n^\n o^^na nipai db? Ka»KW pi mwa 
jDnaxn larpSi 'nrp^Dpin'?! lyai iip n -jnv^a'^m nraaa 'jnKBpni 
••nnsi p "inKinioxp nb^nn 'na ^npin^ai ♦Dn^uvjDsjpa ^ja-ttcm ♦ "aaaion 
vn b^p)w bvf DniK *?aK .'nwa aa^bp ^n^^pm na inKi Dn^a Da^Sp 
p-'^jpn na inKi cnip pnnnn Kias p bp ♦ rr^iDrt "jb *?p mabna noxp 
ia nriKT mp nanj nb^nn tdk ^poa ppni jnK^-o 'b^nna "lano p^spn nm 
n'^p nam p^^n n .DKn joa maxpn ^p^v nbv na niaacpn ia "inw nran 
naw5n k\t iw nmpBi • nbvii pia^j n\nK nbv -aK anna ^nattrb nap 
imnpBi IK m f^jwaw ninacn ba bp -napBS kS» ^nn map ^a mporw 
maiw a^nann rhw i3 .^Sk nntipD naaKj ^i^ "•nn npana 
nap nKT ^ ^n^mi ^nn^ n^^K pwb aw Kaa on^nryn kSh laa'^a naaat 
♦Taa p^r "skb? "nnKa ^j-Tawb n*? mrw ^annagyi ^riKPn dk u ♦ ■•r.iK naawa 
maab k^k naa »paa ^n^n nb /apan 'yK "3ipa ^niK nnair a "a Kxa^ pp aKi 
^npnac dhi ♦"'!?'^i?)t tpvi dki5 ^^bo D^ptn nxp ^icxa *?aK •ban 

♦ np nnn nnw > ^^3ip n>m p'?p par ^3k ^im ♦asttraa wxi Kt^K k^ 
'P'K 'pn bpi .wasb ai-iKm -jniscn *?nwa nna bnn ran nw^ aKt^io 

<i Ps. CII. 28. ^ Num. IX. 1 1. c vcr. 3. d Reel. HI. 17. <? vcr. 3. 
/ Ex. IX. 3. ^.^ph. III. 19. h Ezck. XXXVII. 6. 

IX. 29— X. 5. COMMKNTARY ON JOB. 3o 

pniKi Tri ^JDD nvpia ♦nia? -nD^m ♦nnv o^pDb onm onp orw 

♦ otDi rcn H^7W nTO3jK3i .on-n nw rwpo baw ^cS ^'"•ftD ivpja 
je[irlnw bin::} pDn pwirf 'ii Sp ♦ jetton ^t *?r n^ssb ♦ "nio'^y ^aiayn 
nnsa "Dasn dk nott^a nn ♦ vbpttr d^ktx D'»-rian *?r '^ laBc^b iro'^ hv ibip 

DTi^K *3 ♦ WKW Hin 2]tt3_£2L5!^^' ♦<^'3Bf? 13V onr3 nnn i^ ^anm 
ng^ n^3io i3Ta r" ^h ^ 33 » -n vri mob baiKw eprab inn^ kd*? ^dtib^ Kin 
'ronh ^yy:i n-aion *?Dinp ♦ nrni ir^aa pir rrnaw tk nir^Bnn*? 13^3^ '^p r»^ 
rm DK nns ^ba ^^t manK 35 r-ano ♦ inQ''Ki ♦•nnib k^ ipap "bpo 34 
*?pi lep nannn^ Kn^ '•n\'TW ptt^isi kdihi '•oacp w^ano ^u( nh ^a ♦ "•3Toa wnc 

♦ ^npnata oiba b^piK Kb ••a ^bira 'wb <'Dni»ip3i 'aa ^P3 npp3 x. i p 
-nnttK "nrKa 'oik k^i • moK np -bp n^aanf? ^opai "n^y ^hv natpK p bp 
OK riDv D^^w n3n "b^bs nn'"Tba na^K k^k ♦ <? na^baKi '>nvD nnawK nbpab 

DK TP "laiK "IK -OIK Kbtt? TiatP DK TPS npp3 'pb W^ D31 ♦/nnaWK "•TDK 

"'3K DK "sp'itnn bK a 'OKM!^ 'npD nia^K 'DK\p ^pbi ♦fi^D3Cp iba ^nrvn 
lopn .1)01 ^3ann no *?p nbnn ''3P^'tct ♦ a lopwna i3r«n^ k^i 'rp ♦ pnac 
opwo pwpb "TK-ii iSaion 3 inap** Kb man ba -a man vSk pno KvrbK 
hv orrh i*? n^ yapb kopi dk oai imbab T'pa p^a" oKoni • inpian dikti 
T^a n3n3 p-w nbpoS 'okw no Kirw a^pyn nacp bpy i*? aion • ^-pa rs** 
1*pa p-r mnwnbi mbab ♦y^k prb oiw Kaa •nn^Kb nppin ♦jpcn 
lb aion 'OIK nnpi •icki vaKi n'a'p'n oiKa vr ppnw rwhw «m Tpi 
inw . 7Pa r3^ OKon rD nphnh mnv noo ♦ -300 OKm aKn phn pirpn ''a 

♦ *|nKP mo p'p^m 'oa .I3i3cn p ^a n-Knni mb'3 ♦ nppm nboi opbn 
"pb bpa niKia dk ♦aabb Kbi D*3vb niKib TbjTrajrpn4 /p^pn n^rhn 
ia-iKO Dvn Dp3^ Kb DKr gnsK ^O'^an 5 ♦ niKn v^w no k^k pnb ib pKW 
Dipsb nnoo ^abi 0300 Dp3^ Kbi imnKi pKb nna^ row ik nio" inob 

a Ps. LXXIII. 1 3. ^ Zcch. III. I. <^ Jer. II. 22. ^^ Ezck. XX. 43. 

«• ver. 27. / vcr. 27. ^ Ps. XXXII. 3 reading % h Ps. XXXVII. 33. 
i Job XXXIII. 1 3. J Job IX. 24. Ar Dcut. XXXIII. 2. / Ps. L. 2. 

29 COMMENTARY ON JOB. IX. i8 — 29. 

»nn riiaa mm'? neato ^jk n^*? dk 19 : * nnn ^k ^k a^n ^a ♦ *» D\n'?Kn 
rm ^rai la-'a nmn dv o^ttr* ^d ♦ ^apnv ^a an nana pppd^ dki "abo y^ 
ov ^b .Trp DK nnri <? •'?»''i v'^k nrpn ^o na poKi aa^ oan rhvth 'dkw 
on ^:k dki ♦ ^naia ^aa^^n^r aan Kin ^a "^a ^npnat n^n*? nm -n^m im 
DK n*? aiD no ^\yB3 riK Kb •ni *?a ^aram nnr ^3K Dn »i nnw t^arpr 
DK vjcS Kn ^»D3 nnK>a ♦^Din ^b b^yio no ^a ^^n ckdk nnvnnb »paK 
•mr D^na nnaK nobi ♦ nbao hti rp->i an "a nw ban nKDin dk npnx 
^PB3 pnK Kb 'P'K'Bi •^'DnbKn iDiBr^ wnn nKi pnsci nK ne^B^a inn 
iDwa jott^n DK ♦ DIP DK a3 « . Kn nn\nD dk nnv *wb3 pk ••ai .n^ona 
KbK nbnn inpnac m^pn Kba dkhb in-onbi DiKn ymph V3Bb Ka^ iwb 
rm^ arK ^a ♦ nt bv ^h^ pia^^a D''^p3n nD3ra noab ♦ n^nwai rbao dkhb 
n3n3 pK 24 'DIK1 ♦ Tainr cwn Kin ^o 'bd ♦ ^h Kaw ivd3 ^nn ni ^a nn 
n^isBW ^3B ♦ D3n wma '3Bb 'nKn r^rnnb 'nana Kinw pern mw run n^a 
♦ a-^n DnKnw man ^3^"'3ra o-'anm D'3B nKnbi ♦ DBroa noa^ D\nbK.n urw 
rwvv Kin ^o ♦KiB^K • nana Kb dk ♦ nr\v '•3y^3nB? 'aa pnaai nKin ^3K nt 
.'a 'K 'rabi pno nnv p ^30 pinb ibp ^naiD "O^ Kbm ♦^iss ni ba ■♦b 
'D^bBi3n pDobi D-'anK nvsKa ♦naK nr3K nv^ naoaa p Kin aawnK 
WTTw pinb nnnoo Dn -a a-^aK '^k;pi3 ^naK 'ik wn tDnKn by dikhb 
br K013 ■♦baai n'r fKaisa mnrr nv3K» 'ik «?^ D3i ♦la^Ka inira maob 
nnB** ♦ pitt^ np3a "m3''BDn iw^ nb Koun mra ^a ^naK 'Knpsi co^o ^3b 
ba^ob D^Kon n\r^3a /biaKb rn nw3a nann jai ^biaKb wn Kxnw 
♦2£naw«i ♦ DnsrKi ^n^^:^ nnaPK ^aba 'oik ^n^n dk ♦ ncK dk 27 [Foi 6 b] 
bn^b ptnnKi ^nrbaKi ♦ ♦ art n''3B inw .6^^v nb rn Kb n^jBi 'aa ♦^3inn 
"'np lanp n3n' ^aba 'aiK ^3K ik vrny as , h ir by 3''baan laa ♦ -npw^b 
■3p3n Kb p ^^3Bb pnan p3 ^3K» laa "a ^nPT . ^"ninac nir ^3Knpn ''3iaa:3n 
ban nt nab p dki ^^3Bb ^p3 '3Kr 'aa •3np^ v^Din nnpaa ♦ pgnK^a3Ri a9 

a Ecd. XII. 7. ^ Job XV. i3. c Job IX. 4. ^ Keel. III. 17. 

<? laa. XVIIL 2. / Hab. I. 8. a i Sam. I. 18. f' Amos V. 9. 


Kb rm . wKata wbcn ^rn omK i*?n^ k^i "i 'P Dinn^ nS-'^n mn ^nns 
♦frT:3"ipai ^^ra nSnn nnaoi 's npa n'^oi ♦ nnn pra m "^di ^inwrrr 
fT'-oja "3 nab "ik d*ow n^-oa Tsibwa n^npn ai-o . nab d'^op npia 8 

♦ D" ■'niaa br i^ini :-»ir ••ba mwa nnitDjb nab trK bav Kb nnK nrn^ 
"rnao nnv no^aibrowQ Tatoi ♦nwa\ibr niKnnb cn-'ba Dbnnna 

♦ c neio Kan mnn p 'OK-a? 'oa ♦ cww mroi noio lo'^n mn nini ♦ obv 
nnpn T^a Dnr^nes Dtt^i <? mron jo nsreai ^ b^oai no-a p Tan Dior neoai 
mbnj nnr '<> ♦bbia 0"iBa o^ ;pK3i orr^rnsoi D^ottn pnK Tatrw tiki 
-nb riv Kbi ♦ iBxa papim p^-n ynrogy 5 npKw ^©bi omsob npn pKi 
p Kb *a n*m Kin^bxi avK Kon ma law^ Dpnio rrn dk ^a ♦ no br cik 
•oa ^bp -^ay^ p 1 • : rna: dp vbwi D^or b 'iai d^jk pK nbr ^K ♦ ia-n 
DK '01K1 aoio lap anb ron" dk bpi ^ ^ik-id TaK Kbi ibp^ iB^bK 'ok» 
nap -j-n nrK g|ibn^ -itt^Kai owaa paK Kb ':Bb -nrat -nob idp ^riKa 
"laip .Tn pao -n^'n dk c^ki ♦ iBKa ibh -htk "pnx n-ia Dbo^b ib jjnnKw 
[o . c^no" eiion" n-B ik Aeinna K^n c]K 'Da ♦einn^»2 nw cjnnai DiKriBa. 
nfib rnrat dikh -nD-ar no ba bp ibk a^tr Kb mbK »3 nnr ♦ 'lai nckr" 
am irxoT ♦noi pnm npin Ta Dnnp > am nnp ^nr^}D vnnr p bp* 
niK'a "i«?b am -nKnp nKib tp '"nvp- pm ban Dnatoi . mip baac 
Kb "npiac DK i5 ^-nr nanom bBrn ^a3K "a g|K m .naa ii?pnb nbwooi 
n\'n TKnpi lo t jannK "Dsrob c]ki .nwa na pnriB ^b Km Kb »n3PK 
n-rc? . TOP anKW nob rp ^■•sisnn bK lab d-w- ^a poKo '•n^^'^ Kb . rty\:^ 
-patB na-ni ♦-nav ik "ja-wnn impoa .^3bw n->PDa 17 .idbco nb-nna 
niob rbK ^norsi "nn am ■'rsn^ Kb is nnp D3 ♦ ni bp ■•spmn Kb ♦ oan 
•oa 'b" IK .D-pi pmo-'^a ^niK mmoi onnoa ''3P''atP'' KbK "a .n^:h^ 
♦bK awn nnti pwKnn '"Ba •w'K niKnab ^jaww ^yrbK imn arm 

^ Is. XIII. 10. *2 K. IV. 4. c Job XXXVII. 9. d Am. V. 8. 

c Job XXXVIII. 3i, 32. /Job XXXIII. 16, 29. ^Job IV. 16. * Prov. 
XXIII. 28. ' Isa. XXX. 7. / Sam. XXX. 1 2. 


pba^ hvn a^:h ^ir^an pn ^K ib D.TWoa K3pn'» ^k ♦jn rae pm arh 
hv PiDK nmb nt ^^^p^ [Foi. 6 a] na-ri oin n^Tib iWK%n loatp ibipco 
n^on nniDi iB'^bK iS 'k nn Katrsi . * omo'? maixnn pK ^a D^rwnn nan 
'BOT ♦K01: ^ba ib^DK Kin aieir nnn dw po wn aien ix "n <^nK3p 
imbab DnDKttM6bK2o •»-inv D^jn o^raB imKia^w 'dt'k pnxi rr'br tk 
pMH^ d'^w'? nriK iw^^ nt DK ^a i*? p^yno n^a p^m'^ Hh^ . nnac vbr Kaa 
pn^ ma n*? o^rnan hv ♦ npnn ^f^pyi t^ p^ny nht^"* ly ai ^•p^ 
nya wa*?"* Txaip aa ♦k nnn n^a; nrn ♦^'naan" va^K ^jn n^-ir p|K 
. irrK aa*? na orw o^wi ^hk *?aK on nm na : n*? ibav Kb» Dnnna 
a«?i ♦rsfi •virni awn ja hv .«?inoao »^aay n^ai nbraS 'ck» 'oai 
jai ♦avKjri ix. i 'oikc? 'oa avK ^:^vtr nw *?yi ./non'Ti nnia«? 
loa D^rttn nnfia n"n bj? awb broD rw viw p ^a ^nyi^ d:qk » . ne-rn 
• n^bwaa nnoK nt^na ikq i*? a^\r^n risK npian tonn^ v^k awm tA'aw 
inpnx isb^nn «•? nioa pnx '^bkw ibk pnn ova bn ay gnsK pir na *?aK 
BK : nsron new pi . '« D\i'?«n aiBttr rtm hki pnn hk ^a • ick ora 
"no*?! ••nKton noi ^j?rB no 'i*? leeco nra nap an*? noven jo^nn ftrv 
*?37 la^rnbi inwS vrnn bar k^w ♦ njaa mairn ia "^a ib r- vmpnat 
Kvi ^ aaS pan 4 ^nnw nDO*? p^3j?n naio p ♦PjSK_j30_nnK '"ck inai 
nonbi -na^a irKi aan »^ ^a ♦ na_peK Kinv ni br iiri ♦ ntsnp Kin no pnn 
'T37 .D\nbK nana nan n«?pw pia inatjb onan vbn nppn ^e .ban pi 
inx3 K*?*? DiSra 1300 nn ♦ d'?p^ ♦«'-w^ u'»k nano mm" r-'K nan rpn 
onKn tev pK ^a p3j?n nnooi ♦ onan npp nir n^aio I'^^pn p -o . sjioa 
"pn pnn rn^ ik pnK |ira noipoo pnn rsnoio pnn pTPo s K\nB? lor anb 
'"6 IK int no hjj? pp'»Ti" nhv; .i£Tj6i wp^nn ipaw 'oa iOnw b»o 
n-ai"* twKn 'wbai •*'»•" nnn om3an n'r n3"a ana pKB? ipn^ k*?» 'ct'k 
♦wn^mor naatn 'n'r ♦ pn^n W nniapi 6 ♦ /"3ann no hv "3''P"-nn noKW p3m 

a Ps. LXXIII. 1 3. ^ Ps. LXXin. 4. c Job V. 2. ^ Isa. XLII. i3. 

«? Job VIII. 14. / Dcut. XXX. 3. g Ps. XCII. 8. /« EccL III. 17. 

/ 2 Sam. XIX. 44. J Mic. VI. 2. k Hab. III. 8. / Job X. 2. wProv. IX. 1. 


qtsp^ nh h aoib pioen c^ioar wa^ ^^^ ♦''W3' ^i^w nonpw tp *nr 
^3^3 D31 ♦nn^xp n^^ Ka^ kSw cnsp ibd k^o vhv pi fWa^^w mapa 
lupa nh K\i na ba n-a bbiannb giap^ k*? im'^n^^^a Kintt? jot ba unfib 
D'on n^na \iai3i ibma mara nwnbv 'bt'k n^acn ba ^3pbi oar o-an 
inipr^ Kin b^nw '•eb D^on non^t^a anci am npa n^atn ba onp wa*" 
nnn^ n^mbn^bi ab nwn ^^T ana pw . hn "n^w ba mnnK p i 3 tonan 

♦ innoai iboa oro^ ♦ pip^ -jpk 14 soiaa pin pKV w^tm Tna kSk dbti 
w^aarb«?irr»a^DnKj£]r«5 dkct ♦</wtk^ traap •»-npvTr ♦r^apjvai 
ni bai «?n*an opi ^Bn opM6najyirr«^ niacrai fpn hv; in-a ^r ik 
pianniinaK^i ♦ nnKny dk ^t dk 6 ♦ Sk ^k nnrn nnx dk 5 braoio 
iiapa ♦ Kin aitan i^ 'iki nnn ♦ d-d "ba K3^ nhiD Koun br "^aiw "b^i n-OTtar 
*?ri . in33 '^pi aio"i n\T' nts'^w K-nw mra noni car '^apb c^k o-am naran 
D^33K ba br '7 pjKi ban xbaoi vrnwi inpav ewono na Kin» in:a "^a ^3B 

♦ nsKi nsK ygny laano^ »a^i nwp oipo Kin» 
•oa 'eb w^ D31 ♦ DC k:d^i nxri nno iS nwr ♦ nin" o-saK n^a oipoai 
DiK c^K ♦rnnnb i*? j-Ka D*oni ns^an na^e-w ^m^ ^ano^ '^di /nun pp 
pi P3B1 JOB? K^i ipnn vh mx ba ia riKm n-nibnbi laba nun it Kinw 
iniK*? i:p*?D^i irbabn ist^ombkis ♦Tanw d-sani tt?o«?b bwb nrw 
ba bna Kin nan laba 'okw -eb ar bnaw D^saKn n^aoi ban p laipea KOian 
A' pnai mn^n iBr oipoa nnri nnr bnanp jaw ba ba bn D-'aaK n-a bp na 
nnpo ^nnw TivjnKbi T^nan nh ib laK^ iS-Ka ip'^ooa inKni KOian ia 
n'?i3?on lainriro 19 n\T imp'^o anow D-'aaK n-ai bn ^nnw nSvii ttran'» 
imp^DW nnK laa^i ♦ ireaw mn-n ncpa nnp K\nro nnv bnab inn'?am 

♦ jnpKnn laipo ib n\n aiai nbrob anaian laaio^ ncK rttriw inoac^ laoa 
jar j-Ki a^n^baca a-a^ttn nKi-» Kim a^a^aa xniKia'n nr^i y Kvwa aiK »ik 

rt Ezck. XLVII. II. * Ps. CXXIX. 6. c Ps. CXXIX. 7. ^ Isa. LIX. 5. 
c Lev. XXV. 3o. / Dan. VIII. 5. h' Ms. nrnsi. 


jT]^ VIII. I. : dt^twt^ nir hnn p hv ^ns piac mp lain avK 'dkw bn 
• ora nn tp '*^x |x ^^ » n^aa nni a 'oixa ♦D^:«?baDio »iKny ♦mba 
an*? no^nai oraa nnan *?a 'oi^a <? • d^bdw on-aa o^o 'oa ♦ ptn nna 
iKttn T3a DK 4 '»nnw » pian tspya nip^ y 'i^natnn^ai •b«n3 :'pnn33a 
ntt^b nor dk tp ♦i^ vw»w "^lara ♦dtob bpa v3b bpo pn^tn *h 
nKW3n nriKDKis /iKat^i ^30 bpa n*?r mn cm bK ^»B3 pK ^36*? bmori 
man ^naia nh^ *^h pnnm '?k bn inyn ♦bnpoi nanb orrviK 
nwK K'^a nf.p ^a D-woa ^rn ^aba tt_dk6 ♦mb-nn •iWKa noimni 
■•3ai D^3a "ipiac m3 th^p^ ♦^nn^Ka n*? a^onb naiiDn mm i^br "^^r 
nnnn riK yn '^'^ nsnnKa nnpr ht h a^n n3m ipnac ^b*? "nina D-3a 
1K3 mba no^tt? n3m t iKQ K3d^ ^nnnKr ^d*? .TrmnjTvn? a"13i avK 
•aien inn 'pn n^rn Kb yx^ mo ^ttikw d^kii wkw noo ^kiit baK arn*? 
*?37 ♦ n^p*? ^Ke^a ^a i3jn^ ♦ ^a*Kan'? mr n^bj? nnB3 n^ w ♦ ^o^3b ^^br 
.13*8 abn nsna xba nb^en "a 'oik nnK nwna nnK ngn nt dk «* 'b'OKp 
, ^K hn -mpn nnK dk 5 pn^n . /* row '»3^3^k rh^tn lann ^a D3 "rr ♦ nb^jno 
1^0 nnr ^a ^\*h^v r\'bvn "nmo ab nwvo o^na Diva "^k*? n^Sean dk 
bv p-no-^n bapb nnKWs nmn . ab nn^a ^nb-B^ nn\n kSw ^uSi ^Sp n**]^^ 
'P'H 'WTB1 ♦ ^^3a mo nbv ♦ Dibw 'wS obttn rvn^ prbn nt ^u*?! npun "o 
fiTKn nn br nn*? lo*? nn*? s , oibwn ]wb obip^ ncB^sn Kn npnac m3 
nn *?» pmaK br nir ^^ikw*?! mpn*? ^ab piai ♦ ' nr^ ^sa*? npn© noKi loa 
*?3ca p'\ ^:^H nnK nn ^unm osnsK *?ion ^a o sms oSvn pw nKnm tpB^Kn 
on*? noK no Tim^ on Kb.n to ♦ nnn ni^bv ik d-3W npnb -j^ns: p *?p 
K'^a "o • mo3m d-'^wo n*? r.iKnnb d^^^o iK^atr 03*^0 rv naboi omaK 
. pnKn ^awa nb iktw *?»em ovn ba ^p'^cn^ '^bk . nbar k*? aa*? nan^i ^n 
'oa n3ta ^"^a ma3i bn: mnb nwrnn n*? nacn .naca K^a kot3 nK3^nn 

a Job V. 3. t> Job VIll. 8. c Job VI. 29. *^ Job VIII. 3. <? Isa. XXVIII. 2. 
y Jcr. XV. I. a Job XLU. 12. /» Isa. I. 15. « Ex. XIV. 3. 


psnnw T\Tn ^wfij nn^^n nnxn ^^natt? mavmai niaibna n^unob ^«?B3 ^^ ba 
bar Kbw ^fib ♦ imoa nnnb oinnfi no ttr'Ka toxor^tor^K panb ncbn niaa 
n: 'K'^i ♦ ••B13 nnoio nrw '•mbxpb •inr ♦ ^moatra nna ♦ VBb ban K^armb 
: n-'a'? vt:h ejun -a ana niab nioatpo nnv 'r •« •'*t^ ♦ mo inna •»moatp 
bin mob *Biow inm t mnK obipb Kb Kna ••n^n c]K nn» ^na ^noKO 16 
tnnjTO D''0'» ^nKW no ba ♦ ^o'* ban ^a ♦^nrnnb no»o ^br cvbo ^^ 
npiB nnm b^KVi ib a^onb nab vbx n^yn ^ai Tiaai nwira isbnan ^a 17 
Kr pxa Kin ^a ♦ « ban nnnwm nnbn "xi bp ♦ aion inrna o^npab 18 
'oa » ^300 nypn Kbp ni n^-JK^ noai9 ♦ pTO^^ ^roa wnano^nb •«'bo^i 
na ba ''^Hv ir ^^iD"^ bnanbo "sp-in Kbi ♦^3pnn br baai ♦ c^mmj w p bp 
I^bm Tn ja ■•a ♦ pn la-'bt^nb na ^b pK ^a OKOsn '^pn rbn *3KW wbn 
crattnn obirnw loa %t ik ♦ ^nKon 20 nniK prbni pnn p byi ^na ^«?n 
MbKb eja^K ^'^ onpK noa nn bp nb bypK no ♦ nt ba ^b Ka ^Kiona ^a ^bp 
DiKn nana .bnin ^naa •»fib ^nniip |pnb nb nwpK no 'Oiba ^ono 
nb nrnb o^-na ^anogr nob ♦ ^3nD"«^bi ^nvnnb nowa "•bp norw ovn ^aioa 
'•a ♦ KTob ^3K ^hv 031 . Dpab yhv *3K nni '•3Knntt^ pt ba no^anbi 3y3Pob 
nn- «?fob mr n^nK Kbi ^3''nontt^ n^arnb] v^tHV rapob fan^ oai ^na ^natp 
'^rrp KOT Kb ^a n\n"« noi ib natn n^m ./n-ioob ib ^aonpn 'n br T^maoi 
. nnpja ♦ nb WBob nv n\nK Kbi i3n''on» i^arnb ^3ijn y:^v 1330 ipbob 
nnrn nnK oai Kg^ob ^bp tip n\nK Kbi narb aarK P nnr nann ^n\n» loa 
n^nKi ^300 nnn ni3'»i ^3"3''ki ^300 nnop3 np-'b nb raoob ^m^nw 10a ^niK 
jip-n Kinw K^ob ^br n'nKi 'oib -p^ac pKi nn3 KatOK ^3k 031 ♦ ih nn nn3 
b-iKb ^a lb 'OKw tc^bK br avK niawn rr3n [Foi. 5b] : ©won ^ob onoio 
b'nK "n^Kn ^3K ib 'okw bpi * ^ora bpr* bpw ib la-rn nt bn ir ora 3Vr 
ran Kb pttnb ib'^BKV n? bj? la^wn avKi 7103 'oib nam n%n» ♦'ttrnro 
DK lb 'OIK nnba nam i^'^ivry bai .y^a 13B ib"mn T\np) ib 'oki ♦iranw no 

. '» Eccl. XI. 10. * Job XIV. 2. c Isa. XXII. 4 0?p). ^ Micah VI. 6. 
^ The words in brackets are marked for omission. /Comp. Job XVI. 12 
iV 'iaT)*!. fc' Job V. 2. A Job VI. 2. « Job V. 3. J Job VI. 28. 


♦ ibpi nar inaitD ^0^6 '»-nv nir nh o^o^a D3 ^d 'uc nih^h:^ mne n^atnw 
nnab ibp "O'* ik ♦namn man xSa naia ^o^ onr •c^nan Yta-oi n'v 
^o'» pi ♦ mbpa naoon Tina Kai nbin» 3"ik*j> D^b\n nam ♦ nanoi aiD nSa 
mpn 'K'^1 ♦ mpn mp 'h nicin n^Kw ♦ npn oBKa ibar? ' n*?^*??! };n}Ti Mvn 
"•6^1 ♦naoon dp ^mnb b^^\^^ Din pKw 'oiS nm ♦^^jwn am mpn usa 
a"TKrw 'oa oBiob Ka Kin p ^a 'w ptoinn or Kai n^vw a'wn i^anw 
mbKtroT ^^n mn ^a 7 >rna "m^n i'^^b w 'pn*? 'iki ♦ ^'nci em x'^a -ik»3 
nfioa 'iTBW ♦«?aw» K^^^*?^^ nn nn 'kmv 'TP ♦ aio nwiS ^rp airn kS 
> ^Kn pr 8 ♦ ^"^ n»K baa n^ jovn nb» oniDa ^b .thw aiP niKn*? p natn 
n^WB? naiorw nKa»3 "a^a^K 'ino'?i DT»n ^b a^en*? nnp ^a yy*v ^nw nKn 
aw^ Kb pp iniKi ♦ nS^prjTba 9 ♦ nbim 'ibow 'oa nrw •»&*? pn nj'K nor 
in^ab HIT aip^ nh 10 »nm nbp^ Kb yn 'iBtai ♦ nby Kb i h^WD nni^* p ♦nv 
^a f^H 'oa ♦ loipo "'\r^3K . laipa Tir ^sn^a^ Kb i ♦ V3ai ^^\VH av ia msrrb 
p onKn Trnar nnKi *m^H naa jnanK ba ^a tpKn ^3k K^nw/^b Konn 
•»noKa ♦ nebb noK^«? 'tsa obipb nrnb ^b |^t b^Kin ^3KD3 1 1 ♦ rma ban 
nnK pnio^^a rrnn nabi man bw«?bo ^b ^otk Kb ♦^'n-'HK obirb Kb 
n-'^nna nBa Kb iD»Bn ^Bbi .^anw nwn nana niKib "3^^ awn nhw 
o>3 D-mm "IT Dvn ba '^mpn mna npoa nvnb ^3k p^n n to^non 
nayp ^bp D^n ^a ♦D\n nnpoanoibon ♦ p3n dk ^/ibav Kb opit^n ^a mas 
'oib nsni ^iv^KJp »3 ♦«nbB? wb3 nK pn jtown bK 'dkw tp .nicK Kbr 
nawKi jw^Ki ia m3K«r ^onp ^3on3n aba ^nnoK dkc? nrioo ^3K na baw 
."^ro bp^i yam Kwoa ^nK ikw3i 'rv ♦ ^op ^aarovr^aKw^ innacn 
Ittn OKI ♦ ]}D^h lb n"«30 133-K ie»n *a moibna nnao nK ^"ni . '3ijijm m 

• psnbnnarn i5 D»n "pa^ ni3^ Kb» ppo Kinwa pmo^^ ^3pb ibnaoi Arnnaa 

« Ps. LVIII. 8. b I Sam. XV. 23. c Dcut. XXXIII. 25. d Josh. 11. 18, 
e Ps. LXXVIII. 39. / Ezck. XIV. 12. ff Job VII. 16. * Isa. LVII. 20. 
i Job II. 6. J Num. XI. 17. Arin margin. The text has ppa- 


nin mpaa ^a lasnr nn •lanb pi ddgxp n^opn ♦ ib^Kin nnn 'S jnnb 
^3 pKV imm •'*?r DsnTaaa .jojawag ♦ atSK dk nKi** d5^3P hv^ ♦*3Tp» 
"msn pnx niKXon "••ma nnv ipnpinrsi 'o^b nann nip laign ^n^ 
w ♦ p\ Kaat Kbn vii. i [Foi. 5a] j ipnar ^b^^1 'bot ^snKSw m nma ♦ ro 
pn obira 13^ 1B101 'pn ^rpoa bwob v^n ■•a^ pK ''by ttn3Kb orpi aa» '^b 
K^ nn*."' "Tiarb nnn i^bhw i*? aiarp i3ow n^sy ^o^3 '?ior*?i nnpb n^s»s 
qw^ nars > ♦ bar k^ obira v-n ^nKnb nann dk dikti c^k ♦ vbrab nrv* 
inni30 nrr "sb orn mo3a anr ^bb^at ncatar mrn bpab nairn ^ 
Kacaai ♦ ib lan^ nh anr nrbi • ia nanKi nar bitoK avim ♦ vhn anpaa 
ir 71*^ bp ♦ nfiarai mpa ♦ t\tw n'^oi ♦ pnb Di\n ba "^ajn oana rnto» 
^nb nn-'b ne^K^^a ♦ ^nbnan p a :<^pnK ibp *?]? o-^aKmn ^c^wan maw 
^anp in" "0 npaa 'bwi mpa "n^nw '»K"ra 'biKw tin ♦ nnn mn mntb bn^ 
ni3" K^tt? nntb bnnra kw ^b m'^Ty ntoao nam ♦neo^ loa *aarb bp n'i3Ki 
ni'?"*?^ onn* ♦ <? oabaKo nK n;p nam laa . wj ♦ ^h w^p bap nib'»bi ♦ ^h 
moa n^arr 'aa bap mb^ba moa ^n^n ^a wn^a nn^ ik . n? bp nt bea 
"a n'P ♦DipK^na^nnajo n^^h anpa "naay bk 4 nnw *]"k ncoai .nara 
nnn3W nn3a nt p npba Kinw g^nw npa bpw bp ♦ anp nna*. /npa in^ 
•K'n ft eic3a lapn 'aa a m ^^3 np onn: paw '•3Ktt? "b^ ••n3v nn3a» anpn 
gnai nan nya pab 5 nnw ♦ vi3» nnn 'Jj*? 'bb ♦ rh'^h nn^a nap^i nnai 
j'nwT} vbv Kaa nann nvia arv Knv ^ab nopn ^k anpi Tr?33 "3ki ♦ nap 
nD3a3 Kn D3 nann p hr\ nvan apnai pn^n nin'?a "^ti^n bba3i tt?bBn3i 
Spyon P3n jai nip-pa 'n-B«? ♦'"p"'** 'J^^ ^^ '^^ ^P^^ 'aa panjnv na 
yrt p "•a ♦ "B13 Kn rrtv ^'^^v ni3"'«? "•narnwa *vr^^^ nK w^i ♦ a^n npn 
Da"3 Kin nn ♦ oKan : * mp na baK** 'aa . mp iBia Knpb ♦ nn na&n 

<» The reference is to Prov. XXVI. 27, where the reading is mv as in 
Uipzig Ms. ft Ezek. XXXVI. 3. c Am. II. 7. d Deut. XXVIII. 67. 

«? Dan. I. 10. / Dcut. XXVIII. 67. ff 2 Chr. XIX. 7. * 2 K. VII. 5. 

'■ Ps. XXXV. 20. yisa. LI. 15. Af Job XVIII. 1 3. 

21 COMMENTARY ON JOB. VI. 19 — 27. 

K^i D^b Sp '^nena nttna •«?*? '.tots ina nt Tnn bn ncm 'nr ixay ^cb 
iBm labani ittna opn an^ba ia» D^bb orri^px in'?B? orrnKi ♦ware 
ia K3ttMV ^fib open •?]? rtnr iki ♦ orrbp oab noa ^a 'b^ w* £mi ♦a Dtw<i 
••aKtt? bnnnw'? Tb_DJvvTjTnpjaai ''loipo nir isnwn Kbi ♦napj pwSi) 
"Ty ibw Dn^n DK •napn'? ih on^^n nny ^a '^l t'^k '-n ♦ o^'bv ^rba 
noaabi nrrb n\'w omK h^h laia bnsnw m^aan nam • *■• a»K inKi rrnK ib 
•«oa nn ^kw ^hn d^io^i Dn"«\n . ixn^m nnn wnn : ib avK "n p nnp ny 
^n*iaK "an »» ^^ibn bn ^^ara nit^K "it "3T»a oa^^^p Ka^ ]t d^ki" Dn''\Ti 
noKn» mara ik ♦ ^b ijnn oa*? "nnoK» ni niarabn ^jiD^spn no'? 'h nann 
^37 ♦oa-wroT : oanaai navica v^^o: k^i ^oxra nwei on: ^Kttn ^b 
"3iDbob nn» nMib •nw unrn '^"nn r\H ^h rwv n** oanpi ^na "pn 
■'*? Iran ♦ ^nrvB noa ^anin 24 ♦ ^a naan jmoi oa^ ^n-iaK nt ba ♦ nacjroa3 
'B?^ IK w^^ * lac^b: loa ♦ lacnaa a5 ^ ♦ oanana pnnKi bn bn wittk "aKi 
pao navi n^ai^ noi ^b 'bw Dn"\n dk ♦nrvjnoK parn ^d*? •np'Tb 
nain^n ><> •oaa mava; no b^rv noi arb ^"n ""Bn^nMH •paKirnnici 

^nr\ b^ 'oa •£kt3J22!L!]I]^^ * onnn onK onp-'r "^r mopb Dnna*?i pb^^o 
nb ^a •?]? vfio K^now no Tob awnb*© oabr crma noK • ♦/^^oa xa:v 
'OIK oriKW ^b^ niara o-n-^aToa o^att^na vnnn 'b"' oai ♦ oa^-on ibapn^ 
ob^pn Qin^ '?r gjK a? ♦^aionan Kb«? &ab«? «?ki3 ^-iok a«?n" noan nn*? dki 
e\'v^nb on ^a c]k ♦ nonab k^ oananw nnK ^a ♦ nm "b wvrw pJD bo 
♦ g nmri btk pa»o 10a nnacp mnbi 36 nbo n^nm "ao^apn*? ^mnac bv mac 
: jTWin^n '* la mn •ivk wt-k np pi rawo^ imawn^ ia D\nbK nn "iwk ttr»K '^lv 
bp c'^^fio DHK oral pjK ♦ Din" bp p)k nw na WKn no^wa nnia npn ^jn 
pn"i •oajn n^Ka nn»o iron 'oi'^a iarh nna^i 'oa ♦vwn ♦•■♦aioa Din" 

a Jcr. XIV. 3. * Job XX. 9. <^ 2 Sam. XVI. 18. </ Ps. XIJ. 2. 

<? Dcut. VIII. 17. / Prov. XXIX. 11. g Hos. IX. 7. * Num. XXVII. 18. 
I 2 Kings VI. 23. 


Hh^ vtobpai la: bp ^ino"! 3*?^ obpn^ lo'^bw d^eopsi D^pin on ^D 
D*r^W nbtt^on pp ikv 'a onnn pa o-'bn: ono "a • ram oin ^yo^t^n 
.nrrhv nhvnt^ abrn D^p n'ypn^ jet "^ai ♦apab.T onnn pa o^bnaa 
naKi abwn oo3i o^eapn lorons tM onnn pao ^HT^ o^mpn loascai 
D^oav nonn wy\ •on^ nnx o-sra on o^pi mpm aSrm •i»a onon 
fr K"Yi3n n-ipa in* o^noaa nipai njxa ^nw ♦ rar ]wh D^'?nn nntr nra p 17 
Q^hnvy iXBp:i "iapna w nipn oonnna •orrbv o^-pnoi d'?rno ibrm 
•insb^is :naKi 003 i'^tt^m ♦ow^tt? *?iona pina pi^ Dntt?"'-p oipM 
♦TinK lara^ ♦ ine^" pi . ^t^: vhn ^tt?o 'ttn^cr ♦ c j^tv: na^^ 'a • to"«ien 
k'^i ptn nnpn nvna diTSp nm dtt?b» bion ^^hrw mT^» im mmw 19 
vad-i ia*?i d^nn pna ip'?nd'» nnpm abm ibrw "fib ♦ orvbv "np la*?" 
njtpb d.Tbr *?idn labnw Kd-n nn^^r lean ♦ la^am 19 ♦ nir lan- kVi d\nna 
wia HDm mpm ^iBar pwb ^'irtoab nsn 'da ♦ Kagy ma"*?n fai •aam 
inaa d-om •aopddjarw'7 id03 naaw arvhv nv lab^ k^w dmpnd 
^m nTia b»od man "b'?i 'irhn '-1 na^w nw pi-pnbi ^nn awb d^anan 
br m^ian ttntd "nnn "3ki amatr doin nraw 3'?»a bnsn nTaab avK 
♦ mn nt pK mpn jd anmpi dnmw nnw d-bn^n ^a ♦ dnmpn 16 ♦m ^T^ 
pb KTn» abw mn dK ^a * :hv9 dbyn^ id^^pw dr*?*? bdnd in d-'sab K^m 
nra nnri . d-'dn mjisab aina ambp ^la^s k^i dbra nn aTbp inv nwa 
Kb dK dinn nra nw ♦ idina 17 pi ♦ ptn n^^h rm in^ indatj mpn p lamr 
wdwn din ^a ♦ ddpaa ixBpsi lana dipd bad ♦ nipn npa 'da nm lanp" 
rwoad din nr Kb •mpn *3bd "iip nr Kb d-d ar pK» KXds ddPdd 
dnatnda my a-jn otwd d-bnan ib-K t dam mnnK indb »8 mm •»d«n 
naKi nnK u idpi \ina ibr- nt^K "cb ^'\\vmv ndb'n 'n by • ♦nm indbji 
dibrnr IK fTKa diby- d-ssrm ncdb D*dn mnbintt? -db .dnannd ^T^ 
dabna a-arrs vn nwa dmpai amnwb npi Kari Kd-^n '»nmd la-an 19 ♦ imna 

'» Ps. CIV. 10. ^ ICzck. I. 22. c Judg. XVI. 29. ^ Isa. XX. 6. 


IK pi ♦nwaipcT? j\iDh ^au^ nn^i 'oa t n^ nn^ ;niD ^•tpw*? "uttw 
n^ bxa m *3 nay lypa nK p"i je»n *?k 'ok -wkd • i^ *»w -nbw* i6u 
J rht^n K^a ^aa-i ♦ m^«? nmKO n^ nnn a^n^ nnpi ♦ lewn *3B0 ^aioann 
HM DK1 ♦<?innoK para ♦^^'^ rata^ ^a loa ^^n noa'? ^aioa^ ♦ ^rraca^i 
bn t^a-pw no *?a br nana bapo ^n^n inp nnn nb^Kwn |d ^an^aao 
jnaKtKi •la^ar^cb wnnc ♦n^vTajnboioio »3mta ^n^KP Kan tn^ ^a 
K-jpoa -on nnboK^ pw ^br bvsn^ kSp rfmbva b^n ^^p »a •nb^n npa 
nb-'na ptnrici p»^ iniK br ikhd^ ^aia ♦ mSw n^n dk • o^oan ^-oia p"i 
pnv '^c w ♦ ttrnp Kinw *pn nan -nnriD nh ^mna k*? ^a : "bv ibon^ k*?w 
loa Hh^ nnK p^ap 'ai*? ^a'^a ^mna k*?! ^aiaa nan^ p ik ^mip *?aw n^a ^aK 
^nana n : a^na ma ima Kin nab 'aai ♦ <?naBn a^npa ^a hK^ ♦ nnaKw 
^aK B^TKi •n'TaK -WKa oJDn -aKBTa; ij? mpK» n^Ka amo^^a *?iaB*? 
n^apn^ -ynnnb ^naia pp ^at^'^ nai ♦/wan^i a-Ka^ Kin ^a ^k ^k wiitk 
nv Hbn aniD^M ^hv la^-iK^ nhw naia n^nKW Kinn ypn np nr Siaob ^^ 
pn "aaK ik B\n nnpo pbaioi anairn o^aaK na dk la [Foi. 4b] : pp iniK 
BK1 pniB^^ nip biaob an^^p nainn *?^Bnb a^^naan niS^iaa a^aBwran 
o^aaK nai .nKicnn yp np ^^"^na Kan^ k^w nwnaa > nna nya 
^aneapS ^bp Kan nKin aan ^acp na hp g;ina nyai ♦ ^na na bv aoia 
aanKB ^aaa nnna aaa narp K^^tt; rrrini ♦ nxp ^^b nrh aaa ^a ^niTjy pKt P i'^ 
•ipn niaam noaan ib'^^k anb "^pt^aa ♦ ♦ xnyna aa*? 14 • ^aianan k*?b? 
aiy ny nKin /^ pair Tnam [b ^Kin nan •o laa ♦nanm "^b kvi nan 
. 'Bpn aa*? aan la ♦aab 'P'k '^bi inaaan bv "^Ba air nam ,p nwijn 
mpK ;ai mana 'aiKi 'iai -atp nai ♦ 'bk imnb aw^ ik ajna aan 'tbi 
naaa n\Ti t^aiTri ^apm^» nnat npa injna nan naac» inu6 bn'^'^Ki 
'HK ♦najnKi5 tnaann bwr^ tp wnoai .nbpab n^anB? nntpi mvin 
bwa*? an •^anaap^ ^nnat npa ^aaa anan latpi ^a naa 'aana'^i ^antpb iKaw 
btibbi niap^r ^na bjD ipnn \nw p^BKai nKin m^aan ja j^n ^nan ^k 

a Hab. 111. 6. * Iso. X. 12. c Lam. II. 17. ^^ Ps. XLVIIi. 7. «^ Job V. 1. 

/JobV. 8, 18. ifLcv. XX. 17. /i Prov. XXV. 10. « Josh. VII. 5. 



♦pKr\n 'D ine pnrn 5 ^a te-^K nnoK nwo pnx -3k Djm ♦d^w»3 inK T^pa 
iDino pn ppr Kb kSh '?i5k'? vsb*? wsr\ ttm Kna nva k*ib ppr ^ai '^6 
. <» I'rsK^ pan S^^a laa nKiann k'tw vseb b^^a nva npr mm dki Ktn 
pB?*?n br bt^: nr: 'rbi ♦ •oiaar o-xnn mo"^ ai-ia k^jk pnat "•s^ -jk p)k 
'ne *?K 't3K n by .ban "inp i3pna hrKi Kin«? nan ba ^pn baK%n 6 Knob pnr 
D^jsKn nan^ Hbv9 n^ea 'nw pnei nnna n-^nsa K\n n^K 'oinn K\n ''ben bfin 
nan p npra pKasnor crhtn ^n-Kn pnew 'K-asa 'ai ♦be^ p *?37 ppnD 
*?3 nwKa '^fib -a b«?o Tn ni 'ik 'a pm ♦ btr\ ^^^p n'^os k*?i nhtsh "wnn 
.i>rpo pn laoaa lo^aanb ia nan: irK • nbos k'^i nSo*? ^innn ma baKG *?aiK 
nna kox inrna obim ^k orD »^ dki nb nam • niobn nna ore tt?^ dki 
^T^pm nyrr\ o-'o nnw ntPKD ib nan tk ^a loibna imK laotioa vca nrK 
nwK n'^^aK brb 'n by n^an nnr i ♦ wb3 a^r" Hb^ ih ore^ k*? oibn inwtt 
Di'rm n»K3 n^rw" 'kw 'n'p .i*? S^pv k*? nrK n-TWi nK3n *?awb na pK 
hv D-'Kain *?a n'^^S pnn o^na rn^ p nnw nam Kam *?aiK nm arn 
n*?o K*?aa ben baKa ^ianjb nnanw nan *?a ib^Sk^ ai^ 'ik ^^•l ^'p^at nn 
'»b.n nn ♦ ^nan mk "vbj la'tr nh p Kaatb '^'•jn'* k^ n«n< oi^n nnai 
piDcn pK ^D piDB pr*? nt i3^k nara tva*?n mobn onmBn *b*? ^a np'^v 
prS nioSn onniBn oai ♦ jio'^n n'^^aKi ^Bn nb^aK K\nr nSowo pn biBD 
piaab*! Dn^^K anp"? ^n^an k^w t TBa piaab naKO ? tpna^j av^w Kb pnn 
■•anba ira^ dkc? '^anb ^na on nnp <? wn bK Kae ma ^nn br ♦ a^^K 
"Ti^atn Kbw anw a^ttnaa «?•• aai . nm laa a^Kaa anr anb nan^ ^baKaa ik 
pJD ba Kpa "n-^^n ana paia ^n^\n BKtt? ^baKa '•apnaa vn an» -ah ana ra^b 
♦nip pKi '^B arm frvjas ^a 'abi n^anw n»nan biaab bia" ^mn kSw 
t mem rbnnw naKa ^vsa ^a mrbn prb ♦/rw\n^ vaan laa piaab nba 
nr ♦ ^3Kann ♦•aYpi nbK pwb w pan p»b .«^nra bKin laa rrhn hnv^o 

rt Isa. XXX. 24. ^ Kzek. XIII. 1 1. c Jcr. XXIII. 1 3. ^ From Isa. XXIX. 8. 
<^ Lam. IV. 15. /Josh. VIII. 15. ^ Ex. II. 21. 

17 COMMENTARY ON JOB. V. 26— VI. 4. 

grna m'^rs ; o^a^ k^o ir^sp ^eb isnnBi ♦ neon ma pn nKaoM nh nhx >6 

pn ma |nw pK ^a nnra 'n^ao nbm ^^ n^av inya ma mbra i •inra 
nai K*?» dnnKG ninpn nxi n^n » ? '' npttn ttrn: hv p^ ♦ n'^ttnaan rwiano 
JTOwn ba ^"vi snaK n3K3»m ^oxrb rrbp npm ♦Tb_£TnnKi k\-i p-i 
mnoj nh ^a i^ a^»n Kim mnoj lai-i n»K naa*? now hv avK *?]? ib^*?k 
aw^ ih mm ♦i-C'^oi in'»ava p hv iKcn nn jnv 'pn ^a lam owno 
p '»a ♦ Djn ora^ k^t nr noio dko^ k*?i . vbp on-w ib pna-i*?! ^k *?k 
nana ^h'hvrh^ WL^rh ia*? tc^^K ow nwKai osrim wpa» *?n>cn yxi 
^ao 1^ mppn nana WBinb ia^ bK aiw d» p man bao i^ mrrpn 
nnoK ^lp» 6 a avK i^; vi. i- :nan imn "^p nb^nn Tvm p *?j; man 
♦ 1*? nanv nb *?ao avK*? mpp n'^n nann m ^a ♦opa nm *?nK*? '»a 
D''3iKoa innan ittnmfii cmn ^r mn p^sra Tinm ♦^ra bpy^ bipy i^^k 
mn fnai m»a mbpw k^k nmaa nnnm nnaao nnici >cnn nh^ o^jmoa 
m» nmiKttn vin ^rr^y^ tjaa "mnaco ""b .n\n«? noi nnK cjaa ^ora *?pw3 
opam D"'3TKon nnn ^3^w .nnr ^a "S rmxt^ no nasa p^ ^nopa k*? man 
r» dai i^ nnaw nnacn "^p ^ora naa^ o^a^ 'yinog; yrv^ mn: bpit^oa ninm 
mvCT Dpan nm ikbt ^nnn bj? oipa*? 6 nnnw no ^pp^ bipy ^h 'th 
^Dpa n:3a w ^ora bpwi mm n"n iSw naa^^o^o^J^inw nxn '»n\n .nn£3 
•^nnn 'dot •<'ir'?i inn loa mnn ♦jn^pn ^\r^ pKatv ♦ ipS nan p bp .nnp 
n»o Ka^ D^ia^w loa o^wp D^srn ntap np ^srn ^^a 4 'wr kvti •matm^ 
D^ama mra papi3» a^r'^mn brob ^jrn vm ik ♦ lacana nmvi nac3o 'mar 
nan ny ia pnra3W a^atnn "^k awn anan n'^a ♦ ^mn nn^y anan n^K 
i3aa KBnn^ vh^o a^acnn n pmna» ann aa pa Rxm <? «?n3 nan niana ia*? 
^3iany rnhn ^mya • .n3Ki .n3K pjn3n^ aa«? annn ^m Him wn maim • patB3n 
an*?n*? n33 lanp^ ♦^3nra'' aav ania^\n an •/B\n*?K nnnn \nni 'n'p 

a Zcch. XIV. i3. * Job XXI. 32. c Ezck. VII. 26. ^ Obad. 16. 
f Ps. LVIII. 5. / 1 Sam. XIV. 15 (the Leipzig Ms. has nrmV as the 
Teztus Receptus). 

V. 16—25. COMMENTARY ON JOB. 1 6 

my\ i6 ♦ noana ik nnnaa ny»::^ ^cb an |o mtas n^gnn n^i ♦ omn hv 
[nnbrii DTTj^b n^p*? 7lp^r\ mac v*?]? laa nyn hih Tsirw "•n-onw naa 
nnrb WTD pxBp" nKt on^na nbnbi Sv 'bra tb ^mbv won^ 'oa 
b»a "nn D.TDO nt nK r-mn Dipan» i>n '•a on^bp onrnoi onr Pii-iB^bb 
♦Dxon hn "ip noion 7 '^p^an^ rwpn na dki ♦iiip'? nwp mbnn ih^ 
2^18 .lb nipmY^^en rmn p bp Txtsn bp ^noio nina^n pi nt pK» 
♦nrp-tfi vnn ♦wain irK a*Kao dk» dikh ^Dn iyani a^Ka" Hvi 
♦^^iscan"! y i3'kbi''t »i"ie K\n '•a ^'^ ^k naw3i laS :^p)n noira nn 
iriTfiw rfra'^K^ njrawn k^i nan \rbr ne^a' mD^tn hkt para • 9 
.pnrn "o- •? n'p ♦ma^poai-Q raw p-»i rarn ^bvn njiointpi ♦nTa'n 

• onrai Kaar 'ikw 'oa ba ^rr*? imb'^ttnr o-mam omwn onw 
•w*?o nw 'K"n ^b n^ K^ 'a pnrn apn »nrw pabiaa -i^tt; ^^\'wh 
SaiKn DiKn mm t^' nw nba pan dbk ^a /"psn c-abb nwi 'a ♦np^ai onw 
na^wr "itt?*? 'imbp rranp n:Ba 'taa jca'^i tonnK btt? nx Dpo tora 
q*? p-i'» nh -a noanip ♦pnpn [Foi. 4a] era wo vbn nnai ffiww 
•n^n pKa »ii3n p ^m "^r ♦n^m myn ''3aK a3 ntr^K n ntr^rb 
•Bi ♦'I'ynK rr^ry^ pibr "a ♦^aaba ovn nm m ♦'^mn jriBi *?n» bp 
♦ni3 mppi ♦nnp nnK irxa k^i pn p^li pv pxo niann w npn 
♦>Dibc*? ipcn ynn r\K)ipn hv ♦di*?» ^^: mpci 'i*?a tama oibip bp 
f\\DHh pi p^3p in: Kttin'?! ^-^ bp oa Kcin n\nn k^i Kiann k^i 
nn-a npenra /npB ova 'a mppi '-b apr 11 ♦*aieb nn^ Dra*?! 
^3ai "ax 'oa n\'Tn ^vn^ banw nnn nonn k^v K»nn nhvj nhv i3Ka»n 
TPnr^.Trr anjajs j^m w wK-tDm k^ nipwn bn vh^p ♦wo-'Kton nobw 
nb»aT .inp Kb»3 man k^ nnK oi i"»33 ina» nnp vaa k*?i T-a-n a-'en ok 

»» Vs. LXIV. 7. ^ Prov. VI. 23. c llos. VI. I. <i Prov. XXX. 15. 

^' Job I. 7. / Is. LX. 1 6. ^ Is. XVI. 4. h Kzck. XVII. 7. » Ps. XCI. 1 2, 1 3. 

J I Sam. XVII. 18. ArEccl. II. 26. 'Ex. XXXII. 34. w I K. I. 21. 
« Judg. XX. 16. 


pKa p Toatrb Kb [w^^u^ n^b ks*? ihv borb diwd 'oibs tonK "O? 
c]vn nnbin nrna t*k '"w ♦^acip lorw pxi bar riw ttrnn ion k^k 
bra arw c]y-i ^sai ♦buw it np ib^ barb dik p nbrab cjBipb 
lb vn n^a nbn pKS p faxra Kb rbr tiairb VT^an ib pKsn amo^b 
np « bay "•ynn pK "•tt?iin '»n'^i i»K3 'aKw ^ab vrvt p 'Kia» 'ai 'ri bjn 
Tn Kb '•a ♦pK nppa Kr Kb 'o ibbpr nbbpn p mt ''IT'i: apw 
Kb» ^Kn pnK Kxini ^a Kr Kb .th^i bur pK imK nara nKxb ^tki 
ib^ rnw aiK nb'' barb anK ^a t/'pw pKS nw pi narw pas rrn 
nara -wk 'aK» ^ab Kin p ^biKi n^ainw naiKn naaa aiK nnpb 
Kb ma^ lara "wk anKn p nara riKxb ^wn n^n Kb *a 'w "• ^^ama" 
^a nbi: Kb 'aiba nb^ bapb anK ^a ptt^b baa naiKai jik rwvvo pn^ 
a''Kxrn »k ^aarn an pjvb w^^jd tjttn ^» laa ^pK laiaai v^na barb aK 
a^aw nr nbr aniK nKinn laK^w nr nbrab tjirb \'T'arT nbna mnaa 
I*^ 1B1B1 /TK-^w B^a» nr 'br' inb^nn ma" nara nwK aiKn p nn^ rnai 
"3K_Dbuo8 "i"vra br p"i pwnnb ^^aa barai |wa parnnb ib n\n Kbi 
^n''\n Kbi ^br orry^m "ab^x^ '^bK bK tt^in "n\n n^b n?a nan r^n aK 
'aa a"a\nb mai nbina npir g Kin» 'aiK nnK«? 'aa ^ann nnnas 'aw 
n^n^ arna a^nmpi a'^bar n anKn ^an paan Kba "^prt pK nr "ikw 
r^w ♦a^ainr nugyna Taa n /r^^ lajp vin ^anb anb nana anb 
a^aann nabai ^prn a^axa vnr ^ab nina«» niaab nwann anb 
"B»''3 iKai irxana nwaan niaaji Anaw nn-^aw: 'ww ♦aanra ^aTrra 
ry^n^ tk 'niawna ^an anb Kai paa a^bacbi annpb vrv nbam nans 
rwni5 tB^avaKn ana a^'birji ann: a-anan a-'aniKi a^aa^b br I'^'V^ 
rnnn 'prw ♦''anrnnctt? niann n br ♦an^aa ann ni nai 'n^aa anna 
ann^ ns^OTn Kbi 'a ptt^be tmj^b" nhv w imana^ Kb» an-aa p^aKn 
a^att^vn a-^anra nrw pan ♦nnna? a-bnas r.atri>3 p«?bai ♦nitnn 

fl Job IV. 8. *Job V. 3. cGcn. I. 12. ^^Job XIV. 8, now for pwa. 
<? Job IV. I q. /"Job XX. 6. e Is. V. 2 1 . /i Amos VIII. 5. ' Ps. IJX. 8, reading •W3. 


b'^jno HD ibD 'DiK K3 mp /ns'ia w^k dm iSd ♦ks Knp v. i ^h 'oim 
So '•'^o '•D-n mnoj nnaKW ^DP pnn *]b 'OKb naiy ryt nrprw 
^K^D^ bw KXOJ n^oD h jnKnr w ♦-pa^D 'vsK'»tt? nsfcn p^nnpa ''o 
•^loa r-3-ioirKr3 invi- lora *?•"!«*? k^k jbn|6j3a ♦nr ba ^b kd 
DIK nbvK Tn hv ♦ mnoj ••a-n 'ok*? *pn bv nb bipt"! innaini ri"2pn 
nK3p n^on mpna attn^o irnw nniai ♦«nb t|pr ""• hv^ la'^'i «i*?Dn 
^n*3nw3 no ik mat vbr Kaa ♦ * wrn wish bopai o^brn o^nnn iS anw 
b^TK "n^Ki "3X 3 "vitt? nacab nani n^o^ ^^b^ ni ba '•b K3 oanw ibn(o 

♦ 5i5Ki ♦Ton .TrT* pw in-D rTr mn nbi o-'jaai o^oaaai injn wnwo 
apKi ♦cinv TK Tioan ^3k nobi loa pi ibbpw nbin naba loacr hv nh 
Kac" Kf?2? wittT iBpa mo-'w ♦nwiri onnB ib naw irr^jj inbiK f?r 
lb Ha nhhpn ik «?pK nacp^ nbu? rnir Tn bra ^ V'y^w ^/pn ifire 
^^K riBoi "DKnp n? 1333 "IK ttrnpo 'OKir ^bSt ♦lairs rnfii •OKnfi 
rtro IK D-'acmb n-o p^no onb m.T Kbtt? pp^o r3a pniM 6bp 
TKan*'i ♦^ap\i |on ik pui pn ^p^wik pKO f^vv nfi^i 'oa hdsibo 
nrra HKiK ^a -pi hv ♦"rpn ^^p\y d-'dwot oipoa Tpn npra b^k 

n\i apn ♦^b larp .thw mfP]^^ ^^*^ ^*^ ^"^'^ '^*^^ ♦b^ate pKi /*^niip 
D-'s^sacb *a '"Bi ♦ D^s^aco f?Ki n300 ibn3 Kvii ip-iw iniK biaKb ib 
D-'oain vimpi o^mm o-'anp la la^ 'mp3'» Kb dk naK^ nrw 'oanao 
naiwai trrffi -iip^bK 'ni ♦nip pK npn m ♦o^mnn par -racpn o-'apn urvo 
b»ai ob^n p^oan o^api bwi tjKri ♦vbK vmp^ wna nn^aow o^anp 
♦T'lana D3nb xbi yp^yry ^^bl ^iTatp nwK p neb i:p^pn o^oat s^Httn 
bax-w ♦ 1.T13 bx apKi bK pian sv^p irK pn-* oai nip-'bK '-10 "nis-a 
nbpob 'oxr "fibi ♦ns-aci nip &nb v^w omxi natp mw ^acpn apn 
■latpw mapnemp w ♦xmiacp'* bop ^prnn pK 'iP'iin "n^xi npxa 

♦ irmatp'* p bp ipin w^ p ox xbx loatpo 'Oiba ippo xr xb^ 

<» Prov. XIX. 3. b Ps. LXXIII. 5. c Eccl. II. 1 5. d Job V. 6. * Prov. 
XXII. 8. / Is. XLV. 8. IT 2 K. VI. 27. * Job XXXI. 21. ' Num. XXXUI. 55. 


n\iw Sip row ^n\n oipn Saoi noai mn ♦ rnSa nanott? ♦^ry naab 
: p3 K*?w '•*? rwr 'tt^ni . pnx ^:k 'oi*? ♦pnr ^n^KO tyi3Kn 17 'c\k 

♦ ^*?Kanpm u^roh omnK pna-*! pOK^ nh ik ♦hjiok ona nato^ vh 
b^njo Kb ni^ np p ♦jnnKn ••nwn m^pa napM 'k-'w n *?p map -a 
orKi nainjnajaaw 19 on?? dhk "aa nm bp ^ra^pa la? Kb o^aaiai 
Kbr Dair^i Diio" nppa "a ,m^hv nbtDio iriKn^ Knnw rasb o^b^an 
tpp ''aab D^orn p piKan'ip "• [Foi. 3b] riKn pK 'otki pKoim itiaa oiptaa 
rp "^aai orrama man ^bw oab bapa p-'aanb aT^na rit:i'^ ana bictab 
lat Kb D^aaai ^nvw ^nphn dik pi Tuyn tt?iaK "a »ik naaa Tanar 
nap" oann b^nnan ♦loacp ifi^bK napoa ^nai bp npm mba naptaa « va^pa 
loan QiottT nam ♦ n^ar pioBn nii ♦/la? Kb o^ori poK^ Kb vtt?npa p 'ik 
D^Dan nK-i'» ^a ^-n bp nmn nia^b mapa KbK K-oa Kb onKn -a d^oot 
♦ma"* anpb npao ao 'oiki nra nfioi nun piKan"* 'ckw "libi ♦/nnia'» 
DK1 D^yo "bao ipaan iai«np ipob naw bp nar Ka ♦DKnii wan^ nw 
Dnr"* Kb nwK np "^a rvrr ik ^nacab onaK" tk awb ab bp D'ow oa^ 
'oa DaiCDi aTaa anr onrpai oai nacab inaK^ onbiio lab bK onK 
♦pnnai poa Kbn '^li ik tynbaaipoa [poai '.nrp .nnn^ ^a pi ♦''twc baKn onn^i 
awb anb T)'>n pmo^a onn^ai DKans? noa ♦oa jn^K nan\n ontt^p nn^ 
mio^ p bp 7m b^m mk onb nwp dtt oacpi ona Kb "a pn-'bi paanbi 
lb nn bp onnnK b''3ir.n'?i panbi piowb laK Kb nwK bp noana Kbi 
nio-'b niapa KbK Knaa Kb onKn ^a nnv pioan nn ♦ ArxT ib^ae?" loan 
ib-'Ka ♦ ♦runw ift'^bK pMtinni oibnn jKa ^v ♦ ♦ 'o^aan nKn-* -^a nn bp ntaan 
^npu^w '•npowa -^fipoa arin ^n^\n ^a "^a inoK yhvv ^aK pnin ib 'ok 

<»Dcut. XXXIV. 10. «'Num.XII.6. cJobXXV.S. ^JobXXV.6. eXXV.5. 
/Job XV. 15. <rPs. XLIX. II. ''Job XXII. 20, comp. Kx. XXIII. 11 

(reading abai). Hs. XV. 7 (reading p Vp for »3). ils. XXXVIII. 12. 

^Deuu XXXll. 29. 'Ps. XLIX. 11. 

1V.8— 16. COMMENTARY ON JOB. 12 

nnacp^p Sop ^yiin }U( "rrrtn "it'Ki irxas ♦naKr *p3 n'-Ki dx ms 
no-tt?3a inw naK" mbK nopsay g ms nani DS-n nwo ibain 
SsK ''Dpi br rawr p K*?i ♦«nnBia "rnja '•'"• nowa 'nn f?p nnn 
najwio -n-'Ki "irKsi ♦tDfiron or*? napo &i*? pK px ^rnin h^H 
♦ p '03 'rnr h^p^ biiid hkt k*? om »w^ k*? '•a i»mtD bp w w nnx 
♦D^BniD pn^pa "rtp ^n-»n nrxai ♦O'^nl wa» xb "O 'apna d-tioi 
ar*?" irxai c o'-'-sw jvpaa biiid noino mo tx &Tmpnbo narj Tpnba ♦ipna 
irpa*? n5Xi nax nnsn^ip x^ab ^3ai baix "bao npni inmano "lajx 
ib'x nnx d:i .pi-iid ixt 'oa ^'nia -na ^ym rmx Tin p -^a oxxo xbi biiid 
nK njm ♦ nbx ba ^b mpn vh larn oSiprw 'oai Tiana '\vr^ on nmn 
'iD'va no^wn nxn . oon "bpe*? no*ioi o^on vv^nh on brob v^h n^fiai bnn 
'oa .irn? .yrnn bra 'ixi J<?aitt baS non^ x*? "'^ ^rini lajni wi Dn*Ba 
pi .A'la IT'JW "an p xinip /inr rxa loa •pioe ^^o -iiara mji ipna 
.-^noa "nrcw nan ♦aair "^an "Sxn a 'oniiaa nnp; I'oa '^nnrsi xoaca 
ajn 'a ajr n\T'i ^n1X -^''ao "sxb; nnp np ^r-jp mpT xbr aw '^a ix 
'jnoipb ^:ix pni ♦pey ^aix npni jAra*? nx oibwax asn ♦yab nx apr 
xatt^ raa mix p bipb^pi nip 'wh •'o.Topa nacorf? 'oa mao f^or oain 
pott^ no pi 1300 nbiron aia nnp*? -six nba-* ix*?i t 'ax '^fii O'*^** 
:^*?r mpon npior ^bx xaa nana arrno ''n\nr p^e^yoais :m-ian hv 
DiSn ^nn noiin bssa twip^bo ^aarpo "^p ^5rp1 ht ♦nb^'b nisvino 
*rri ^nra nirgy neon ••Sp -oipn nm nnco .nooniJ {nxiasrow 
x'rx irira nio^o xatoa nh^v •fi*? ♦ nra nx ninn nnptt? neon 'low '"ai npi 
xbip'rp anbatn ^lov 'ai 'Jin pi ©nwa Tinfto noo ':w *oa ♦itt^aa 
n:h xatt^ai .pics -loooa rxanr '^ah pniiooo nino noon '^li aii ♦nra 
Dp xbtt? inxno Tan*? bia^ m^\n x*?i n^ao "•n-\-r cva ia maotm nioy 16 

a Is. XXX. 33. fc Prov. XXIV. 1 6. c Amos IV. 6. ^ Nah. II. 1 3. * Ps. 
XXXIV. 1 1. /Is. XXXni. 12, Jcr. LI. 58. g Ez. XXI. 3. * Is. XLI. 17 (added from 
Leipzig MS.) iJcr.LI.3o. >Gen. XXXL 20. Af2Sam.XV.6. /Ex. XXXII. 25. 
w»Job XXVI. 14. «Dan. II. 29. oPs. CXIX. 120. PEcd. XU. 11. 

1 1 COMMENTARY ON JOB. HI. 24— IV. 7. 

nsrn^ nhv; bvm yn hv "m^K^ p^aa isirn ♦ottnpDi onio rrn *iwo 

kSi ^'^^n nribw "i«3 ^nriSwjAiafi nnow o-aan nnao ^jnKs orrbp 

tp^Sk |p^i IV. I. paba "*? .thw inw ♦tan Ka^ "*t ik ♦naioi rwr "ot 
: njrai rwro *?aa avKb oir^jpa omoo p 'nwiS inwas? piOBn o-now 'oa 
DK .*ian iwDH 'oa ik «?'• ♦are ana pKi ^n^Ki wi-ii o^an t^i nan a 
njn lai I'np nnn D'Hio'-an 'wh pjm 'TPpKnjn pi ♦nK'?nT'*?Ki3na-? kv3 
iniD"^ n*?ap laa "ik vn «*ian nan '•jwb 'aa 'a 'KV ♦nan hv n^iioon *?pa 
■nacn /ariK bw p-iio^ ^b rrrn dhd ennnn dm 'pn ^nw nojo nnn 
avK nriK nan .ttnwK^ 'oa pam ^antr• xbw bar^ m f?r ♦P^ 
rri nxbn nnp nnnv man a^ara i*?*?n p-na-^a nbnvn nn^o^n 
b raa ••■iob D-'^m nw bop*? jn" no*? Tiowa -ppm ^^o•• bSpoi aSaiabo 
ntan nipi pn d*?tpo -|b wa Kb ib^na ♦niK hnvh jn^ nob nasa nnbn 'oki 
•TO^b b^n nmn .jno^jijns ♦-]a-»K Kbw bav ••a pboa paKnnbi mxrbi 
ibaa^ DK cai an-'bp i33iKn^ Kbt^ an-'aio nn\ni an-^bp a^Ka pia^-ttn o'^ai 
pinn ♦cn3''a'in d^t bai 'TP pTD-^a nisi an"! .'pn b» i3n nanKO 
nbaa ib^Ka nKb3 nnw ^n••b Kan it nnua nnpwai ^^o^^^3 nana pino n^'^n 
Kbn 6 .bnab bam Kb nnKi annn ptnb ^ab ^Kbo yH\ a-an a^o^ m aniK 
^b nnn nKnn nniK n'lOK nwKa irn ki^ nn^n dk Kbn .^nKn" 
VTW ^mpnl ♦lonii dot ai«n nwn ri'^^tn jo Katnw ^31nDa^ nnboa 
^b n^n aab aina nabnw n^->n am ♦npwb mpnr ^anr ^nbDa 
Tw^ rii3 Kbi mnD3 ^a■n nvK n-cKW kvi Tona dk ^nbDa aa nrnb 
onna3 angn nan<i naKW '^a naKi ''p3 Kn ^e K3 law ? .i(n)io^om 
nbw03 npi narnor '»Bbv nK^acnaPKi 'i3inw ^/pKn |o nnani 'a .nor3 
nat */npn -|p-i bp wnnn bK <? an-ap nnbipi r^^ onwnn n bp . nt^nnb 

fl Dcut. IV. 34. i> Job in. 20. c Is. XIII. 7. d Ex. IX. 15. The Targum 
quoted is that of the so-called Jonathan Ben UzzicI which has nn(n^. 
^Hos. X. 1 3. /Prov. III. 29. 

111. 16—24. COMMIilNTARY ON JOB. lO 

^^ nnni . obirb inx^r l^sl nnxi |ioaa inrr -|3 nnxi jnw law imh ^nbn 
mbpoa n-iv njm nbr na nr D^-wn p inp^r ^^ *inKi o-'S^Tan by ina^r' 
D*3trrn dp p nnxi p^aSon dp inniap 'ok nb^nna [Foi. 3a] x lapn np 
D^atpvn hv nia-in o^jian ^i^ain p hv lob nn^n p^aian pK ^agn^ 
*?B3n DP [3 npiKi Dnyn dp p inKi •D''-w nbi D^abo K*? Drnw bp 
D-prn -i-airw *iapa nn i'?nn D^pgn d^ i? JD^bbipn dp p nnxi 
bai aw Dnrn -inn n? *?p nip 3Ki*?d i*?nn jnn-D hv d-3Kiti pKi-v 
Dpnnn .raijbpmp ipott^ h*? .itdo "pDP hv r^oHw D'-jjkw on^DKn 18 
^rcn napi .pw Hin Dgy bnji }Pp i9 jdhwdj pnt ik m*?a pDP hv 
;n" nab ao /ow inn ♦nK im k*? D-'bbipa 'Dkc^ 'tb^ ♦vann irpia^ nbtt? 
vinK ptt^ena ♦nam ai /^sa bp rfij ioi piaan ^jioa ♦ iix '?apb 
^a •np^^i '?''3 "Sk 1D3 DVTW22 DWD3 nv-TTP anor DniK D^aiappts 
D^3iopoai 'pbw 6 K^BDi Tairw p^ tii k^i nniap Dipo nap iKacc 
D'^'m 11K in-^ ih TT^n nb rw no nrKS bop nrxb icoi nnm .inarfinn 
D'-pbK Tpa nmoa mpian aipn l an ng^K -aioa na3b a3 nup iki 
nio .nr ba ^b Ka -pwia i-iok*i£^ np "j-p^ pm mpoai ^n\n pnxw onm 
nno D-'ap ibxa PBtt?oa tiDi : ia-n mnajr 'okw bp whn mawn ba 
''^b ppa map m bp nn [mp-^a ^r-c^oi ^ma? hkt k^i irab ira 
••oBro \nbKOi "'^o -a-n mnpj i-ioiKa p^ai npn bp ai^ Kpn m nanai 
^3iarnw DTK ^:a "a^po nnnoa nnp lam ipk naaS ttnas dki ♦ciar 
iKw 'oa D^ai D*o^ npa mbx ^D naai ♦■|D''i ♦ht ba '•b p-^rra pana 
^24 : nriDj la-n t»k r-iBOi tiana noipnn px tk ^'npa naw nnn K^n 
"nrna "onb -sBb "a 'b'- D3i .-:a bv njKno *dk baiK ••jkb? amp 'onS "asS 
laiai TKPn ^biK ♦Doatp *3Ba pbaiK vnr ^aa bp njKno ^n\n '•tiaai ncnpa 
K^a 3KW ••mn [kV»] irr*?p ^ni3Kr D^oa lani tapaw ano caaba '^n^K 
mponni*?B3w ♦<?''naDO''aaa'»ip'»tt?i ^nbaKonba ibk*? 'idbh nr "biKi mpoi 
V3a "rp >''ni3KP ik n3m . Dn*?n inK npron -I'-an*? 'idbti ^-n ^a iDiaa 

<» Prov. II. 4. * Lam. III. 44. c is. XL. 27. ^ Job I. 10. <? Ps. ClI. 10. 


^kS ip"* nnK Sai •n-'K" nbi D'»3wn om o^s^in '•a'rin*? jo^d onr npab •poo 
inK» npan tik p "o nnr "orcpa vnnn n'?^ba onK nm" Sk d:i pk] 
pj iir pK njn *?3n .^nnw ^oropo vrpi in^ib br 'o>r pi .o^orwo "wp 
oi ibbp"n vn p*?bpo^^'?^ <^p^na poK^ k*?i ^pan -|bonpi33 o'o nnn in^iS 
nb^*?n *?*?ip^ nob ttnD'» nnpi .o-'SDonhi nS-'Sn nawn br top nb^bn 
-^u-on mn ♦^aea "n*?! Ktnn nb^*?."! -up nh ^^ 10 ,^cr ]'nn 'oiki ^^ ba 
^nriT^wpa KinrwTii o^sttniin niwi onTb onip ihy\h ^dkoh Ka^ laoow 
••:kw Sop 'rnoo nb'^bn .th tki pin obip pan nn kS "11:0 n\n ox ^a ♦n 
Kb nob n n "mnw ^nopnw ip jnin pan iD'jpr nnKi ^rpo nnp nmn 
^riKX^K^a fttao on-io ^no kSw '•■mm Tainw paa no "n^M orno 
^3ienp pno ia ^npi3 nbi onnn p '•nnris^ "tiri ♦pna nvnb i^bi rrn 
np^r np "nna nob "jionpw nnni ♦nnb^o bn np30 bip P'^a'^a 
^naap nnp no ^n^n ••n-iainv p*npn "inwa ib'K nnp ^a '3 pnp 
p*abo pp 14 • pbTP DW ]vr ^n^%n Kbx nai 'pw ^jkw 10a Kbi opw "nNm 
"nn &nb o^5tt?o onis^ on'^acpiM o^abo nmapb ^n^a? Kb oki pk "xpri 
P5010W poobwa 16 ninen bab ik onb p^w^btt^ pny pny pp i5 saw 
"xn baK3W ^lib pik "Ja -ikv pp Kbi niiap pipo Kba nioipan inKa iniK 
nnKtt? 10a ]''nvj "aioi o^pauo Tina -oxp ^joa nap "b nnp n\nK Kb .^inra 
naai ^iiotD baja KbK p-abon napa ininap Kb pnoxjw '*tb ^a in^ipa kxio 
"ja -TKr op KbK ^oxp '3Ba poo besa nap3 ^n^\n Kbw nnpo ik aio "b n^n 
p^'bbipa nip ik irorn rrpa nKini '3 pv nwibis^ ^nw bcj w^iv 'ebi .onK 
p: 'OIK ia nnKi .<?bB3n 1:00 aio 'okw nobw noira nn >niK iKn Kb 
o^piPBn p-'spb nab p-en :nn n-aiou? p^bbipn pni t/pi^ Kbi nKn Kb ipo;:? 
np-r ^v nnno noK nnno paa pmjw ovo nibpoa nbiPK^ loa "a ••nna^nw 
'OK nb^nna napa inrn 'iv nnno noK nnno nibpon p nnv p onrn 

^ 2 K. VII. 5. * Job Xr J. 10. c Job XXIV. 22. MS. has y^na for p^a. 
i' Referring to Num. XII. 12. . f Eccl VI. 3. / Dccl. VI. 5. 

111. 5—9. COMMENTARY ON JOB. 8 

pi D'anpi wh^M h mn" kS 'td mm .bp bpwo Kintt? "fib .'Stw pwb 
'-Bi •cn'»nD3 nin oanK^nbwi 'oa ♦pnna nn^p*? 'b'" oai .n)0*?3n ^w^ 
K33r vbp p»n n*?'»*?n ^w^o nabi .mo*?ati ^w^ pnna vinp-n vibnr 
imrw nh^vn anb aio "in n? naKn dw ♦nb^baa n diik ib^n^ o^aaian^r 
vnnra" onann nioban nrn iniKv p br o^rn o^rafiJoi manboo 
D"r"» D^r^fii HBiDi nPDi nnfiii rx nnaa njspm ♦<'^^brp Sfiwa nana 
Din pnn Kn t'k npn bri <?nnD aiDpa onn pnioictt^ pv nnoa Kin nn 
n'r^f^n ma^K 'Ba nnri . ovn nia^K ^titb nni . nsin "3tt?b 'Dinis^ onnacn 
:D'aaian na n-K" nbi nnbxb nan nrpwa njtt^ *?aa ^bik \nnpnp Kinne 
♦Ka" hn D^nn" nBPoa p bpi ♦/nnowa mnnn 10a ninn 'wh nm bn 
^n'* bK 'bS r" D31 .ibaK DVD Kbi nnawn pro laiairn DBinr DnK 'pnv 
'DK\y ni nKibai naabn pnon nnn v^nn "OI^id msDn*? '"jBbtt^ dvd arnnb 
lOBiTDi ipin p "a D*?im niKna "a lais^ ninnpi ^bk ano xa" bx nBDPa 
•0" moa D-'aaai n^r n*?roa ia piw "b*? ttnnn "o^a inisp" kS ik njw Saa 
nnKi mb-'^pi d-d" nn^PD iniboa" nh nnn ptb pn p n^n k*? pk . n^rnna 
KH'tr KV1 nnn vbr "nnanw rh^hn iniK "xni '01K1 b*?ia n^p^bn p"3P p"*?wnw 
nniD^Ji nnnB y< ^r\VH dp aaiw r^K xn" nbw abu^a niTnn niefea? 
naiai pi33 ia n*?i3tt^ nnn n3tt^ *?aa n'r^'m nnwa narnn nhv na i3aa 
: ia 3inn n-baca i3'K "a ia n*?ai jnn nnaw n3n Kan hn : "3iaa niiai n3irai 
hvtih anK 'rtra pbipn yri -a an*? nan pi" p"b*?pan ar nmK imap'' ^ 
laa lann r^h'h b2H ^aa pvn yn pKW inbbp" nb-BKi ^l^n pvn dk mmap'ri 
n\T IK .Dvn n'rbpa inbbp n*?n p*? 'ni*?'?p'» na hv^ avaiaa ia ksv pK "a D3 
♦ Dn^nm :nnK Dvb nnw n^anw nh'hn bn ♦Dvn bp aDia imap" rh^r^ 
pnn a"3nBPn pn nip pK njn "^p pv nmK nai*? nanni iniap" bp aaia 
anman anr jnnb nnip*? ^nv:h niao B"3aiTai an^npn nb-BKi yon nv nniK 
Kinn nb^'^n ^^^3 "aaia layn^t^ g "fib iniap" 'y^h ik anbipfib nnb 

^ Mai. I. 7. ^ Zeph. III. 1. c Exod. VI. 6. ^Ps. XCI. 6. «?Dcut. XXXII. 24. 
/Ps. XXI. 7. 


nnKw 'oib prr* naa 'oik nn roa 'ow m ♦ rm nr nrKa nr^ ^orn ip*?n: 
noi "ttPB '3 Dw nrtph jtiddw .« arm bn^m nsi .^Kptma ^nw^ia .th birn 
*^man i^usKtt? no rn" O'^oanm on^onn baa parn inwa niatn D^aipa vrw 
Tor na wSm Kin iniata b-'atn njr ^lib .*?KpTn^ 'vntn n^vm irnjn "Dbi 
nfion ^iioa n-'aiev laa vpn vbw avK pi /nipi 'Kr^o rr^^v: bK'Ti pi 
onK "ja '3 ib-nr 'a ib-'K 'oiki wdh v:t hn -^a * 'y^hv bbiin^ nap ai-w 
avH \v^ a ♦'B^-jBa nxaow 'oa ^na Hh^ p k*? ib^ar nh nnp 'nop 
DV bSpo n\ntt? lo-'aon '^ittnen bai ♦^'D^no unh ipni ^^ 'oki n'^api 'a pprn 
D^mn 'D tiiob nn nn ♦naa nmn ia 'OKtp ^h^h^ .m-^^n di" naK'» '^fi pi .naw 
pi nb'» 'w»nn pnp-ion npn hv nnm nbo nam . napa ox na? ox jnia nw 
. Dw nvx papn "ftb nr*? nbo pn 'tmfib pn"* xbi . D^o\n nana «? ono nnm 
'awn nio" bao ia ^nn*?iaw ov nax" Tjxao ntp-^bx n '^tv 'oa paan 
xxn tnaa rrm "bp oSipb n-ani xin 'oxr rih^'hn oai •^wn ia n\T oSirbir 
./nb^*? nS^Si '01X ra" orb ov 'a-'wa n^nn naw Saa p 'oa nax*w ma^p b***? 
Din ma^x t^nisoi .nr^pn ova xbi 'tox 'S-'ba 'ox nno nan xintrr ^ah 
D'^nano ix bpoo 'pi*?x intriT xbw ^tt^n n\Tw ovn nia^x rh'hn ma^x nnxi 
T^pbx^'^ nttrx 'oan .ov nvn*? ia n^xm 'Ofivoi ipin D'»SwnS D*ar*?p 
> rhv rem bx 4 'Soi ♦naaiobi yinn ppwh i?ofi»oi pn niwS nnix wnn 
-|rn ^nx'• DV inixa obipbr npan nix ^^^nnh ^^vfn trhv x\n nnna i^p^ara 
♦nax orn mix xatoai ^a nn mT*? nDpa -a la^a'^r np nat^ Saa nb^Hn 
'oixwnaaai .*ia mn*?^nwx oin mnx 'oxwiov nbbpTOTa 'an n1^nnbn 
pnno nh 'o^ ^aca "n'^n nap vh "a nan 'ix 'onno '•annio xb nwx dw 
•poo pab Dnno nSip n*?nnw maa 'n^xna ^n^b *p\ya mxr pao niox 
na nnxi pnin 'ina oipo *?aa nm d nbv ix ov nax^ . nnbv -*?an inn inTb*? 
nbiattnr 'th pnin nnx m^'h a-na^jxai nioipo noaai y n*?ni nnm loa m^h 
j\vh x"^ .ini*?xr5 Foiib : n*?iatt? npwi inia'^p *?^b pais^no pxn nwb p 

« Ezck. XIV. 14, 20. t> Job XLH. 8. c Dcut. XXVI. 5. d Ex. XV. 21. 
<? I Chr. IV. 17. /Ps. XIX. 3. g Dcut. XI. 12. A Jcr. XX. 14. «Jcr. XX. 17. 
J Gen. IV, I. 


nn nana nan*? mnum pwH ♦jnwjbnaKno Foi. 2 a tnr onpn ^^^anp 
nnaina 'nna "|mr 1*? 'owtt? jvoa inn nw nabo pnanS jnn k*? K\nr 
I»wn lb 'e»<r D'p^PK nana nrbai ''p-tno "Dmri |tDm bn •pn h 'okw 'wba 
p pnp D^rtt?n 'oa ma^ -|na-vai£^ npnv K\n noi .c^ana'' y^t bv ^b dm 
mr "rar «•?«? vbr pnw 'nmrra 'now nnn nabow pn^ D31 ♦j'^m 
nnn D\nbK nn^ ^a nrsata "pao ^rK "a b^k nacr if? '5ni3 nrn*?i pmnnb 
D^WJa D^^no-|b ai» ^a ♦niaa "pa nTnm^on Tpenr na K^onnBa ranan 
nv'v^ nnr *?ap3 Kb cki nnr np ubap npnn nv 'n^c .amn nx oa 10 nbwa 
avK ""nan in-'an '^:h ]rw amn nat^a pn nanxo imanar kSk^ xatos nab 
D^^p) naob DiKnB n-a^ idw dk 'hvd loa jvds nnn m bais^ nioipo nanna 
^rKi "ftiaai "saai ^tt?iana ^nw noaro 'niao n'^rt ban .o^anpi ^^apb^ 
i02cr 'pn',r? nr ov baa laKa nana -|k pr m^an prn ban K*aob nnao 
onana h'^tn rnsya naKa br axa iD-on imis^ap^ rjn oa ^a lerr-a 
naab ht o^an onan nx anan bnatt^a ban ♦nxn nnan •anna 'ob 'ax^w 
inn-o anpb iniTK ib Tna^ir 'oa x-onniia nnanr 'rBn ^fibi ♦mnoa lann nrx 
iab\n 'n'p ""bK xab p? ipapi m nx Tpnin ♦ vba? nxan n naba w 'oai 
mab 'b^nna o^onao ^nn pw lonabi ib niab :<?n3na dx ^nba inn^ o-aw 
na TiV^ bna wiam ""aitD o^aa nxo ^a nb npn m mpi^ wm ib 'nexnr 
mab 'bai ♦ntt^ranbi '"aa n-'b^nbi XBnnb bain pnr ib 'oxb ^mona'* 
nxina inn^a.n xbi" 'n^r ixwara bax/ib man bx 'oa ♦ XT^b wap 
px »3 m imoa ••bm raaa naio pwr ixni ib'ro mrnpoi pnm ••aco o^aen 

na bair 'nnx inicnr noai axan bna ^ ixn "a vanab nan vbx nan 
nioi .fi-nnar o^a bna -a nonaxi nb nirx no tnio npv nr p^aoi no^-oi naio 
pnnxi rxibnn an n-or nb^nna .vbx ntt?ao D'-xn-* vnr pinno ia 'oix 'tvd 
vriDjinB^in. i :'«rxnran la'-ana "a pexnnb mp bavxbtt^pnnx .inx iar» 
ia nrx avx ni -a 'ox o-apon '-lib bnx onoai ♦lov bbpb xbi nnox nrxa xbi 

a Job XVI. 15. ''Job 11. 3. c Job 11. 5. ^ Job IX. 23. * Amos III. 3. 
/Jer. XXII. 10. g Lam. II. i3. /< Adapted from Ps. XXXIX. 4. 


nww*?n baa ^^k :iinip Kim ^r-KaoitrbK no ^nira •nnp nr iD^pnjw nr 
K*? ♦noty nboa pn a 'ara naS*? aw^ onp 'ikw nbnp ne-wa kvi -^a ^rrKiv 
n»r pi nwa itap oipa '>naw laa now ""a nmj ja br .wn^B ^b •r^na 
pan bab np nbrpai .oipo nt-K unfio i3'»8i .''Kin ov? 'rwi pep ifion nr 
fVH 'r\v nr ^jbew amn San hv » iniao '^'^ dp m"* t^or nwon ba bri 
♦n^n |n3 kSi » : "h aw'^^nj kSi 'pp'* 'an '^d ^n^Kni • ibw nK npbi ninr 
kSi .lana nbn '»»«?» «?*?ftni kiw noK*? .^nSen ""n^Kn |now -K^asai 'oa 
*e ma nn ibr nanan hk nnji • /n^rtpn 'Kn hv miK f nsi 'a >npa yna 
TKW ^eb'yjWKna pK^rr'^bp 11. i. Wniaann 'imh isna .^pnac }nK ^*?rBbi 
inoao 'nr baK Ka imoa o^aKbo lonw o^pSKn ^ja or pn p^inb pan: Kb 
Ta^_nown3 'pn 1*? 'oki bnnw nn 1*? anw ax^nnb -|^nx avK nK p^tnf? 
nnon nm ♦inioa pK ^a inKn^ai inJiOKa np-is^ nb prn h n-wcr 'oa b^k 
^nn ♦mr nra nip4 mama pinn'v "njn^ "a ojn 'n^nc^nbi irbab "^niK 
injo /ftm .*nir nnKi Jmr na baK" nni br .nir ona'^Kn 'mpw nuon ni 
nwfi^ Dtwa p Knn vna^Ktt nnKa onKn hv pin ra: n*?r dkw nt K\n D*?irn 
nKn** OKI nwnaa »iun nKtt? nKttPK^ na naK iniK Tinn^w e^un baa nisnn 
onK yrt p mo^ Kbw WKn br pnb irint ik in'* n-*:-" irKn hv n»ibw ann 
Ski 3 ♦n»''bBb w»3 ib mnn pn &nb tt7K^nnb leia na*Ka anw vsa n^ynb 
10a poK wKnp" p vt: bv 3Knn Kn^ ^a na nn^o br "lana"* t^p 
vaa br ^a loacr Sk panwa n^aj -p- ''^s l^^"'^' "^ •'^'•*'' ^** • ^'^ab rrpvf 
♦laaty Sk rai s :/pn-D jnj kSi 'oa ma-* 'pp3 npya ]r\u nboi .rtnn 13^ 
\nan nbv: 'oy itpps : o^mo^^n nK biaob bav Kb "a o^^no mo nna-'t? na 
bv *inp'^p nm bn gao ? :nKann p nionr^ ia nnbn nDr3nw oipoa 
bia^ n'^n Kb nncxa ^a ♦rnns :»«Dino lalpK K^Kn nri b3n t^ao yri 
rr^nw vy^^zv 'oa wnnei ♦ pioiia p^on Kba nn3nnb nbo vnwn "360 nn3nnb 
Kini nnb3 br 'Torni inna '3W0 'bai .loinb t^ bateoi nni3i onr\n n^aro 

a Eccl. V. 14. if Job in. 19. c Ecd. III. 17. <^ Jcr. XXIII. i3. ^ Lam. II. 14. 
/Lev. XVI. 2 1. ^Dcuu XI. 29. AJobXXXVLS. / i Sam.XVIU.S. yjobXVni.i3. 
k Job XIX. 26. / Num. XXL 23. m Is. I. 1 6. 


rnnna imK-a*?i d^'^hd nkr^w ns ^^trh'hv laan) ^b Kvi ^^na Dwm p^n*? 
rrr n^n K\n ^^-a 'wn ••a ^'omnk dk no3 D\nbRm Tin br ♦d^tph ^»b 
•Ka HK^roi u namKi laoo m^ rrnr ba*? nuc-nb pn isoo ija ^it^rr k^v 
. Knrrn <^ '•mn it f?n 'oa onb Twoa npabr j n ^ n ^ b r o^nyn p nriH 
pp^ph TiDcr nonx naipb nnp ^nn nt dji ♦^'•t ^k aKi^ npbn •jr-i 
.kaw ^Bmi5 :nt n-an a'T ononaS nrna oipoi vtk &nf? r** mam 

♦ n^rob "nnarw 'oa vraw vn Kaw ^jaw ♦ dhtb &Tbp Ka Kaw bw nano 
iD^03 pK '-D ."an pn nts*70Ki «?f?»3 iyik ba ^3d bv 'oa *7»m nboi 
np iD'pan'? ^na iTm i»rtt^o rrn ptt^m ♦nt Tanf? baKW ^naS ^jk pn 
K'?a ora 'nx nvt inrxS na nana ni Tir >6 tmana ik nwroa Kttrr\r 
or© *7aai ♦mrw -po^r by itimr /Taan pnnKm laieaa nS-nn .pDcn 
n-am 'Kxai o-^om mjiriKa oriTow "b*? ♦ropDn or imraa onpn Tata 

♦ nana nt iv •? : »i*?Kb -irKn d-'d^k 'i vnw "ef? o^^oan bxK D'-wkn '3 
nnw mri iriTDtt? mr paina d^wk^j 'a *?»n D\ibRn rk ^acKv o'-awn 
ttrrer 'imn^^nnira" Dnoir on nr ♦^jnan'rK bwwnamp 'oann ♦nana 

♦ ^1315 nnntt^ aipan nata nanan nara 19 5 hh^ nan xbw nr m jai ♦ amp 
on*? 7vn vh'i .n'?a r.r3r3na nn\nv n^aaw na ba f?%nanf? ♦ n^n ni3p 
wnpKh ♦'^aBtra»T'3aci b'paa 'airw laa ' ^ya nx .V'\p'^ ao JDi3b aipa aw 
^r^a pi . o^n ja 'a-ra pr *? yanbtt^ T3n 'a ♦lynn T3n : V3a f?r *?aK -p*^ pn 
ittmn nnay npaa ik wnn npu? aipaa irnn nba '3ni . WKn nptt? rbini 
naa pi .onn^atr '»«? ./a-^nn anbn nanbai ht ♦ at nn<n nnar non 'aK-w 
Binp 21 : « ntra nnrip neon .nuD ma 'ikv 'aa • nra nrw '^a . »"nra nnca 
Bn'»p imK*? ♦ nar aiTO ainp »iiBai nnr nr inr ''3aai jiaaa ♦•nar 
^b jro^"* • ^ar BKtt^3 ^n^n k*? ^nia ar nr pa^p naai ^'3a vn axv laatp 
naiD lb pnnnbiianab pi 'bpKi nnx k^i npb jnais^ "'n ♦ TinSnar "-mK "ran 

rt I Snm. II. 3. fr Cicn. XXII. i. c Nch. Ill, passim. '^ 2 Sam. XIV. 3o. 
f C,cn. XXV. 1 8. /Is. VIII. 23. ^M Sam. XIV. 19. ^ Nch. VII. 3. /Job 
XXIX. 1 4. J Num. XI. 3 1 . * Job XIX. 9. / Ps. LXXXIII. 1 5. »» Ps. CXIX. 
120. "Job IV. 15. 


ItDm 'cwv irm *i>^hiy\ wphn mas -|-o 'oa > i3ia :«••"' ^D-mem ^nnm 
^^■a•• Kvn vsa nnwnn hv nh^v 'pow 'oik nnK ♦<?^na^ t^"^ br k*? dk 
^2 <> : n\n 'wh nrp^ mm : 'ouc "jkw na i*? rwpn dm K^omfta f?i-u bipa 
• ^Dp*?K -3a ba Tjyn^i npa ^aaa nm p-a 'oik-c? nrm d-=8Sd an o-p^K 
1W1 p"* nen papa L-iii hv n-ain *?K-n nniaji a-enbi P"in*? D*?ipa o-bencn on 
Q^pbx -ja n*?oi .m-ot nmaa pi <?Dair bnan dk 'a 'dp pinna pm .onD 
'lb bai3 ,v^ ':^y pynnb : m3»btt?i 'phn "^rpa "•» . mo p nrp p ^n hp 
nwvh 0^30110 nvnb ^pKn f?a pnx by aat%"^nb loa ik •/"'^ an*? a3C3 iba 
lana "pn bpi /»ibKbwoi 13-D-o vhv o-aaca D-a«n naatbai ^n"!bp1mn'»bw 
/n3U30 Tv^TW ^Kf?o ♦ppBn :«nan bipa piowbi i-on -wip na n-oa raK*?D ^"^ 
or Sr oan "vp3rai /jotwi ia -"'^ ipa- mia? n8ia3a 'actanw Tin hv .ni bp 
p bp .pKa iDwb nmn nt bp laa-o^ i3''Di£^0tt? or bp lais^ K'Tp3 p inaan 
*?p *n»pi£^i navv pRn ba n3ni pKa -Dabnnn ym hv .Ran pwo? 'th 
T^n bp pn nan pwa i*? 'okw Sp pTi*? Dipo Kacaw ^eb 'pn ••313*? lan p 
nwK *?p D^nana 'jap 0-33:6 vi-pmS pi ♦/n*?Rn D-W3Kn ^o opSa*? 'Okw 
-b -iK'Jis^ no nwpf? noKr 'oa p-ixa owo n3P mm o^*^ ^^^^ "^ok 
pKa oowo n^\nr 'oik nnKW "jnKO ^ab nowns ♦nn-rm nwp*? 
no-Ki obipn -30 f?a hv j^^h imai -ai pKa ^•^^oa pKW arx *7P nnpnn 
•TTon hv n w» noi V3a n-^oab m'^ip o^npo mn peon hv mw %moa Kaoan 
bia^ n^n kt mn nKanr maai ns^ipi maio K^a D3n i*?-k "ib nann ♦ 03nn 9 
boK ^a pan mm ih laonr- o-pn o-pae dk oai nnaa inKm nn-n m -a maw*? 
1*? ip-r kSw pm nnaa inpa naw nriK nbn <o t^oo Km -a r^tK" noa nnp 
^•30 *?p K*? DK nKnm r3aai i3Tooa pai ^T Ka rh^p D*?un" .vi'»ab 
D-YTD mo nna- nwK iv raa inion V3ip \mnKnt? ih nwK *?aa pai ♦'lana- 
woo ytxh ^n- n*?wn *?k rhn pma FoI. i 6 t-^op d'?^ la*? dk noan m 

flProv. XXX. 9. * I K. XXI. i3. cjob 11. $. ^Job XXXVIII. 7. 
«Dan. X. 20. 21. The MS. has oaav. /Is. 111. i3. ^Zech. VI. 5. 
A I K. XXII. 19199 is instead of o*as^. < Psalm CIll. 20. ymvh for jnov^i. 
yZech. III. 2. ArZech. I. 11. /Num. XXII. 9. 


onwDT P'raps ^irw '^nh ibipo ^h Tin mn ♦«Dnp ^ja baa oann 'oww idd 
pKD orroK u 'K3W Da • oaria onp pnai ^ti o-nx nvai piri inapo *?r i*?B5 
^ftb ^D^p pK bK nonp ^n irnira wa pnr Spa onbttn 'awa ♦n-n Dip 

: imtai ib*?i£^ ^hhv anb nynp lann mrw 
: avK rrn np nr^ka inx »ina ainan ninan '»»*?! 
bv ia*?a mbiann pK 'a jrr*? oan la^w maraS on trw* ^ft*? ♦ntpi pn 
ir^o Tv^n p Sp ]n*? ai© pa pnao nn k^k p rvn noan nmno k*? ^a 'otk nr 
nam la-Kt^ ^ft*? nr^ r*K wnp ^fibi c.iann nw^Ti o^on npnat ^nn Sp vnnD 
nKn^o a'pbH Knn 'otk p bp .ra^ar ^nia^rb'* K*?tt?i D^©fttt?n ^mb'»Spnr 
ittnTfi pKtt^ .pap noi .nam ♦•or nai© mooi pna nm 'owi ni f?a own 
p^apa ntoor noi nvTpa bba bna bSia nbo bna 3 nnB mnr <* anpn noi 
^bm na-Dn na-o npa "o vnrh ^nnn o-a'^ap *nr bp naw 'oiS lab r"* ntnp 
inan naiaw 'oiS lab r*! ik nrp mapa inapo nnpbi hbvh ^a^aw iiorft 
bam .t:oio ^npb nvK ba nawob ib »i^Din omw t^iDa '0>rr ^ftb inaptai 
n^r6 nn ♦nan nmapi tnaS ^era ibwinr maan pn t^ioa bwin 
••a ^ nKO nan nmapi npai |Kat }b \nn arnn pnun "pn f?p napo '^nn nmap 
nenp nao nbi Dia\nair O'pim mneri o-nap Kba nvnb napo bpa bai" nb 
lav ttTK n*a 4 snri nnBi ^bo f?p pn piotn yn m pK "o ♦vnippTpa 
•tb 't obia pi 'a^r DV 'a^rbi nrm dv irnnb h ^^yr^ ova nnn ba n*aa 
Kbi nnn opea obia inor ona no lab Tanb pmnrnK rwbvb x d-'O'* 
onb mnr 'p*ar dv mm an^o 'wh nnron "O" iprn ^a 3 .oa nnta 
/nnob 'rnpnn 'onb nv^p") ai^ nbrpn w onnnob obipb nb^bn mmb 
'w ^nr ja 'ipar n lanob'a laKSor no .nibip nbpm : pwrnn dv Kinw 
■'biK 'CKP inn . p'apn 'ftb man pr po 'oa aSn ninnn bp 'Ka 'bxpn 
nparS inri ibaKV ^^r\bv Daaba d^pSk lanar 'oa ^aa wtsn 
pawK p ^nn bpi ^ ^aab Dm npan ba»n p Tnn bp Daab Dn nnarbi 

rt I K. V. lo. * Gen. XXV. 6. c Prov. XI. 5. d Ex. VIII. 25. e Gen. 
XXVI. 14. /Josh. VII. i3. ^Dcut. VIII. 12. 14.* 

r^K 'h'} biooir ""an mn o-'WiBon h'D a^mo mnn pKxi bna osn w-k i. i. 
rraiD p'»3rni ^na^o loiri oncK vi ^naTs -u w^k \i^i Kacar •'cb bnai "jw 
^ftb W1C TKnip DW D^ "o PKH n-^a "iK-an ^0 ^npT Kbi bo© i*? n\-iv or 
njn ^fib onnK dvi^k ^nn hv r^''rr*^ -naji i^wb btt ons-a m^ n\'w 
''WKb n^\Ti npim loa *?i-ui n^r wk "•bi ♦nnx p"j ^k j-ic "a p o^arinn 
w^K nbn pi nwK k^i n\n c?"^ -a nonbo brai "iiaib jni3 rrnnw nr b^tcw 
lo^r" »iai D^boa nstr ont^ ai^ nana rr-aio pi cnwa ^^oa "oi nriK 
-mmw ^^nac n-n r'-x 'ik "irna inoina Tin bp n^'^pn ne-tt? n^m •*'aT3Bb 
/noTn riK piK \i^i p nriK 'dwi «^n\-r mT k^^k loa \ti *iB>n p^sra ncab 
•o 'TOK'-r "fib p porn nni a obc^iTD nbii ivk \'Tnf? ri'^n pa '-dbtw "dS 
TO r^K ^T^ 'aiKW Dipa baa bM "rrn 'ik •in*?n3 ^nana ^^-lK^1 am Tcr n\i 
.'"b^DBwri Bcw *D-a \"i^i ♦'« 'jnam thk r "^ \ti loa p-'Dii- ¥h^ pom niB'»Da brr 
pma yov n\-ii£^ "b*? iriK nb Tin . pr p"«a j / D-rionn p nnn ric *n''i 
Dink mroaw onKo pyi nniaa inw A-onp oa Sao Sna 'oikw loa o-oaai 
iw oao rm avK mr pK nn Sri .'ninKo d'tiipSbi onpo d^k 'iKt? 'oa 
oro -o ^nibKi wpj? pnna narv diik na manS nrni .pr pna nnr *bS 
iriK uanKTi irr nph mnn Trt^ oaa nnn pr ow i»<3»iy "bS h^^ki pK 
•or D-can Dm onwa iina |a n^nip «iiiaa pr nK 'OiKt? loa diko a-^rm 

'JJudg. XVII. I and XIX. i. ^i Kings II.2. c 1 Sam. XXVI. 15. ^ Job 
XXIX. 9 where the reading is o»wh, cfn Ksth. II. 5—7. ^ Judg. XIII. 2. 
iRuth I. 1. yi Sam. I. 1. ^Job 1.3. Ms. IX. 11. >» IV. 21. 
NGen. XXII. 21. 


publication, but many occupations prevented me from 
undertaking anything further, till the Text and Trans- 
lation Society were prepared to include it in their 
series. The translation is due to Dr S. A. Hirsch, 
who has favoured me with many suggestions for the 
correction of the text. In revising the proofs I have 
also had the valuable aid of Dr Ginsburg. Mr 
I. Abrahams, Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic 
Literature in the University of Cambridge, has kindly 
allowed me to consult him on many occasions when 
deciphering the obscurer portions of the MS., and I 
have had the great benefit of his assistance both in 
suggesting the true readings and in confirming my 
own conjectures. Professor Brandin contributed to 
the transliteration of the French glosses. Those who 
have had experience in manuscripts will appreciate the 
difficulties of the task of decipherment, and will make 
allowance for any shortcomings. 

The words of the text quoted in the commentary 
are underlined, and in the case of other quotations the 
reference letters to the notes at the foot of the page 
are placed at the end of each quotation. I have 
endeavoured as far as possible to preserve the peculi- 
arities of the scribe when they are not actually mis- 
leading, and the vowel-points where they occur are 
given exactly as they appear in the MS. 


Trinity College, 


22 nd August 1905. 



as Mr Jacobs holds, but in the course of his argument 
to prove that they were not identical he falls into a 
confusion which leads him to do injustice to Dr Schiller- 
Szinessy. I will quote his words (Introduction, p. xxv), 
and then point out the confusion. Speaking of the 
Leipzig MS. he says, '* I draw special attention to this 
MS., inasmuch as Berachya, our author, has also been 
credited with a similar commentary to the book of Job, 
in connection with a manuscript at Cambridge, described 
by Mr Jacobs in Angevin England^ pp. 198-9. Now 
in this commentary, according to Zunz, a number of 
authors are mentioned, and among them Kresbia ha- 
Nakdan b. Isaac and Berachja, — the identical names 
that occur in the Cambridge manuscript, a fact that 
has been entirely overlooked by Dr Schiller-Szinessy 
(in his description of the manuscript), Mr Joseph 
Jacobs, Dr Neubauer {^Jewish Quarterly, vol. ii.), etc." 
Now in 1845, when Zunz wrote, he did not know of 
the existence of the Cambridge MS., if indeed he ever 
knew of it, and what he says applies only to the 
Leipzig MS., in which alone the above-mentioned 
names occur. They are not found in the Cambridge 
MS. at all, and Dr Schiller-Szinessy and others cannot 
be blamed for having overlooked what did not exist It 
appears that Professor Gollancz must have supposed that 
Zunz's description applied also to the Cambridge MS. 
My own part in connection with the commentary 
may be briefly described. In the year 1874, at Dr 
Schiller-Szinessy s suggestion, I copied the MS. in 
brief intervals of scanty leisure, and prepared it for 


In addition to the authorities given by Dr Schiller- 
Szinessy may be mentioned R. Simeon b. Jochai (fol. 
I a), the Tikkun Sopherim (fol. 5a), Masseceth Sopherim 
(fol. loa), and another R. Simeon (fol. 14b), who is 
different apparently from the R. Simeon mentioned on 
fol. 7b, for Rashi attributes the interpretation given by 
the former on Job xxvii. 2 to R. Jehoshua, and the 
latter was contemporary with the author, for he pre- 
faces his quotjition with "h 'dm. On fol. i6b the author 
refers to his commentary on Hosea, and on fol. 17b to 
his commentary on Isaiah. 

In TAe Jews of Angevin England (1893), p. 198, 
Mr Joseph Jacobs attributes the commentary on Job 
to Benedict of Oxford, whom he also calls R. Berechyah 
ben Natronai Crispia Nakdan. This is, of course, a 
mere conjecture, but in the Jewish Encyclopedia 
(iii. 55) it is spoken of as if it were a certainty. In 
like manner the commentator's uncle Benjamin, whom 
he mentions once, is said to have been identified with 
Benjamin of Canterbury or Cambridge, while in the 
account of Benjamin himself (J. E. iii. 27) it is only 
conjectured that he was ** probably " the commentator's 
uncle. The fact is that we know nothing about it, and 
it is best to say so. 

In the Introduction to The Ethical Treatises of 
Berachya son of Rabbi Natronai Ha-Nakdan, edited 
and translated by Professor Hermann Gollancz, will be 
found a full discussion of the author s name and date. 
Professor Gollancz does not allow that R. Berachya 
ben Natronai was the author of the commentary on Job, 



(19) '•S'^ifpMiD 'vsrh^ S (probably the same ; leaf 14**). 

(20) '•2JIM1D K^sht^ S (probably the same ; leaf i5*). 

(21) hnyn ^m (leaves i8' and 18**). 

(22) JDrhmn arrh^ arr^^^ '•im ^o j'lWDa) ''•n (leaf 7*'). 

(23) V^Lt ^iM (leaves 6^ 7^ II^ and is**), 

(24) jnD^Di S nn (leaf 8**). 

** It is singular that the author of a commentary of 
such excellence should have remained unknown. The 
frequent recurrence of the phrases ntff^m and V^ will 
enable anyone to identify it, if existing elsewhere. 
The t'^f?i, which amount to twenty-one [twenty-three ?], 
are French. A glossary on the Bible with French inter- 
pretations, now in the University Library at Leipzig, 
MS. 102, is apparently drawn from a commentary on 
the whole Bible by the author of the present one 
on Job. See Delitzsch, Jesurun (Grimmae, 1838, 8vo). 
p. 241, Zunz, Gesch. und Lit. p. 82, and Excurs. ii." 

The Excursus to which Dr Schiller-Szinessy referred 
has never appeared, but in an additional note to his 
Catalogue (p. 245) he records the suggestion of 
Delitzsch, in the Orient for 1844, Literaturblatt, No. 19, 
p. 299, that ihn frequently mentioned in the Leipzig 
MS. on Job is the same as m\i -^n nn quoted on 
Canticles iii. 10 (not Ecclesiastes). After giving 
Rashi's explanation of ytrv}r\ the MS. adds nDDT 7Dt 
iTDni S nin '^d X^\ as we find in the commentary on 
Job xli. 22. We know, therefore, that the authors 
name was Berechiah, and we know no more. 

^ DrplN is an error of the scribe^ and should be omitted. 


Ibn Ezra and Qimchi, both of whom he quotes (the 
former almost on every page, and the latter on leaves 
1 4^ and 1 8**). Besides these he quotes the following 
authorities : — 

( 1 ) rriifD 'n (leaf f). 

(2) DTOD (leaf 10^) [and iS*']. 

(3) »Dn (leaves lo*, 16* and 19**). 

(4) niM^i (leaves 8^ and 17*). 

(5) Ittmn nwo S (leaf ig*). 

(6) »S (Rabbenu Shelomoh ? the quotation is 

certainly to be found in Rashi ; leaf 1 2**). 

(7) irnn ^m (also irn and Ibn Jirn, and who is 

also meant by p»Min pipion; leaves 2% 3', 
4% and i7'). 

(8) TOi pM (leaf 1 7"). 

(9) pmon 'pM, also pmo pw (leaves 7** and 13"). 

(10) hi^^DW '^m (leaves i", 3', 3^ and 11"). 

(11) np^^'^ni (leaves I^ 4", 8^ io% ii*, i2\and i6'). 

(12) Nip rjDV S (leaves 8' and 15**). 

(13) m^iDon ^M, also simply nniDon (leaves 3" and 

(14) D-'pip-Ton, also pnpin "tDDn (leaves 2^ and i7'). 

(15) Snji p-rp-TD (leaf 10*). 

( 1 6) D^Dttnon (leaves 2*, 2^ and 1 5*). 

(17) ^s^^wno iiy^'pM S (of Beaugency, repeatedly and 

mostly with approval ; leaves i** and 2'). 

(18) 17ipSm S (probably the same as the foregoing; 

leaves 3^ 4*, 4^ 7', 7\ 8*, io% i2»\ I3^ l8^ 
and I9^ 


The manuscript from which this commentary is printed 
is in the University Library, Cambridge, where its 
class- mark is Dd. 8. 53. The handwriting is French 
Ashkenazic of the 13th- 14th century. It originally 
formed part of the collection of Hebrew books belong- 
ing to Isaac Pragi, which in 1647 was imported from 
Italy by George Thomason, the London bookseller, 
and presented to the University by the House of 
Commons' At that time it was bound at the end of 
the last volume of the Rabbinic Bible printed at 
Venice by Romberg in 15 18. The late Dr Schiller- 
Szinessy, in his Catalogue of the Hebrew Manuscripts 
preserved in the University Library ^ Cambridge, 1876, 
pp. 40-42, has given such a full description of this MS. 
that I cannot do better than quote his words. 

** Job, with the commentary of an anonymous French 
Rabbi. The text is written in alternately indented 
lines, without, however, being metrically arranged. . . . 
It is provided with vowel-points and accents, and has 
the sign of rroi over nDDTai when liquid. . . . The 
author seems to have been contemporary with both 










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